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Full text of "Annals and magazine of natural history : including zoology, botany and geology"

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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(being a continuation of the 'annals' combined with loudon and 
charlesworth's 'magazine of natural history.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

P. J. SELBY, Esq., F.L.S., GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.D., 

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh, 

AND 

RICHARD TAYLORjJ.L.S., F.G.S. 
Z 

3 

VOL. VIII.— SECOND SERIES 



LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY RICHARD TAYLOR. 

SOLD BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS; S. HIGHLEY AND SON J 

SIMPK1N, MARSHALL, AND CO.; PIPER, BROTHERS, AND CO.; W. WOOD, 

TAVISTOCK STREET ; BAILLlllRE, REGENT STREET, 

AND PARIS : LIZARS, AND MACLACHLAN AND 

STEWART, EDINBURGH: CURRY, DUBLIN: 

AND A3HER, BERLIN. 

1851. 




"Omnes res creatae sunt divinse sapientiae et potentiae testes, divitiae felicitatis 
Aumanae : — ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini ; 
ex ceconomiain conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper aestimata; a vere eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

llNN^EUS. 



voir 



" Quelque soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
qu'elle est le chef-d'ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent 
toutes ses operations." — Bruckner, Theorie du Systime Animal, Leyden, 1767. 

Tbe sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



FLAMMAM, 




CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



NUMBER XLIII. 



Tage 



I. Report upon the Researches of Prof. Muller into the Anatomy 
and Development of the Echinoderms. By Thomas H. Huxley, 
F.R.S. (With a Plate.) - 1 

II. Report on MM. L. R. and C. Tulasne's " Memoir on the 
History of the Hypogseous Fungi." By MM. Jussieu and Ad. 
Brongniart 19 

III. On the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolce, a Nudibranchiate Mol- 
lusk. By Albany Hancock, Esq. (With two Plates.) 25 

IV. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, GEconomy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 37 

V. On the Skeneada. By William Clark, Esq 44 

VI. Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous Insects. By 

T. Tatum, Esq., M.E.S 49 

VII. Some Remarks on Mosses, with a proposed new Arrangement 

of the Genera. By William Mitten, A.L.S 51 

Proceedings of the Royal Institution ; Zoological Society 59 — 73 

Notices of one or two of the rarer Birds found in the South of Scot- 
land, by John Alexander Smith, M.D. ; Achceus Cranchii, by Wil- 
liam Thompson, Esq. ; Gymnetrus Banksii ; Carcharias Vulpes, 
by William Thompson, Esq. ; On the Chemnitzice, by George 
Barlee, Esq. ; Meteorological Observations and Table 73—80 



NUMBER XLIV. 

VIII. On the Hinge of the Fossil Genus Platymya, Agassiz ; with 
the description of a new species. By J. Lycett, Esq 81 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

IX. Palaeontological Notes. By John Morris, F.G.S. (With a 
Plate.) 85 

X. Notice of some new Footsteps in the Bunter Sandstone of Dum- 
fries-shire. By Robert Harkness, Esq 90 

XI. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 95 

XII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 103 

XIII. Further Observations on the Chemnitzice. By William 
Clark, Esq 108 

XIV. On the Reproductive Organs of the Lichens and Fungi. By 

M. L. R. Tulasne 114 

New Books : — Manual of British Botany, 3rd Edit., by Charles Cardale 
Babington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. &c. — Hymenopterologische 
Studien, by Arnold Foerster 121—129 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Linnaean Society ; Royal Irish 

Academy 129—152 

On Wolves Suckling Children, by the Honourable F. Egerton ; Car- 
charias Vulpes, by William Thompson, Esq. ; Preservation of 
Preparations for the Microscope ; Notice of a Sea-Beach during 
the Silurian Epoch, by R. Harkness ; On the Cell-membrane of 
Diatomaceous Shells, by J. W. Bailey ; A Comparative Exami- 
nation of the Objective Glasses of Microscopes from Mr. Ross of 
England, Mr. Spencer of America, and M. Nachez of Paris, by 
J. Lawrence Smith, M.D. ; Note on Antiope costata, by J. G. 
Jeffreys ; Meteorological Observations and Table 1 53 — 1 60 



NUMBER XLV. 

XV. Observations on the Affinities of the Olacacece. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 161 

XVI. Geographical Notices, and Characters of fourteen new species 

of Cyclostoma, from the East Indies. By W. H. Benson, Esq 184 

XVII. Descriptive Characters of two species of the Genus Ptero- 
cyclos, discovered by Dr. Bland. By W. H. Benson, Esq. (With 

a Plate.) , 195 

XVIII. A Catalogue of Rotifer a found in Britain ; with descriptions 
of five new Genera and thirty-two new Species. By Philip Henry 
Gosse, A.L.S 197 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

XIX. Remarks on Dickieia. By John Ralfs, Esq. (With a Plate.) 204 

XX. A few Remarks upon the Crag of Suffolk. By W. B. Clarke, 
M.D., of Ipswich 205 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Linnsean Society ; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh 211—235 

Holostomum cuticola, by Robert Wigham (with a Plate) ; On the Oc- 
currence of Trigonellites in the Upper Chalk at Norwich, by T. 
* G. Bayfield ; Localities of rare British Crustacea, by Alexander 
G. Melville ; Note on Pedicellaria, by Arthur Adams ; Addendum 
to Mr. Benson's Paper on Cyclostoma ; Terebella medusa, by C. 
Spence Bate ; Meteorological Observations andTable 235 — 240 



NUMBER XLVI. 

XXI. On the Cidarida of the Oolites, with a description of some 
new species of that family. By Thomas Wright, M.D. &c. (With 
three Plates.) 241 

XXII. Observations on the Connexion between the Crinoidece and 
the Echinodermata generally. By Thomas Austin, F.G.S., Fort 
Major, &c 280 

XXIII. Descriptions of two new species of Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 
one of them forming the type of a new genus. By Joshua Alder 
and Albany Hancock. With the Anatomy of the Genus, by 
Albany Hancock. (With two Plates.) 290 

XXIV. On Chantransia, Desv. By John Ralfs, Esq 302 

XXV. A List of all the Mosses and Hepaticae hitherto observed in 
Sussex. By William Mitten, A.L.S 305 

XXVI: On the Development of the Cirripedia. By C. Spence 
Bate. (With three Plates.) 324 

XXVII. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 332 



Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh 339—346 



Orthagoriscus mola, by Dr. John Alex. Smith ; Carcharias Vulpes, by 
Dr. J. Harvey ; On the Arrangement of Fossil Animal Remains 
in Collections, by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. &c. j Early 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Notices of the Royal Menageries in London, by Richard Taylor, 
Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. ; A Monograph of Macrochisma, a genus of 
Gasteropodous Mollusca belonging to the family Fissurellidre, by 
Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. ; Meteorological Observations and 
Table 346—352 



NUMBER XLVII. 

XXVIII. Notes on British Zoophytes, with descriptions of some 
new species. By the Rev. Thomas Hincks, B.A. (With a Plate.) 353 

XXIX. A List of all the Mosses and Hepaticse hitherto observed in 
Sussex. By William Mitten, A.L.S 362 

XXX. On the Branchial Currents in Pholas an&Mya. By Joshua 
Alder and Albany Hancock. (With a Plate.) 370 

XXXI. Notice of a Barytic Deposit in certain Testacea from the 
London Clay. By N. T. Wetherell, Esq., F.G.S., M.R.C.S 378 

XXXII. An attempt to arrange the species of the family Pholadidce 
into Natural Groups. By John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S., Vice- 
President of the Zoological Society 380 

XXXIII. On some new Cambro-Silurian Fossils. By Frederick 
M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's College, 
Belfast 387 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh 409—425 

On Parasitism, by M. Leon Dufour ; Rare Irish Mollusca, by Alex- 
ander G. Melville; On the Umbrella Bird {Cephalopterus or- 
natus), " Ueramimbe," L. G., by Alfred R. Wallace ; On the Ge- 
nera Hexapus and Arges of De Haan, by J. D. Dana ; Note on 
the Reproduction of Leeches, by M. Fremond; Meteorological 
Observations and Table 425 — 432 



NUMBER XLVIII. 

XXXIV. Zoological Notes and Observations made on board H.M.S. 
Rattlesnake. — Upon Thalassicolla, a new Zoophyte. By Thomas 

H. Huxley, F.R.S., Assistant Surgeon R.N. (With a Plate.) 433 

XXXV. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 442 

XXXVI. Description of a new species of Pterocyclos, Benson, from 
Southern India. By W. H. Benson, Esq 450 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

XXXVII. Note on the Genus Lithostrotion. By William Lons- 
dale, F.G.S 451 

XXXVIII. Observations on the Genus Rhizochilus of Steenstrup. 

By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. &c. (With a Plate.) 477 

XXXIX. On the Germination of the Spore in the Conjugates. By 

the Rev. William Smith, F.L.S 480 

XL. On some new Devonian Fossils. By Frederick M'Coy, Pro- 
fessor of Mineralogy and Geology in Queen's College, Belfast 481 

New Books : — Contributions to the Natural History of the Turbel- 

laria, by Dr. Max. S. Schulze 490 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 493 — 499 



A Description of some of the Objects which cause the Luminosity of the 
Sea, by Charles William Peach (with a Plate) ; Time of Spawning 
of British Crustacea, by William Thompson ; Geographical Distri- 
bution of Hymenoptera in Arctic North America, by Adam White, 
F.L.S. ; Acanthus mollis, by Charles C. Babington, M.A. ; Mete- 
orological Observations and Table 499 — 507 

Index 508 



PLATES IN VOL. VIII. 

Plate I. Development of the Echinoderms. 

jjj' V Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolae. 

IV. New Fossils from the Chalk. 
V. New species of Pterocyclos. — British species of Dickieia and 

Spirulina. — Holostomum cuticola. 
VI. "I 

VII. y Development of the Cirripedia. 
VIII. J 

IX 1 

y' >• Anatomy of Oithona nobilis. 

XL"] 
XII. )■ Cidaridae of the Oolites. 

XIII. J 

XIV. New British Zoophytes. 
XV. Anatomy of Pholas crispata. 

XVI. Structure of Thalassicolla. 

XVII. Animals causing the Luminosity of the Sea. — Rhizochilus anti- 
pathicus — Ammonites Braikenridgii — Vermetus subcancel- 
latus. 



Arm. & Mag. Nat. Hist .S.Z.VoLS.jPIJ. 




^xm 



J.Basire. 3C, 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



" ., per litora spargite museum, 

Naiades, et circum vitreos considite fontes : 
Pollice virgineo teneros hie carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, diva?, replete canistrum. 
At vos, o Nymphs Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Deae pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Parthenii Giannrttasii Eel. 1. 



No. 43. JULY 1851. 



I. — Report upon the Researches q/Trof. Miller into the Anatomy 
and Development of the Echinoderms. By Thomas H. Hux- 
ley, F.R.S. 

[With a Plate.] 

1. Muller, Johann. Ueber die Larven und die Metamorphose der 

Ophiuren. Transactions of the Berlin Academy, 1846. 

2. Muller, Johann. Ueber die Larven und die Metamorphose 

der Echinodermen. Ibid. 1848. 

3. Muller, Johann. Ueber die Larven und die Metamorphose der 

Holothurien und Asterien. Ibid. 1849-50. 

4. Muller, Johann. Anatomische Studien iiber die Echinodermen. 

Muller's Archiv, 1850, Heft ii. 

5. Muller, Johann. Berichtigung und Nachtrag zu den anatomis- 

chen Studien iiber die Echinodermen. Ibid. Heft hi. 
6*. Muller, Johann. Fortsetzung der Untersuchungen iiber die 

Metamorphose der Echinodermen. Ibid. Heft v. 
7- Muller, Johann. Ueber die Ophiuren-larven des Adriatischen 

Meeres. Ibid. 1851. Heft i. 

WE purpose in the present article to give some account of the 
results at which the illustrious author of the works whose titles 
are prefixed has arrived, in the course of a series of elaborate 
and patiently conducted researches in one of the most remark- 
able and most obscure provinces of zoological and physiological 
science. It is a province too in which Professor Muller is at 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. f 1 



2 Prof. Miiller on the Anatomy and Development 

once Columbus and Cortez. The discoverer — he has gleaned all 
its riches. For it so happens that Sars, the only investigator 
who preceded him in the study of the development of the Echi- 
noderms, had not the good fortune to meet with instances of the 
ordinary course of development, but only with a case, excep- 
tional among the Echinoderms, but differing less from the em- 
bryogenic phenomena of other animals. 

Nor are we indebted to the Professor for a widening of our 
embryological knowledge alone. A more exact knowledge of 
development involved the necessity for, and at the same time 
furnished the key to, a more accurate idea of the adult structure 
of the Echinoderms. 

The ordinary Echinoderms sufficiently try the patience of the 
anatomist; and any one who has ever endeavoured to dissect a Ho- 
lothuria, must recollect the feeling of despair with which he re- 
garded the knotted, glairy, eviscerated mass, which was too often 
the reward of all his care and caution. Undaunted by the great 
practical difficulties, however, Prof. Miiller has entered into these 
complementary investigations (which are contained in the fourth 
and fifth treatises of the foregoing list) ; the errors, difficulties, 
and contradictions which formerly infested the subject have been 
cleared up and rectified, and the structure of the Ophiuridse, 
Asteridse, Echinidse, and Holothuriadse is now capable of being 
reduced to broad general propositions. Without by any means 
claiming for the celebrated Berlin physiologist the merit of dis- 
covering facts of organization, due to Tiedemann, to Valentin, to 
Krohn and others, it yet cannot be denied, that under his hands 
these facts have first assumed their due importance, and become 
moulded into a consistent whole. Under his authority, then, 
without always caring to indicate the original sources of infor- 
mation, we shall give the following summary of some points of 
the organization of the Ophiuridse, Asteridse, Echinidse and Ho- 
lothuriadse, as preliminary, and indeed necessary, to a proper 
comprehension of their genetic phenomena. 

It is not, however, necessary for our present purpose to enter 
upon the anatomy of any other systems of organs than the water- 
vascular system, the blood-vascular system, and the nervous 
system. 

In all the families cited, the fundamental part of these three 
systems consists of three distinct rings, surrounding the oeso- 
phagus ; the blood- vascular ring lies innermost, the water-vas- 
cular ring next, the nervous ring outermost. 

The blood-vascular ring, besides the branches which it gives 
•off, is always connected with two vessels which run along oppo- 
site sides of the intestine (Holothuria) ; and in Asteridse and 
Echinidse there is a distinct tubular heart which connects the vas- 



of the Echinoderms. 3 

cular ring round the oesophagus with another vascular ring sur- 
rounding the anus, from which branches pass to the ovaria, &c. 

Branches are given off" from the principal blood- vascular ring 
towards the ambulacra, and in the Holothuriadae it appears very 
probable that these branches accompany and indeed inclose the 
nerves. 

The blood-vascular system is everywhere totally unconnected 
with the water-vascular system. 

The water-vascular system, whose real disposition it is of great 
importance to understand, with reference to embryonic states, 
lies, it has been said, superficial to the blood-vascular system. It 
forms a ring, which lies close to the integument of the mouth in 
the Ophiurida3 and Asteridse, surrounds the oesophagus at the 
base of the lantern in Echinicta, and encircles it beneath and at 
some distance from the calcareous ring in the Holothuriadse. 

From this ring a series of vesicles, varying in number from 
four (Ophiura) to a hundred (Cladolabes peruanus), depend. 
These are the Polian vesicles ; they open into the water- vascular 
ring, and appear to be in some way connected with the distri- 
bution of fluid through the water-vascular system. 

Connected also with the circular water-vascular ring is the 
famous sand-canal, of which one or more are found in all the 
families enumerated. In most there is only one sand -canal, but 
in some Asteridse there are several, and in Synapta serpentina 
there are a great number. 

The sand-canal is a membranous tube having calcareous par- 
ticles imbedded in its parietes, which are sometimes (Holothu- 
riadaa) pierced by distinct apertures. 

Now the extremity of the sand-canal may be either adherent 
to some part of the parietes of the animal, as in Ophiuridse, As- 
teridse, Echinidse, or it may hang loose in the abdominal cavity, 
as in the Holothuriadse. In the former case the spot to which 
it adheres is either entire (Ophiura), or perforated by many aper- 
tures which communicate with the interior of the canal (Aste- 
ridse, Echinidae), in which case it forms the " madreporic plate." 

But in all cases it is important to recollect that the sand-canal 
is nothing more than a part of the water-vascular system in 
which a calcareous deposit has taken place. 

Besides all these appendages the circular water-vessel is con- 
nected with five vessels, the water-canals, which supply the ten- 
tacles and feet and run down the sides of the body in the ambu- 
lacral spaces. 

The nervous ring is formed by a simple cord without gan- 
glionic enlargements, encircling the oesophagus superficial to the 
water-vascular ring, and giving off five cords which run with, but 
superficial to, the water-vascular canals in the ambulacral spaces. 

1* 



4 Prof. Miiller on the Anatomy and Development 

The position of the water-vascular canals and of the nervous 
cords is apparently different in the Asteridse from what it is in 
the Echinidse, inasmuch as in the former these organs are out- 
side the bony skeleton, in the latter inside it ; but this apparent 
difference arises only from a difference in the mode of develop- 
ment of the ambulacral plates. 

The ambulacral plates in the Asteridse, between which the ca- 
nals lead from the ampullae to the feet, are homologous with the 
ambulacral plates in the Echinidse through which they pass. 

But in the Asteridse the ambulacral plates develope internal 
processes which unite above, or internal to, the water-vascular 
canals and nerves, while in the Echinidse the ambulacral plates 
unite below or external to the water-vascular canals and nerves. 

In the Echinidse, the only parts that represent the internal 
processes of the Asteridse are the " auriculse " — arched processes 
which give attachment to the suspensor muscles of the lantern, 
and under which the vessels and nerves pass. 

In the Ophiuridse both internal and external processes of the 
ambulacral plates exist, and the vessels and nerves are contained 
in a complete bony canal. 

In the Holothuriadse the arrangement of parts is as in the 
Echinidse. The ring, composed of ten to fifteen bony pieces, 
encircling the oesophagus, is not homologous with any part of 
the skeleton of the Echinidse, but with the lantern or masticatory 
apparatus. 

Five of these pieces are always either notched (as in the 
Holothuriadse) or pierced (as in the Synaptse) for the passage of 
the water-vessels and nerves, and these pieces correspond homo- 
logically with an equal number of calcareous pieces of the lantern 
of the Echinidse (falces of Valentin) which cover in the termina- 
tions of the radial water-canals in the circular canal. 



Every Echinoderm commences its existence as an oval ciliated 
body like an infusory animalcule, without organs or distinction 
of parts. 

In some genera, such as Aster acanthion and Echinaster, it 
appears from the observations of Sars, Agassiz and Desor, that 
such a germ as this developes at one part one, three, or four short 
processes or peduncles, by which it is enabled to adhere to other 
bodies ; among these Prof. Miiller thinks he has discovered an 
aperture. The remainder of the germ gradually enlarges and 
assumes the form of a starfish. The feet appear on its under side 
whence the peduncle or peduncles proceed. The latter become 
smaller, and eventually appear as mere processes on one side of 
the mouth of the young starfish, finally vanishing altogether. 

Now in these larvse, their inner structure and the mode in 



of the Echinoderms. 5 

which the disc of the starfish is developed do not appear to have 
been clearly made out, so that points of comparison with the 
embryological phenomena to be described subsequently are want- 
ing. One thing however appears evident, viz. that, as in the other 
forms, the axis of the starfish is oblique to the axis of the larva 
from which it proceeds. 

The larvae whose development has been observed by Prof. Mul- 
ler are widely different. 

These larvae may be reduced to two kinds : 1st, those of the 
Ophiuridae and Echinidse (fig. 1, 2, 3) ; 2nd, those of the Aste- 
ridae and Holothuriadae (fig. 4, 5, 6, 7). 

1. The larvae of the Ophiuridae and Echinidae are somewhat 
hemispherical bodies, having one edge of their truncated side 
prolonged into a single flat and wide process, which carries the 
mouth and oesophagus. 

On the hemispherical portion — not at the extremity, but on the 
side opposite to that which is prolonged into the wide process — is 
a circular anus. The oesophagus leads from the mouth, which 
looks in the same direction as the anus, and opens into a glo- 
bular stomach placed in the hemispherical portion of the larva ; 
a short intestine runs from this at right angles with the direction 
of the oesophagus to the anus. 

The extremity to which the mouth is turned may be considered 
anterior, the anal side inferior, and it is this position which the 
animal has in swimming*. 

In this general description of the form of the larvae, however, 
some most important and characteristic features have been 
omitted. These are, the calcareous rods which form a sort of in- 
ternal skeleton or framework, and the ciliated fringe which is 
the organ of locomotion. 

The rods are four, eight or more in number ; they run for- 
wards, diverging from the most convex or posterior portion of the 
hemispherical part of the larva, and still clothed by the substance 
of the larva, form processes of a considerable length : some of 
them pass through the margins of the hemispherical part of the 
larva, some run through and support the buccal prolongation j\ 

The ciliated fringe is a sort of ridge, thickly covered with large 
cilia (which however do not exhibit the wheel motion), which 
forms the edge of the flat anterior side of the hemispherical part 
of the larva and of the buccal prolongation. It therefore passes 
above the mouth and before the anus, completely encircling the 

* These determinations of anterior and posterior, &c. are altogether dif- 
ferent from those of Prof. Miiller. The mode of description adopted by 
the latter is quite accidental, and we have changed it to make the general 
homologies more clear. 

f Sec the figure given in the ' Annals,' antr, vol. \ix. 



6 Prof. Miiller on the Anatomy and Development 

body in an oblique manner. It is continued forwards on one 
side and back on the other, upon the processes of the calcareous 
rods, and thereby attains a great length and complicated appear- 
ance, but fundamentally its relations are such as have been de- 
scribed. In some of these larvae Prof. Miiller considers that he 
has detected, in front of and above the mouth, a rudimentary 
nervous system, consisting of two little ganglia connected by 
a commissure, whence branches proceed*. 

We have described the structure common to all the larvae of 
this division ; there are certain peculiarities in some, however, 
which are deserving of notice. Thus in some Echinus-larvae 
three long processes containing calcareous rods are developed 
from the convex posterior extremity of the larva (fig. 3). 

In other Echinus-larvae (fig. 2) these do not exist, but four 
little prominences, richly ciliated, are developed on the hemi- 
spherical portion just where the long processes leave it. These 
are the " epaulettes " of Miiller. 

In Ophiurid-larvae the convex side of the larva bears a circlet 
of cilia (fig. 1). 

2. The second form of larvae has no internal calcareous skeleton. 
It falls into two subdivisions : (a.) the form of the Holothuriadae, 
and (b.) the form of the Asteridae. 

a. These larvae, the Auricularia of Miiller (fig. 6 8c 7), are at 
first bean-shaped, convex on the dorsal side, concave on the 
ventral side. An irregular transverse fissure answers to the hilum 
of the bean, and in this the mouth is placed. The margins of 
the fissure are edged by a ciliated fringe exactly similar to that 
of the former kind of larvae. The anus opens on the ventral sur- 
face of the larva, behind the fringe, the posterior portion of which 
runs between it and the mouth. The fringe forms a continuous 
circle, the anterior part of which is bent back to form the ante- 
rior margin of the fissure in which the mouth lies. 

In the course of its growth the margins of the larva and the 
corresponding parts of the fringe are thrown into numerous late- 
ral processes which give it a scolloped appearance. 

The disposition of the intestine, stomach, &c. is as in the first 
kind of larvae. 

As the larva increases in size and becomes more elongated in 
form, the primary fringe becomes replaced by a number of ciliated 
rings which encircle the now cylindrical body of the larva (fig. 7) . 

b. The Asterid-larvce. — The Bipinnaria (fig. 4), which is the 
commoner form of Asterid-larva, closely resembles Auricularia in 
its young condition, except that there is a distinct ciliated circle 
developed upon the surface of the larva in front of the mouth. 

* In the Plutcus from Heligoland, but not in other larvae. 



of the Echinoderms. 7 

Instead therefore of the anterior boundary of the fissure 
of the mouth being formed as in Auricularia by the recurved 
anterior part of the " ciliated fringe," it is formed by the poste- 
rior part of a distinct band of cilia. 

It is particularly to be observed that this " band/' like the extra 
band in the Ophiura-larva, does not encircle the body — it is alto- 
gether in front of and above the mouth. 

The position of the anus is as in Auricularia. A variety of the 
Asterid-larva, described by Prof. Muller under the name of Tor- 
naria, resembles this condition of Bipinnaria, but subsequently 
adds a ciliated ring like one of those of Auricularia, which encircles 
the body near the anal end* (fig. 5). 

Bipinnaria increases greatly in size, attaining the length of an 
inch or more, chiefly by the increase of the anterior part of the 
body. This assumes a very extraordinary form, both the " band " 
and the " fringe " throwing out long processes on each side to 
the number of half a dozen, and at the anterior extremity they 
form two fin-like expansions placed one above the other. 

Another Asterid-larva, Brachiolaria (Diag. V.), resembles Bi- 
pinnaria in general form, but developes three processes anteriorly 
between the anterior part of the ciliated " fringe " and the ante- 
rior ciliated "band." 

These are all the forms of Echinoderm-larvae enumerated by 
Prof. Muller. Complicated as they seem to be at first sight, it 
seems to us that they may all be readily reduced to one very 
simple hypothetical type ; having an elongated form, traversed by 
a straight intestine, with the mouth at one extremity and the 
anus at the other, and girded by a circular ciliated fringe ; just 
like the larvae of some Annelids (fig. 9). 

Supposing such to be the typical form of the Echinoderm- 
larva, the specific variations are readily derived from it by simple 
laws of growth. Let the region before the ciliated fringe be called 
the pre-trochal region, the region behind the fringe be called the 
post-trochal region. 

Then the Echinoderm-larvae would appear to be characterized 
by a disproportionate development of the dorsal post-trochal re- 
gion (Diag. I a .) whereby the anus is thrust downwards, and the 
dorsal part of the ciliated fringe downwards and forwards ; pro- 
cesses are then developed from the ciliated fringe as previously 
described. 

As in the Annelid-larvae patches of cilia are frequently deve- 
loped elsewhere than in the principal circle, e. g. on the sides of the 

* If Prof. Mailer's conjecture, that his " wurmformige Larve" (Larven 
und Metamorphose der Holothurien und Asterien, p. 27) is a further stage 
of development of Tornaria, be correct, it ultimately assumes a still more 
worm-like shape, and more closely resembles a Holothurid-larva. 



8 Prof. Muller on the Anatomy and Development 

body, at the bases of the feet, &c., so in the Echinoderms, ciliated 
elevations and circles (not encircling the body), and even long- 
processes (Echinus, Brachiolaria) , are developed upon other parts 
of the body of the larva than the u ciliated fringe." 

In the Echini and Ophiuridse these additional parts are deve- 
loped in the post-trochal region (Diag. I. II. III.) * in the Aste- 
ridse they are as invariably developed in the pre-trochal region 
(Diag. IV. V. VI.). 

The ciliated circle of the Ophiurid-larva on the dorsal side of 
the post-trochal region answers precisely to the ciliated " band M 
on the dorsal side of the pre-trochal region of the Asterid-larva. 

We have ventured here to give a general view of the Echino- 
derm- larvae different from that put forth by Professor Muller 
himself, who, we would with all deference suggest, loses sight of 
the real position of the ciliated fringe in its apparent bilaterality. 
Speaking of the ciliated fringe he says, " We may name this cir- 
cular ciliated fringe (Wimper-schnur), to distinguish it from such 
as encircle the body transversely, the bilateral ciliated fringe " 
(Metam. d. Holothurien u. Asterien, p. 35). 

We maintain that this u bilateral u fringe itself does, in truth, 
encircle the body transversely, however distorted it may have 
become, and the reader is referred to the diagrams for a demon- 
stration of the truth of this position. 

A strong confirmation of this opinion is afforded by the struc- 
ture of the larva of Sipunculus described by Max. Muller (Mull. 
Archiv, 1850, v.). (Fig. 8.) 

In this remarkable larva there is a single even band of 
strong cilia which encircles the anterior part of the animal, and 
evidently represents the u ciliated fringe " of the other Echino- 
derm-larvse. Except that the intestine is bent upon itself, it 
agrees precisely with our hypothetical type of the Echinoderm- 
larva. 

The Echinoderm larva, we repeat, may be considered as an 
Annelid-larva, which has become distorted by the excessive deve- 
lopment of the dorsal part of its post-trochal region*. 

Out of these larvae, all of which have a strictly bilateral sym- 
metry, the more or less radiate adult Echinoderms are developed 
by a process which is a sort of internal gemmation. 

Now the result of this process is twofold ; either the new 

* The only other animals which possess a larva at all resembling that of 
the Echinoderms and Annelids are certain Trematoda (see Muller, Ueber 
eine eigenthumliche Wurmlarve aus der Classe d. Turbellarien, Mull. Arch. 
1850). Here it would appear that by an excessive development of the 
pre-trochal region, the ciliated fringe has the concavity of its bend posterior ; 
but the difficulty, from the absence of an anus, of determining the real axis 
of the bod v. renders this determination doubtful. 



of the Echinoderms. 9 

structure ultimately throws off more or less of the larva in which 
it was developed, or it unites with the larva to form the adult 
animal, no part being thrown off. 

The former is the case in the Ophiuridye, Echinidae and Astc- 
ridse, for the most part — the latter in the Holothuriadse. 

The latter process, as the simpler, shall be described first. 

A portion of the dorsal integument of the larva becomes as 
it were thrust inwards (fig. 10.) towards one or other side 
of the stomach, as a tube terminated by an enlarged globular 
extremity, whose cavity communicates with the exterior and is 
ciliated internally. 

The vesicle which terminates this " internal bud " now sends 
forth processes so as to form a sort of " rosette," which lies close 
to and above the stomach. 

The " rosette " becomes a circular canal (the circular canal of 
the water- vascular system), from which caeca are given off ante- 
riorly to form the tentacles, posteriorly to the parietes, in which 
they become the water-canals. 

The former mouth of the larva is obliterated, and a new one 
is formed in the centre of the circular canal and its tentacular 
appendages. This is the permanent mouth of the Holothuria, 
which is therefore a new structure formed upon the dorsum of the 
larva. 

In the meanwhile, vesicles, the Vesiculse Polianse, are deve- 
loped from the circular canal, and a deposit of calcareous matter 
takes place round a portion of the tubular canal, from whose 
spherical extremity the water- vascular system has been formed. 
That portion of the tubular canal which lies between the dorsal 
parietes and the calcareous deposition dies away, and the re- 
mainder hangs freely from the circular canal of the water-vas- 
cular system as the u sand-canal." 

The process in the Echinidse, Asteridae, and Ophiuridse is es- 
sentially the same ; only, as in these the old body is to be more or 
less completely discarded, the development of the water -vascular 
system is attended, pari passu, by that of a mass of cells from 
which the new body is to be formed. 

We cannot do better than adduce in illustration Prof. Muller's 
description of the development of the Echinoderm in the Asterid- 
larva Bipinnaria (Fortsetzung der Untersuchungen iiber die Me- 
tamorphose d. Echinodermen, Mull. Archiv, 1850). 

In larvae which are not 0*15 of a line in length, the dorsal pore 
and the tube which proceeds from it are perceptible. It passes 
into a longish sac, in which, as in the tube, there is a ciliary 
motion. The sac lies behind, at the side of the oesophagus 
(Diag. IX.). 

Soon offer the appearance of these parts, a hyaline mass, in which 



10 Prof. Muller on the Anatomy and Development 

very small cells are imbedded, is seen lying like a mantle upon 
the dorsal side of the stomach. 

The sac becomes developed into a rosette of five cseca, the first 
foundation of the water- vascular system. 

The mantle-like mass curves over and covers in the stomach 
and foundation of the tentacles like a cap, widely open below. 
The dorsal pore becomes invested by it, and it extends round 
the anus ; but the oesophagus remains outside it (Diag. XL). 

A crest or elevation now appears on the mantle-like mass, and 
runs obliquely over it in a curved line, whose ends become even- 
tually united. It then forms the margin of the starfish. 

What lies beneath this thickened margin belongs to the dor- 
sum of the starfish, what lies above it to its ventral surface. 

The young starfish now attains a diameter of |th of a line, 
becomes slightly pentagonal, and retains only a narrow connexion 
with the Bipinnaria. 

The digestive canal, and with it the rosette-like rudiment of 
the water-vascular system, becomes turned so as to present the 
latter towards the ventral surface of the starfish, at that point 
where its mouth is subsequently formed. The tube which con- 
nected the rosette with the pore, which is now imbedded in the 
dorsal surface of the starfish, receives a calcareous deposit and 
becomes the sand-canal, while the " pore " is converted into the 
madreporic plate. 

The oesophagus of the larva is obliterated, whilst its rectum 
projects as an anal tube subcentrally from the dorsal surface of 
the starfish (Diag. XIII.) . 

The slightest touch now separates the starfish from the larva 
in which it was developed ; the former sinks to the bottom and 
creeps by the aid of its newly-developed feet ; the latter swims 
about as before for some time, but eventually perishes. 

In the Echinidse the process is essentially the same. An in- 
ternal diverticulum of the integument of the larva is formed, but 
from a somewhat different spot*, namely in front of the ciliated 
fringe and on one side. It is connected with a vesicle which lies 
close against the oesophagus, and from which the water-vascular 
system is developed. 

At this place the shell of the Echinus subsequently makes its 

* It is remarkable that in the Asterid-larvae, while the development of 
accessory ciliary processes, &c. takes place in the pre-trochal dorsal region, 
the bud of the Echinoderm is developed from the post-trochal region. In 
the Echinus-larvae we have just the reverse — the bud is developed from the 
pre-trochal region ("below the lateral arch of the ciliated band," Muller), 
while the processes, &c, as we have seen, are developed from the post- 
trochal region. The Ophiure appear to present the same relations as the 
Echinidae, though Prof. Muller has not been able to make out the point 
with certainty. 



of the Echinodcrms. 1 1 

appearance as a circular disc, which gradually envelopes the 
stomach, and developes tentacles and spines. A new anus is 
formed as well as a new oesophagus, in the young sea-urchin. 

The development of the Ophiuridae has not been traced so far 
back as that of the other groups. The dorsal pore and tube have 
not been observed ; but the development of the " rosette " and 
its accompanying mass of cells into the Echinoderm takes place 
as in the Asteridse. 

The observations of Dr. Busch (Mull. Arch. 1849) have shown 
that the larva of Comatula very early assumes the form of the 
Holothurid-larva with ciliated rings, but its internal structure 
and the development of the Echinoderm are not understood. 

To sum up, in Prof. Miiller's words, the variations of the me- 
tamorphosis of Echinodcrms : — 

" 1 . The change of the bilateral larva into the Echinoderm 
takes place when the larva yet remains an embryo, and is uni- 
versally covered with cilia, without a ciliated fringe. A part of 
the body of the larva takes on the form of the Echinoderm ; the 
rest is absorbed by the latter. (A part of the Asteridse, Echi- 
naster, Aster acanthion, Sars.) 

" 2. The change of the bilateral larva into the Echinoderm 
takes place when the larva is perfectly organized ; that is, pos- 
sesses digestive organs and a special ciliated fringe. The Echi- 
noderm is constructed within the Pluteus like a picture upon its 
canvass, a piece of embroidery in its frame, and then takes up 
into itself the digestive organs of the larva. Hereupon the rest 
of the larva vanishes* (Ophiura, Echinus), or is thrown off (Bi- 
pinnaria). 

" 3. The larva changes twice. The first time it passes out of 
the bilateral type with lateral ciliated fringe into the radial type, 
and receives instead of the previous ciliated fringe, new locomotive 
larval organs, the ciliated rings. Out of this pupa-condition the 
Echinoderm is developed without any part being cast off (Holo- 
thuria, some Asteridse). 

" If we call embryonic type the condition in which the animal 
leaves the egg, and when the internal organs are not yet deve- 
loped, we have four stages or types — the embryonic type, the larval 
type, the pupa type, and the Echinoderm type. The animal may 
pass from either of the first three forms into the Echinoderm, 
or may run through them all." (Larven u. Mctam. d. Holoth. u. 
Asterien, p. 33.) 

Furthermore it may be stated that the nature of the change 

* It seems questionable how far the integument of the larva over the 
Echinoderm can be said to vanish, when it is remembered that the pedi- 
cellariac arc developed thereon while the Echinoderm is still quite rudi- 
mcntaiy; 



12 Prof. Muller on the Anatomy and Development 

here called development of the Echinoderm, is, that a process of 
the integument of the larva grows inwards and lays the foun- 
dation of the future water-vascular system, on which the other 
organs of the Echinoderm, whether nervous, vascular or tegu- 
mentary, are in a manner modelled*. 

It is of very great importance to remember this fact in consi- 
dering the homologies of the parts of the Echinoderms. 

If the larva of the Echinoderm pursued its normal course of 
development, it is obvious that its nervous system, fur instance, 
would be homologous in form and position with that of other 
Annulose forms. There would be a ring with cerebral ganglia 
round the oesophagus and a chain of ganglia proceeding there- 
from, if the nervous system were of the type of the Annelids. 
Or if it resembled that of the Trematoda, there would be an 
oesophageal ring with two opposite ganglia, from which a cord 
would proceed on each side of the body. But the nervous system 
of the adult Echinoderm can be reduced to neither of these types ; 
it consists invariably in the Ophiuridse, Asteridse, Echinidse, and 
Holothuriadse, of a circular or pentagonal cord surrounding the 
oesophagus (of the Echinoderm) without distinct ganglia. From 
this five cords proceed, in a perfectly radiate manner, following 
the course of the water-canals. 

The study of development renders the reason of this discre- 
pancy obvious. The oesophagus of the Echinoderm is not ho- 
mologous with the oesophagus of the larva, nor with the oesophagus 
of an Annelid, and therefore the nervous ring of the Echinoderm 
is not homologous with the nervous ring of the Annelid. Indeed, 
since the mouth of the Echinoderm answers homologically to an 
aperture in the dorsal wall of the stomach of the larva, and since 
the nervous system of the Echinoderm follows exactly in its 
form the form of the water-vascular system of the Echinoderm, 
which is essentially a process of the dorsal integument of the 
larva, we might be tempted to conclude that the nervous system 
of the Echinoderm is homologous, not with the ordinary gan- 
glionic chain of an Annelid, but with that elaborate system of 
dorsal-proboscidean nerves which M. Quatrefages has detected 
and described in the latter. 

The fact that these nerves supply eye-spots would indeed pre- 
sent some difficulties in the way of this hypothesis, if this system 
of nerves in the Annelida is truly stomatogastric. But in the 
first place it has not been shown so to be ; and in the second 
place, the existence of well-organized eyes supplied by nerves 
from the ordinary ventral ganglia in each segment of Poly- 

* Hitherto we have chiefly quoted Prof. Midler, but for what follows we 
must be considered alone responsible, unless direct mention be made to the 
contrary. 



of the Echinoderms. 13 

ophthalmus, would lead us to hesitate in drawing any very strict 
conclusions from position and structure to function, in the ner- 
vous system of these animals *. 

Yet one word upon the bearing of the facts of development 
now made known, on the affinities of the various groups of Echi- 
noderms. 

If we were to arrange the Echinoderms according to the nature 
of their larvae, we should have one group formed by the Asteridse, 
Holothuriadse and Crinoidese (Comatula) ; and another composed 
of the Ophiuridoe and Echinidse. And if the acute speculation 
of Prof. E. Forbes, that the pectinated rhombs of the Cystideae 
answer to the " epaulettes " of the Echinus-larva, be correct, then 
the Cystidese would, as a sort of permanent form of Echinus-larva, 
fall into the latter group, in which they would represent the 
Crinoidese. 



Interesting as are the phenomena presented by the larva? of 
the Echinoderms, taken in themselves, as mere facts, they are 
far more important in their bearing upon one of the most com- 
prehensive and interesting zoological theories of modern times — 
we refer to the theory of "the alternation of generations." 
Founded by Chamisso and Eschscholz, extended to a great num- 
ber of new cases by Steenstrup, and finally reduced to a fixed and 
definite scientific form under the name of "Parthenogenesis" 
by the celebrated Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy, 
this theory has bid fair to unite all the aberrant generative pro- 
cesses of the Invertebrata (those of the Echinoderms among the 
rest) under its conditions, and to express them in its terms. 

The theory may be generally expressed thus : 1. The ovum 
produces an individual A 1 , whose offspring is another individual 
B dissimilar to A 1 . This again may in the same way produce an 
individual C, and so on. The last of the series only contains ge- 
nerative organs from which ova are formed, and these reproduce 
an individual A 2 precisely resembling A 1 . The species therefore 
is said to be represented by a number of generations of indivi- 
duals which regularly alternate with one another. 

To this Professor Owen adds — 

2. That the individuals B, C, D, &c. which intervene between 
the sexual individuals A 1 and A 2 are always developed from 
masses of cells which are the immediate and unchanged descend- 
ants of the embryo cells of the ovum, and which as such, retain 
a portion of the original "spermatic force," whence they are 
enabled to attain a certain independent development without a 
renewal of the spermatic influence. 

* Again, the eyes of the Acephala are as much supplied from the pal- 
leal or visceral ganglion as from the cerebral ganglion. 



14 Prof. Miiller on the Anatomy and Development 

Now the questions to be decided before the alternation theory 
can be said to apply to the Echinoderms or any other animals, 
are different as regards the two portions of the theory. The 
problem as regards the first question is a matter of naming — as 
regards the second it is a matter of fact. 

We have said that the question involved in the first part of 
the theory is a question of naming. It is, whether we can apply 
to A, 13, C, &c. in the foregoing instance, the name " indivi- 
dual." For it is quite clear that if they cannot with propriety 
be called " individuals," their succession cannot be called an 
u alternation of generations," inasmuch as generations are com- 
posed of individuals. 

We must carefully bear in mind that this inquiry has nothing 
to do with the thorny problem of psychical individuality. With 
that the zoologist has no concern ; his science investigates the 
laws of animal form, and in psychological questions he has no 
more direct interest than the astronomer has in the zoology of 
the planet Saturn. 

Leaving psychological considerations aside, then, and inquiring 
into the zoological meaning of the term " individual," we find that 
anything to which it is applied among the higher and the greater 
part of the lower animals, has two principal characters : first, it 
has an independent existence ; and secondly, it is the total result 
of the independent development of a single ovum. 

Now the forms A, B, C, described as " individuals " by Steen- 
strup, have only one of these characters (in the most strongly 
marked cases of " alternation "), that of independent existence ; 
for each of them is only part of " the total result of the develop- 
ment of a single ovum." 

But in predicating " individuality " of any animal which does 
not " alternate," we predicate both these characters of it. 

Hence, unless the meaning of the term " individual " be al- 
tered, the advocates of the alternation theory commit the capital 
error of using the same term in two very different senses, accord- 
ing as they speak of a Hydra or a Campanularia, a Salpa or a 
Cynthia. 

It is only by narrowing the meaning of the word " individual " 
to mere " independent existence," that it can possibly become 
applicable in Steenstrup's sense. But in this case spermatozoa, 
spermatophora, and even cancer cells, would equally be " indivi- 
duals." So that the new meaning would be not only entirely ar- 
bitrary, but opposed to the general sense of zoologists. 

We propose on the other hand not to alter the ordinary zo- 
ological meaning of the word " individuality," but merely to de- 
fine it more strictly, and give to the relative value of the attributes 
which it connotes, and which are conversely a mark of it. 



of the Echinodcrms. 15 

Individuality has so long and so obviously, among the higher 
animals, been observed to be accompanied by independent exist- 
ence, that the latter attribute has come to be considered as, con- 
versely, an indication of individuality — to the neglect of the really 
characteristic attribute, which is — the circumstance of being the 
total result of the development of a single ovum. 

According to our view, then, the zoological individual = the total 
result of the development of a single ovum, whether this total 
result consist of one or many independent existences. The in- 
dividual is the zoological unit, and its value is the same, whether 
we have it as (1) or as (5 + 3- + 3-)- A fraction docs not become 
equal to the unit by standing alone. The Cyansea and the Polype 
from which it proceeds, the two forms of Salpse, the parent 
nurses, nurses, and Cercarise, of the Distomata, are not distinct 
individuals — are not separately equivalent to an individual beetle 
or dog. 

It is their sum only, which is equivalent to the individual 
among the higher animals. 

They are not the individual, but are successive forms by which 
the individual is manifested ; standing in the same relation to the 
individual, as the incarnations of Vishnu to Vishnu, in the Hindoo 
theology. 

What then may these independently existing u parts of indi- 
viduals " be properly termed ? They can hardly be called organs, 
without doing violence to our ordinary acceptation of the nature 
of an organ, in which a certain subserviency and dependence is 
understood. The term " zooid" has been devised; and as it has 
no theoretical meaning, but is merely intended to suggest two 
indisputable facts with regard to the creatures to which it is ap- 
plied — namely that they are like individuals, and yet are not in- 
dividuals, in the sense that one of the higher animals is an indi- 
vidual — its use does not appear to be open to any serious ob- 
jection. 

Instead of saying then, that in a given species, there is an 
alternation of so many generations, we should say that the indi- 
vidual consists of so many zooids. 

Again, where no " alternation " takes place, the individual = the 
sum of its organs ; where there is alternation, the individual = 
the sum of its " zooids." 

If the view we have taken be correct, the whole doctrine of the 
so-called " compound animals " must be revised, and their termi- 
nology altered. A whole tree of Sertularia, a Pennatula, a Py- 
rosoma, a mass of Botrylli, must no longer be considered as an 
aggregation of individuals, but as an individual developed into 
many zooids. 

And if the term " compound animal " is to be retained in its 



16 Prof. Muller on the Anatomy and Development 

old meaning, we know of only one creature which is entitled to 
the name, viz. the Diplozoon paradoxum, which Von Siebold has 
just shown to be really formed by the fusion of two previously 
distinct individuals. 

We hope that the reader will pardon this long digression into 
the regions of abstract thought. Whether he adopt our view or 
not, we trust that at any rate, we have pointed out where the real 
battle of the alternation theory lies. 

The onus of giving a new meaning to the word " individuality 9 * 
must rest with the advocates of the alternation theory ; we have 
endeavoured merely to make a consistent extension of the old 
meaning to embrace new facts. 

The Echinoderms have been included under the " Alternation 
theory ;" but, if the reasoning above be correct, unjustly, as is 
indeed plainly pointed out on other grounds by Prof. Muller in 
his second memoir. He justly observes that the process of de- 
velopment of the Echinoderm partakes as much of the nature of 
metamorphosis as of " alternation." The larva and the Echino- 
derm cannot be said to be two individuals, when they possess 
the same intestine. 

Nor, as to the question of fact, does the development of the 
Echinoderm appear to be a case of " Parthenogenesis." 

The structure of the integument of the larva, at the place where 
the tubular rudiment of the Echinoderm is subsequently formed, 
is quite undistinguishable from that of any other spot. There 
are here no descendants of the embryo-cells specially set aside to 
become developed into the new structure*. 

The development of the Echinoderm is then neither a process 
of " alternation of generations " nor of " Parthenogenesis," but 
the individual consists of two zooids — a larva-zooid and an Echi- 
noderm-zooid, the latter of which is developed from the former 
by a process of internal gemmation j\ 

* The elongated cellular masses which exist on each side of the digestive 
canal in the larvae, are very possibly the immediate descendants of the embryo- 
cells. But Prof. Muller leaves it very doubtful, whether these masses have 
anything to do with the development of the Echinoderm. Certainly they 
are not concerned in the development of one most important part of it — the 
water- vascular system. See Mull. Arch. 1850, p. 466. Ibid. 1851, p. 4. 

t According to Prof. Muller (Archiv, 1851, p. 18) the development of 
the Echinoderm can only "figuratively" (bildlich) be compared to gem- 
mation, inasmuch as the " formative mass ** arises independently. 

But since he says immediately afterwards that "the rudiment of the 
water-vascular system, in general, arises before the rudiment of the parietes 
of the Echinoderm," and since he shows elsewhere that the origin of the 
water- vascular system is by the development of a bud-like process inwards 
— the process may, we think, be called gemmation in much more than a 
figurative sense. 



of the Echinoderms. 1 7 

The development of the Echinoderms is, as Prof. Muller ob- 
serves, exactly intermediate between the ordinary process of 
metamorphosis by ecdysis in insects and the so-called " alterna- 
tion " of the Trematoda and Aphides. 

The phenomena of alternation, or as we have called it, " zooid 
development," take place in two ways — by external gemmation 
and by internal gemmation. 

The former process is confined to the Polypes and Ascidians, 
which form a series leading from the lowest Radiate to the Mol- 
luscous types. The latter process on the other hand is restricted 
to the Worms and Echinoderms, which form a series leading 
from the lowest Radiate to the Annulose types. 

Now in each series three modifications may be detected. The 
deutero-zooid is developed either — 1. from a complete segment 
of the protozooid, when it is difficult to say whether the process 
is one of internal or external gemmation; or 2. from a small 
portion of a segment, including a portion of the digestive canal ; 
or 3. from a small portion of a segment, an entirely new digestive 
canal being formed. 

The following table will illustrate the relations of these modifi- 
cations to one another : — 

Zooid Development by 

A . 



External Gemmation. Internal Gemmation. 

3 - Sal P a {Tr'emaToda. 

2 f Campanularia Echinodermata. 

"' \ Corynidae, &c. 

1. Cyanaea. Taenia. 

Nais. 

We have hitherto considered the various zooids of each form 
to be complementary to one another, and all necessary to the 
perfect manifestation of the individual. 

But the law of " irrelative repetition " long since established 
elsewhere by Prof. Owen, is illustrated here in the development 
of zooid forms where they are not necessary to the manifestation 
of the individual. 

In the Echinoderm there is one larval-zooid and one Echino- 
derm-zooid — the "individual" would be incomplete without 
either. 

But in the Cyansea the single Scyphistoma-zooid developes 
perhaps twenty Cyansea-zooids, any one of which would have been 
sufficient to complete the individual. 

The development of the hundreds of polypes of a Sertularian 
appear to be referable to a similar law. Nay, the " generation 

Ann.fyMag.N.Hist.Sev.2. Vol. viii. 2 



18 On the Anatomy and Development of the Echinoderms. 

by gemmation " of a Hydra or a simple Ascidian, and the fission 
of a Microstomum, seem, strictly speaking, to be phenomena of 
the same kind. 

As in these cases, however, it is impossible when once the 
gemma is separated from the parent stock to distinguish it from 
a true individual, it may seem pedantic and unnecessary to insist 
upon the distinction. 

In concluding, we cannot refrain from remarking upon one 
character of Professor Muller's researches, of which our imper- 
fect notice can give no idea, — it is the singular candour and phi- 
losophic impartiality of the writer. In the course of five years, 
much that seemed probable at first, had, later, to be rejected — 
much that seemed certain, to be overthrown. It was often neces- 
sary to make pretty hypotheses give way before stubborn facts — 
to re-examine conclusions that had seemed unquestionable. 

If any one be curious to know how this has been done, and 
desire at the same time to learn in what spirit scientific investi- 
gation should be conducted, we cannot do better than refer him 
to the works whose titles head this Report — they are models. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

The figures numbered with the Arabic numerals all represent really ex- 
isting forms, and are taken, with the exception of figures 8 and 9, from 
Professor Muller's memoirs. The u calcareous rods " are omitted for the 
sake of clearness. 

The figures numbered with the Roman numerals on the other hand are 
all to be considered merely as diagrams. They represent what the Echi- 
noderm-larvse would be if they were, as it were, straightened out and re- 
duced to their simplest elements. 

Fig. I. a is given in order to show how a symmetrical Annelid-like larva, 
fig. I., may by development of some of its parts at the expense of others 
become converted into the Ophiura-larva, fig. 1 . 

Fig . 1 . Ophiura-larva ' I . The corresponding diagram . 

Fig. 2. Echinus-larva with " epaulettes " II. Ditto. 

Fig. 3. Echinus-larva with spines viewed III. Ditto. 

from behind. 

Fig. 4. Asterias-larva (Bipinnaria), very IV. Ditto. 

young. 

Brachiolaria, an Asterias-larva... V. The diagram only is given. 

Fig. 5. Tornaria, probably an Asterias- VI. The corresponding diagram. 

larva. 

Fig. 6. J* Auricularia, the Holothuria- VII. \ jy , , 

Fig. 7. 1 larva in its two forms VIII. J 

In all the figures of larvae the mouth and anus are indicated by the letters 
m and a, and the cilia are disproportionately large so as to render the 
"fringes" and " bands " evident. 

The Diagram No. I. is similarly lettered, and all the other diagrams have 
their anterior and posterior extremities in a position corresponding to it. 



MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogaous Fungi. 19 

Fig. 8. is the larva of Sipunculus after Max. Mutter. 

Fig. 9. The larva of an Annelid after Milne-Edwards. 

Fig. 1 0. Auricularia. The larva of Holothuria, after Miiller ; to show the 

mode of development of the water- vascular system, &c. from the 

internal bud, d : e, the oval masses of cells. 
Fig. 11. One of the epauletted Echinus-larvae, in which the Echinoderm, d, 

has already begun to envelope the stomach of the larva. 

IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. are diagrams intended to represent the mode of 
development of an Asterias within its larva the Bipinnaria. 
The form of the latter is not given ; its relation being indicated only by 
the dotted line. 

IX. m, the mouth of the larva; a, its anus ; d, the bud-like commencement 

of the Echinoderm. 

X. XI. The latter has developed the water-canals, and with its accom- 

panying blastema has begun to invest the stomach of the larva. 

XII. The investment nearly complete. The position of the mouth of the 

Asterias indicated by (o). 

XIII. The Echinoderm has become free and separate from the body of the 

larva with its primitive oesophagus. 

It is to be understood that these diagrams do not pretend to be strictly 
accurate. They are intended only to render the process of development 
more easily comprehensible. 



II. — Report on MM. L. E. and C. Tulasne's "Memoir on the 
History of the Hypogaous Fungi" By MM. Jussieu and 
Ad. Brongniart*. 

The mode of vegetation and reproduction of the Fungi had long 
been one of the most obscure portions of the vegetable kingdom, 
and, in spite of the progress of this department of botany during 
the last fifty years, many points yet remain to be cleared up ; but 
in this vast class, the anomalous organization of which has caused 
some naturalists to regard them as a kind of peculiar kingdom, 
nothing perhaps is more singular than the development of the 
subterranean Fungi, the whole life of which, the growth and re- 
production, goes on in the bosom of the earth, without any por- 
tion of their structure coming to the surface. 

This existence, entirely removed from the action of light, is an 
anomaly even among the plants of the Fungous class, which, ge- 
nerally speaking, prefer weakly illuminated situations ; for ordi- 
nary Fungi cannot live in complete obscurity without becoming 
profoundly altered in form and structure, and being kept im- 
perfect and sterile. Light therefore, although in less degree 
necessary to Fungi than to ordinary vegetables, is almost always 
indispensable to their regular development at least at the period 
of reproduction. 

For a long period the common Truffle, and a few other equally 

* Comptes Rendus, Dec. 30, 1850. 

2* 



20 MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogaous Fungi. 

edible species, were the only Fungi in which this unusual mode 
of existence had been recognized. Thus, at the beginning of 
this century, Persoon, in his ' Synopsis Fungorum/ described 
only four species, and in 1822 M. Fries enumerated only twelve 
species, distributed into four genera. 

In 1831 however, the study of the numerous edible species of 
northern Italy led M. Vittadini of Milan to a more minute ex- 
amination of these Fungi, and to the investigation of those spe- 
cies of this group which are not available for food ; through this, 
the total number was raised to sixty-three species, arranged in 
thirty different genera, eight of which were established by this 
author. 

The microscopic examination of these very diversified forms 
led that able botanist to the recognition of an exceedingly varied 
organization, the modifications of which threw light, reciprocally, 
on the obscure and often difficultly comprehensible structure of 
these Fungi. 

But since the anatomical organization, and above all the repro- 
duction of Fungi in general, were at this period enveloped in so 
much obscurity, the good optical instruments and modes of pre- 
paration adapted to microscopic observations of this kind were 
still confined to so limited a circle, and so far removed from that 
degree of perfection they have since attained, it is not wonderful 
that Vittadini, notwithstanding the progress which he caused in 
this branch of science, left many points to be cleared up and more 
completely studied. 

The important discoveries made a few years later in the differ- 
ent modes of formation of the spores or reproductive bodies of 
the Fungi with external and superficial fructification, such as the 
Agarics, the Boleti, the Morels and Pezizas, soon led several bo- 
tanists to the recognition of these same diverse modes of forma- 
tion of the spores in the Fungi with internal fructification, the 
reproductive bodies of which are developed in the cavities of a 
peridium or common envelope. 

Those observations on the common Lycoperdacese, which we 
owe to Messrs. Berkeley, Klotsch, Corda, and in part to Messrs. 
Tulasne themselves, at once threw light upon the often rather 
obscure descriptions of M. Vittadini ; new examinations demon- 
strated in fact that the subterraneous Fungi, analogous in their 
mode of growth to the Truffle, are referable, in accordance with 
the structure of their reproductive organs, and as Vittadini had 
already detected, to two essentially different types. 

In one type, the Hymenogastrece, the interior of the fleshy mass 
of which they consist, presents a number of sinuous cavities lined 
by a membrane analogous to that which clothes the gills of the 
Agarics, and the superficial cells of which each produce at their 



MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogaous Fungi. 21 

free extremity three or four spores, becoming successively de- 
tached, and finally filling the cavities. 

The other type, comprising the true Truffles and forming the 
groups TuberacecB and Elaphomycea, also present a fleshy mass, 
the outer surface of which constitutes the common envelope or 
peridium, while the numerous narrow, sinuous, not very distinct 
cavities are lined and in part filled up by a special tissue, mingled 
with cells of a peculiar form, producing in their interior three or 
four or from six to eight spores, like the thecse of the Pezizea. 

Thus in the hypogaeous as in the ordinary Fungi, there are two 
different modes of formation of the spores ; in the one class these 
reproductive bodies are developed upon the external surface of 
special cells called basidia or sporophores ; in the other they are 
formed in the interior of particular cells named thecce or spo- 
rangia. 

This difference in the mode of production of the spores had 
already been shown by M. Vittadini's observations and figures, 
although he sought to explain it by an accessory modification of a 
single kind of organization. It was established in a much more 
positive manner in different groups of Fungi by various authors 
of more recent date, by Messrs. Leveille, Klotsch, Berkeley, and 
Messrs. Tulasne themselves in various memoirs. It now forms 
the basis of the divisions both of the hypogseous and of the ordi- 
nary Fungi. 

But many essential points in the very obscure life of these 
strange plants still remained to be elucidated. 

The discovery of numerous species, the comparison of their 
form, of their organization, their distribution into well-defined 
genera, in a word, the natural history properly so called of this 
curious subterranean flora, has not only resulted in increasing 
the catalogue of organisms of this kind ; these discoveries have, in 
addition, allowed of a better appreciation being arrived at of their 
mode of existence, development and reproduction ; for this diver- 
sity of organization has yielded the solution of questions which 
would have been very difficult to answer from the study of a 
small number of species. How many physiological questions 
have been cleared up in this way by the examination of varied 
forms of the inferior members of the scale of organization ! 

The well-directed investigations of Messrs. Tulasne, in the 
neighbourhood of Paris and in different parts of France, have, in 
the first place, enabled them to extend the list of these plants 
greatly; thus, while M. Vittadini, in 1831, indicated only sixty- 
three species, distributed into thirteen genera, Messrs. Tulasne 
have carried the number to a hundred and forty-four species 
comprehended in twenty-five genera, and have added seventy- 
one of these species to the French flora. 



22 MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogceous Fungi. 

The repeated examination of the structure of many of these 
plants in different stages of growth, has conducted them to very 
interesting results, throwing much light upon the life of subter- 
ranean Fungi. 

It has long been known that in the ordinary Fungi, the fleshy 
body, of such varied form, commonly considered as forming the 
whole of the fungus, is only an external development, a tempo- 
rary product, analogous to certain compound fruits, originating 
from a filamentous, byssoid, irregular mass extending beneath 
the surface of the soil or in the interior of the bodies supporting 
these vegetables, comparable to the subterraneous stems of va- 
rious plants ; this mass, called the mycelium or thallus, is what, 
under the name of Mushroom spawn, is commonly used for the 
reproduction of the Mushroom in beds. 

All Fungi when carefully examined presented this filamentous 
mycelium, concealed before the formation and what may be 
called the expansion of the Fungus ; the Truffles however seemed 
to be devoid of it, and several authors, whose opinions had been 
hastily received, had supposed that the Truffles were produced 
directly from the spores of these plants, called by them truffi- 
nelles, which became increased and dilated in all directions. 

Facts observed by Messrs. Tulasne in genera closely allied to 
the Truffles had already rendered this view, altogether hypo- 
thetical, inadmissible. Thus, in Balsamia, a genus very close to 
the true Truffles, Messrs. Tulasne had observed the spores during 
germination, emitting, like those of other Fungi, delicate ramified 
filaments, which, by their interlacement, would form the myce- 
lium, destined to reproduce, subsequently, new fleshy bodies, the 
true fructification of these vegetables. In Delastria and Terfezia, 
other genera of this tribe, and better still in the Elaphomyces, 
which are a little removed, this mycelium reproducing the fleshy 
body which constitutes the Fungus properly so-called, persists for 
a long time around it, and by its presence proves that these sub- 
terraneous Fungi, so near to the Truffles, do not differ in this 
respect from ordinary Fungi. 

It might therefore have been assumed with nearly perfect cer- 
tainty, that the Truffles proper also possessed a mycelium, pro- 
ducing these fleshy and fungous bodies, but quickly decaying 
and allowing them to continue to grow in an isolated condition. 
This has been actually demonstrated, in observations carefully 
made by M. L. R. Tulasne in the Truffle grounds of Poitou, who 
has seen the soil in which they grow traversed, in the course 
of September, by numerous white, cylindrical filaments, much 
finer than common sowing thread, yet themselves composed of 
articulated microscopic filaments three to five thousandths of a 
millimetre in diameter. These white threads are continuous with 



MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogceous Fungi. 23 

a byssoid, flocculent mycelium of the same nature, which enve- 
lopes the young Truffles and forms immediately around them a 
sort of white felt several millimetres thick, the filaments of which 
are directly continuous with the external layer of the young 
Truffle, scarcely so large as a nut at this epoch. In a short time 
the gradual destruction of this byssoid envelope commences ; at 
first a part, then the whole is lost, and the Truffle appears com- 
pletely isolated in the soil. 

Thus, that which was indicated by analogy is confirmed by di- 
rect observation, and it is seen that the Truffles, like the other 
Fungi, are reproduced by spores which give origin to a fila- 
mentous mycelium, the source of new Truffles. These facts, im- 
portant in a scientific point of view, from the uniformity they 
establish in the mode of existence of the whole of a large class of 
vegetables, may, like many other scientific discoveries, one day 
become a source of useful applications. 

These singular plants, thus isolated in the midst of the soil at 
the epoch of their reproduction, without apparent external organs, 
nevertheless exhibit internally a structure much more compli- 
cated than was at first supposed. The observations of M. Vitta- 
dini had already indicated the curious arrangement of the black 
and white veins which traverse the tissue of the Truffles, and 
these had been mentioned by the earliest observers; but the 
more varied and more precise investigations of Messrs. Tulasne 
have shown much more clearly their relations and destination. 
When young, the Truffles exhibit very irregular sinuous cavities, 
partly communicating with each other and terminating, some- 
times at a single orifice corresponding to a depression or umbi- 
licus on the outside, sometimes at several points of the surface 
which present no distinguishable character externally. As they 
advance in age, the partitions which separate the cavities become 
thickened, the tissue composing their surface is developed into a 
kind of white tomentum which obliterates them ; hence result 
two systems of veins ; one set coloured, corresponding to the 
partitions which separated the primitive cavities, the other white, 
formed by the filamentous tissue which finally fills these cavities. 
The former are continuous with the external tissue which 
composes the envelope of the Fungus, or peridium; in their middle 
portion they are formed of a network of filaments or elongated 
cells, running in the direction of the cavities ; from this arise 
shorter filaments, almost perpendicular to the first, and the in- 
flated extremities of these become the sporangia, or sporigenous 
cells ; the deep colour is due to the black or brown colour of the 
spores. The other veins, the white ones, appear to be formed of 
the prolongations of sterile filaments, intermingled with sporige- 
nous cells, and originate like them from the primitive partitions. 



24 MM. Tulasne on the History of the Hypogceous Fungi. 

The veins composed of these filaments and the air interposed, owe 
to this structure their dull white appearance, and opacity when 
their tissue is examined in thin slices by transparent light, under 
which circumstance they appear darker than the tissue rilled with 
liquid forming the coloured veins. These aeriferous white veins 
terminate at the external surface, either at a single point to which 
all converge, or at several distinct points. 

In these plants, therefore, so shapeless and simple in appear- 
ance, is formed a double system of veins, or rather of irregular 
filamentous lamellae ; one set arising from the cortical tissue, 
absorbing the surrounding moisture and serving to transmit this 
humidity to the cells in which the spores are formed, being 
therefore the organs of nutrition; the others, remarkable for 
their white colour and opacity, terminating externally, intro- 
ducing air into all parts of the Fungi and bringing it into con- 
tact with the sporigenous cells themselves. This communication 
of the external air with the internal lacuna? of the Fungus is 
much more evident in the Truffles and in certain other Tube- 
racece, than in the other hypogaeous Fungi, where the lacunae ana- 
logous to those of the Truffles, although rilled with air, do not 
appear to communicate with the exterior. 

The formation and structure of the spores have also been the 
objects of very interesting researches by Messrs. Tulasne. In all 
the true Tuberacece, the spores are developed freely in the cavi- 
ties of the sporangia, or vesicular cells destined to produce them. 
They are limited in number, and not very variable, in each of 
these sporangia ; more than eight are never formed in one vesicle, 
and in many species the maximum number is four. 

These spores exhibit very varied forms, according to the ge- 
nera and species in which they are observed, but are perfectly 
constant in the same species. This diversity however depends 
almost solely upon the structure of the external membrane or 
epispore, sometimes smooth, sometimes with points all over, or 
variously reticulated. Beneath this external, coloured and rather 
resisting membrane, is found a second integument, smooth, trans- 
parent, more or less thick, but strongly resisting chemical agents, 
and not only colourless in its natural state, but not coloured by the 
action of iodine, and easily separable from the external integu- 
ment by various reagents. The simple cavity of this internal 
utricle of the spore is filled with oleaginous globules suspended 
in a liquid which is probably albuminous, and is coloured yellow 
or brown by iodine. 

These reproductive bodies, although less simple in their struc- 
ture than has been sometimes supposed, are still far from repre- 
senting on a small scale the organization of the Truffle itself, as 
Turpin supposed ; their structure is not more complicated than 



Wai.Eist.S.2. 

h 
d * 




A&«Blfj>rJ. ,/,</ 



.. sV 




A.Sancock del. 



J.Basire sc. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 25 

that of the spores of many other Fungi, and particularly of the 
UredinecB, already very well examined in this respect by Messrs. 
Tulasne several years ago. 

This idea of a kind of identity between the structure of the 
spores of the Truffles and the Truffle itself which they are to re- 
produce, was founded on an analogy of form and colour which 
exists only in few species, and on the hypothesis that the spores 
increased in all directions to form the fungous mass of the Truffle ; 
but as we have seen, this very improbable hypothesis is com- 
pletely subverted by observation of the germination of the spores 
of Balsamia, and by that of the existence of a mycelium around 
the Truffles themselves while they are young. 

The precise knowledge of the varied and complicated structure 
of these subterranean Fungi, the observation of the different 
phases of their life, if not in the same species, at least in plants 
sufficiently allied to admit of analogy guiding us with safety, 
enable us now therefore to appreciate the manner of the nourish- 
ment, growth, and reproduction of these plants, so imperfect in 
appearance that their mode of existence was long concealed from 
the observations of naturalists, and of which, a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, there was but a distant idea of the variety of organi- 
zation and the considerable number of species. 

Thanks to the extensive and profound researches of Messrs. 
Louis Rene and Charles Tulasne, this group of Fungi, which so 
many causes rendered it particularly difficult to study, may now 
be considered one of the best known ; for to the general anatomy 
and the physiological facts, of which a brief analysis is above 
given, are adjoined a detailed monograph of all the species of 
subterranean Fungi known at this time, and excellent figures re- 
presenting most of those species and the most minute details of 
their organization. 



III. — On the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse, a Nudibranchiate 
Mollusk. By Albany Hancock, Esq. 

[With two Plates.] 

This paper treats of the anatomy of an animal which was dis- 
covered by M. Verany on the shores of Italy, and was described 
by that naturalist in 1846 under the name of Janus Spinolce. 
Shortly afterwards it was taken by Dr. Battersby on the Devon- 
shire, and by Mr. Alder on the Cornish coast ; and the latter 
gentleman and I published an account of it in the ' Annals of 
Natural History ' for 1848, where it was named Antiopa splen- 
dida. At that time we had seen neither the original description 
nor specimens from the Mediterranean ; but have since been 



26 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 

favoured with some from thence through the kindness of M. 
Verany ; and having made careful dissections of them, and of 
others from the coast of Cornwall, we have satisfied ourselves 
that no character exists to distinguish the Italian from the En- 
glish specimens. The anatomy is the same in both, and all the 
external parts agree. 

In 1849 M. Emile Blanchard gave a full account of the ana- 
tomy of Janus Spinola in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles/ 
3 e serie, t. 10. My dissections, however, have brought to light 
numerous and important details which do not coincide with those 
given by that anatomist, otherwise I should not have deemed 
it necessary to draw up the present memoir. These differences 
will be noticed after the description of each organ ; therefore it 
is only necessary to state here, that the most important of them 
relate to the digestive system and to the reproductive organs. 

Antiopa Spinolce* (the name by which our animal must be now 
designated, the generic appellation of M. Verany having been 
previously used) belongs undoubtedly to the family Eolididse, as 
defined in the ' Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mol- 
lusca/ now being published by the Ray Society, though it ex- 
hibits some characters approximating it to Doris and Tritonia. 
Antiopa differs in many respects from Eolis, both externally and 
internally. The body is upwards of an inch long; it is ovate, 
a little depressed, and tapers to a point behind, with the sides of 
the back carinated, indicating the presence of a cloak. The 
branchial papillae are arranged along the carinse and pass round 
in front of the head ; extending posteriorly a little behind the 
anus, which is placed in the median line of thel)ack, near to the 
termination of the body. The generative organs open on the 
right side. The dorsal tentacles are laminated and united at 
the base by a fleshy crest. 

Digestive System. — The oral opening is rather large, and is 
placed on the inferior surface of the head ; it is guarded by a 
fleshy lip divided behind, and leads by a short canal to the 
buccal mass (Pis. II. and III. fig. 1 a), which is very large, of a 
lozenge-form when viewed from above, and somewhat depressed. 
It is very compact and firm, having the jaws exposed at the sides 
(PI. II. fig. 2 c), and is provided with numerous powerful mus- 
cles for their motion, and for advancing and retracting the whole 
apparatus. The jaws (fig. 3) are of great power, being equal in 
size to the buccal mass, and give to it its proper form. They are 
not mere thin plates as in Eolis, but are of considerable thick- 

* As this paper was passing through the press, I have learnt that M. 
Delle Chiaje was the first to discover this animal, and that he had described 
it under the name of Eolidia cristata. His specific denomination will 
therefore have to be adopted. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy o/Antiopa Spinoke. 27 

ness, of a peculiar horny texture, apparently porous within, 
admitting readily the point of a needle ; their form is subtrian- 
gular when seen in front, each having attached to the anterior 
angle a plate or cap (a), which is provided with two parallel 
cutting edges, the outer one (b) being denticulated, the inner (c) 
smooth. The denticulations are about twelve in number, very 
large, compressed and lancet -formed, with their points tipped 
abruptly with black: their bases being pale have not a little 
the appearance of forming a second row of teeth. This appear- 
ance probably deceived M. Blanchard, who describes two denti- 
culated plates. The inner edge is quite smooth, and separated 
from the outer one by a deep groove : the function of this edge 
is rather problematical. The jaws are strongly articulated above 
in front, at a point (fig. 5 d) which is furnished with a projecting 
process or fulcrum. 

The tongue is large, and stands up from the floor of the buccal 
cavity in front of the oesophagus ; it is formed as in Doris, being 
tubular behind (PL II. fig. 6, and PL III. fig. 2 b), with the 
frontal portion (a) turned over, as it were expanded like the 
mouth of a trumpet. This is the only portion of the organ that 
can act as a prehensile instrument, the spines being exposed and 
turned with their points towards the gullet. The spines behind 
line the tubular portion, and are covered by a soft, delicate mem- 
brane. Here they are generated, and retained until gradually 
pushed forward to make up the deficiency occasioned by the loss 
of those in front. 

The spines are firmly attached to a stiffish membrane, which 
rests upon a muscular support capable of moving backwards and 
forwards, and of giving to them the necessary prehensile action. 
When the tongue is removed from this muscular support and 
spread out, it (PL II. fig. 7) is found to be about twice as long 
as it is broad, slightly narrowed behind (a), and a little rounded 
at both extremities, with the whole surface covered with trans- 
verse rows of plain, stout, recurved spines (figs. 8 & 9) of a deep 
amber colour, giving to the rows when seen with a low magnify- 
ing power a dark purple-brown hue. There are thirty of these 
rows, each containing eighty spines, xme spine being central 
(fig. 8 a), of the same size, plain and recurved like the rest. 
From this the lateral portions of the rows, on either side, slope 
forward, giving to the tongue a bipartite appearance. 

The oesophagus (Pis. II. & III. fig. 1 b) is rather wide, very 
short and internally plicated; it passes from about the middle 
of the upper aspect of the buccal mass, and opens into the lower 
portion of the stomach in front. This latter organ (c) is placed 
far forward in the visceral cavity, a little on the left side. It is 
transversely elongated, of considerable size, exhibiting through its 



28 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolae. 

upper wall, which is very delicate, internal, longitudinal plica3. 
The lower portion of the stomach, towards the left side (PI. III. 
fig. 1 d), is covered with a thin coating of a folliculated, glandular 
substance. Here the intestine (PI. II. fig. 1 d & PI. III. fig. 1 e) 
leaves the gastric pouch, and doubling back upon it passes 
across to the right side of the body, down which it runs for some 
distance, and then turning inward dips under the ovary, and 
shortly reaches the large, tubular anal nipple (PL II. fig. le& 
PI. III. fig. 1/), placed on the median line of the back, not far 
from the posterior extremity of the animal. The intestine is 
wide, diminishing slightly in caliber towards its termination ; the 
inner surface being longitudinally plicated throughout. 

The hepatic apparatus is extensively diffused in this species, 
as it is in all the other Eolididae. Two large anterior hepatic 
canals open into the upper surface of the stomach, one on each 
side. These canals on leaving the gastric organ almost imme- 
diately divide into two branches (PI. II. fig. 1/,/), one of which 
curves forward (PI. III. fig. \g,g), the other backward {h, h). 
The two that pass forward stretch along the sides of the back, and 
turning round in front of the head, are apparently united on the 
median line. These branches give off from their outward margin 
numerous ramuscules (#), which divide and subdivide, forming 
dendritic tufts, some of the twigs of which pass into the anterior 
branchial papillae. The two posterior branches (h, h) of these 
hepatic canals, turning backward, run down the sides of the back, 
and communicate, by similar dendritic tufts, with the papillae on 
the sides for more than half-way down the body. Here these 
two latter branches terminate. There is, however, another trunk 
canal belonging to the hepatic apparatus. This is the great, 
posterior or central duct (PI. II. fig. 1 h & PL III. fig. 1 t, i) ; 
it is a little larger in caliber than the anterior canals, and opens 
into the lower, glandular portion of the stomach a short way in 
advance of the pylorus, and passing backward, beneath the 
anterior ovarian mass, sends a branch which ascends between the 
lobes of the ovary, to communicate with the papillae on the left 
side in front of the anus. The trunk canal then turning up- 
ward between the anterior and posterior masses of the ovary on 
the same side, gives off another branch, which crossing the 
median line in advance of the anal nipple, subdivides into two 
portions, one of which bends forward, the other backward ; 
these go to supply the papillae along the right side near to the 
anal region. The posterior canal then passes backward above 
the posterior ovarian mass, and on the left side of the anus. It 
now assumes a more central position, and after sending two or 
three branches to either side, terminates in a blind sac a little 
behind the papillae. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 29 

All the branches of the great posterior canal give off dendritic 
ramuscnles, which communicate with the papillae in the same 
manner as those from the anterior canals. The whole of the 
ramuscules, branches and trunk canals are of a dark chocolate 
colour when the animal is alive, resembling in this respect the 
gland of the papillae. It is therefore likely that all these parts 
assist in the production of the biliary fluid. The walls of the 
canals and branches are very firm, retaining their cylindrical 
form even when completely isolated. 

The great posterior canal has entirely escaped the notice of 
M. Blanchard, who after describing the posterior branches of 
the anterior trunks to be united by a transverse communication 
in front of the anus, states that they pass down to the extremity 
of the body*. This we have seen to be erroneous, the transverse 
communication (PI. III. fig. 1^') being, in fact, a branch from 
the posterior canal. He has committed this error, probably, 
from having relied too much on the examination of living speci- 
mens, in which many of the branches and most of the ramuscules 
are distinctly seen through the dorsal skin. In spirit specimens 
there is no difficulty in isolating all the principal canals, their 
branches, and most of the ramuscules. In this way I have on 
more than one occasion demonstrated the existence of the 
posterior canal, and the various other ramifications of the hepatic 
organ. I have therefore no hesitation in asserting the accuracy 
of the above description and of the accompanying illustrations. 
I may state, that only the terminal portion of the posterior canal 
can be traced through the dorsal skin, the rest being concealed 
beneath the ovary j and that this portion of it is pretty correctly 
represented in M. Blanchard's figure, but is erroneously con- 
nected with the branches of the anterior canals of each side. 

The hepatic gland (PI. III. fig. 1 A: & fig. 3) of the papillae is 
very simple, being contained within an inner sheath, and extend- 
ing almost to the apex of the papilla; it is tubular with the 
extremity bifid (fig. 3 a), the portions being folliculated and a 
little branched. The inner surface is lined with a brown-coloured, 
glandular matter. 

The whole of these glands, together with the numerous den- 
dritic branches and canals, form an exceedingly beautiful ex- 
ample of an unravelled liver, exhibiting as it were, at a glance, 
the complicated mechanism of this highly organized viscus. 
These parts, however, do not appear to be the only representative 
of the biliary organ in this animal. On each side of the lower 
portion of the body, immediately below the skin and in contact 
with it, there is a peculiar glandular structure composed chiefly 

* M. Delle Chiaje, who has given an account of the anatomy of Antiopa, 
appears also to have overlooked the great posterior canal. 



30 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolae. 

of anastomosing tubes, which form a network (PI. II. fig. 1 i & 
PL III. fig. 4 d) across the dorsal aspect in front of the anus. 
This network inosculates with the minute twigs of the hepatic 
organ leading to the papillae, and is apparentty connected with 
a dense gland-like body (PL II. fig. 1 j & PL III. fig. 4 c) 
surrounding the termination of the intestine. There can be little 
doubt that this network of tubes, which is unnoticed by M. 
Blanchard, is part of the hepatic apparatus ; and from its inter- 
nal position points out Antiopa as one of the intermediate forms 
connecting the Eolididse with the other families of the Nudi- 
branchs. 

The digestive system of this animal thus becomes of great 
interest, while it is evident that the hepatic canals are arranged 
after the type of those of Eolis, in which the anterior ones always 
enter the sides of the stomach from above, and the posterior or 
central one from behind and below the pylorus : — the stomach 
being, in fact, perforated by three hepatic ducts in the same 
manner as it is in Antiopa. The chief differences being that in 
this latter animal the anterior branches are excessively developed, 
and the central one is below the ovary. 

Vascular System. — From deficiency of specimens, I have not 
been able to investigate the circulatory apparatus to any great 
extent. The heart is placed about the middle of the back im- 
mediately below the skin, having the intestine in front, and the 
ovary beneath exactly as in Eolis. The pericardium is of excessive 
tenuity, and is of a pretty regular oval form. The ventricle 
(PL II. fig. 1 k) lies in front, and when contracted is irregularly 
elliptical; it is rather large and muscular. The auricle (/) is 
delicate, membranous, and is connected to the posterior margin 
of the ventricle : at this point the two chambers of the heart 
communicate. The aorta passes from the front of the ventricle, 
and dipping almost directly beneath the intestine, gives off 
branches to the generative organs, to the stomach and to the 
buccal mass, in the same manner as in Eolis. I did not observe 
the pedial artery, though there can be no doubt of its existence 
as described by M. Blan chard. The auricle receives in front, 
on either side, a large trunk vein which communicates with 
numerous small branches from the skin, and is apparently joined 
behind, on the median line, by two other large trunks, that on 
the right side being considerably the smaller. There are several 
other small vessels, but whether they entered the posterior margin 
or belonged to the lateral trunks, I could not determine. This 
is so different from what is observed in the other Eolididse, that 
I should have doubted the accuracy of my observations, had not 
M. Blanchard described numerous vessels entering the posterior 
margin of the auricle. It would therefore appear that the 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 31 

efferent or branchio-cardiac vessels are arranged in a peculiar 
manner in Antiopa — differing alike from those in Eolis, in Doris, 
and in Tritonia. 

The capillary portion of the vascular system is undoubtedly 
as deficient in our animal as it is in the other Nudibranchiata ; 
but I cannot speak from observation on this point ; neither have 
I ascertained how the blood passes to the aerating surface, on its 
return to the heart, though from analogy we cannot hesitate to 
believe that it escapes from the arterial twigs into the tissues of 
the various organs, thence filters as it were into the visceral cavity, 
and then passing through orifices in the walls of that cavity, it 
reaches the skin and branchial papillse on its way to the auricle 
through the branchio-cardiac vessels. 

A small oval vesicle (PL II. fig. 1 m) lies immediately below 
the pericardium, and opens into it, through its floor, rather in 
front and on the right side of the median line. This vesicle 
is the representative of that described by Cuvier, in Doris, as 
communicating with the liver, and opening externally by a 
minute orifice at the side of the anus ; and is the same which Dr. 
Embleton and I have designated a portal heart in our commu- 
nication on the anatomy of Doris *. In Antiopa Spinola: this 
vesicle opens into the pericardium in the same manner as it does 
in that genus, and in like manner is internally plicated. I have 
not been able to examine it further in this species ; but from 
analogy suppose that it may throw venous blood into the hepatic 
network of tubes, and perhaps also within the sheaths that sur- 
round the papillary glands. This is, I believe, the first time that 
this vesicle or portal heart has been observed in the Eolididsef ; 
and it proves in a striking manner the connexion of Antiopa 
with the other two families of the order. 

Respiratory System. — The specialized breathing organ is com- 
posed of the papillse arranged along the sides of the back, and 
in front of the head. These in Antiopa are very large and 
numerous, their external skin being exceedingly delicate. A por- 
tion of the deteriorated blood, on its way to the auricle, will be 
made to traverse the surface of the papillse ; but doubtless much 
of the blood will pass at once through the skin to the heart, and 
on its way be there partially aerated, as is the case in Eolis, in 
Doris, and probably in all the Nudibranchs. 

No ovate vesicle was detected in the terminal portion of the 
papilla, similar to that observed in Eolis ; though Mr. Alder in- 
forms me that when the animal was alive, a distinct orifice was 
visible at the apex, opening and closing at intervals. 

* Read at the meeting of the British Association held in Edinburgh, 
1850. 

t A similar vesicle also exists in Tritonia Hombergii ; and since writing 
the above I have likewise found it in Eolis papillosa . 



32 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 

Nervous System. — The cephalic or cerebral ganglions are 
arranged round the oesophagus in the same manner as in Eolis ; 
there are five pairs, three supra- oesophageal, two infra-cesopha- 
geal ; the former are very much the larger and nearly of equal 
dimensions. Of these the two central pairs, the cerebroid (PL III. 
fig. 5 a, a) and branchial (6, b), the latter the "cervicaux" of Blan- 
chard, are almost completely fused, forming two elongated, 
bilobed masses, one on each side of the median line, — the 
branchial lying behind the cerebroid, which latter is united by 
a very short commissure to its fellow on the opposite side of the 
oesophagus. This is exactly similar to what is observed in Eolis ; 
but in this latter genus the masses being less distinctly bilobed, 
the constituent parts are not so readily made out. External to 
these masses, and in close contact with them, are two rounded 
ganglions, the third or pedial pair (c, c). These lie in a plane 
a little below the central masses, and are united to them on the 
under surface. 

The first and largest pair of nerves are given off from the upper 
surface of the cerebroid ganglions in front, next the median line ; 
these are the olfactory nerves. Each immediately divides into 
two portions, — the inner, generally the larger, of which converge, 
and go to the crest between the dorsal tentacles, where they 
divide into numerous twigs ; the outer portions diverge a little 
and enter the bases of the dorsal tentacles, and are there enlarged 
to form the olfactory ganglions [d, d), which are quite distinct 
and round, and very little inferior in size to the buccal. The 
second, third and fourth pairs come from the under side of the 
front margin of the same ganglions, and supply the lip and 
channel of the mouth, and probably the oral tentacles. The 
fourth pair give off at their roots a nervous trunk ; these trunks 
curve round, one on either side of the oesophagus, and are united 
to the buccal ganglions ; thus forming the commissure (g) 
between the supra- and infra- oesophageal nervous centres. The 
fifth pair issue from the upper surface of the cerebroid ganglions 
near to their junction with the branchial; these are the optic 
nerves; they are very delicate, and are long enough to allow the 
eye, which is as well developed as in any of the Nudibranchs, to 
pass a little in front of the ganglions. M. Blanchard represents 
the eye as almost sessile on the cerebroid ganglion. The sixth, 
the auditory, I did not detect ; they will undoubtedly be found 
behind the optic, as described by M. Blanchard. The seventh 
pair of nerves emerge apparently from the pedial ganglions at 
their union with the central masses, and supply the skin on the 
sides of the body in front. The eighth and ninth pairs pass from 
the outer margin of the pedial ganglions, and go to supply the 
foot. From the posterior margin of these ganglions emerges a 
stout nervous trunk (h), which curving under the gullet, com- 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 33 

pletes the great oesophageal collar. Another nervous trunk (i), 
but very inferior in size, passes below the oesophagus, and has its 
extremities attached, at either side, to the under surface of the 
ganglions near to the point where the pedial are united to the 
cerebroid and branchial. This is the middle or slender collar, 
and, as in Eolis, it gives off on the right side a nerve, the tenth, 
which, passing to the generative organs, is I believe united to a 
ganglion (PI. III. fig. 6 /) which lies on the sheath of the penis. 
Of this, however, there may be some doubt, as I was unable to 
verify the observation from the want of specimens. Several 
nervous twigs radiate from this ganglion, representing pretty 
accurately the principal parts of the nervous plexus on the same 
organ in Doris, and which has been described, as a portion of 
the sympathetic system, by Dr. Embleton and myself in the 
communication before alluded to. 

This collar, its nerves, and the ganglion situated on the sheath 
of the penis have escaped the notice of M. Blanchard, who points 
out a branch from a small ganglion, which he calls " branchio- 
cardiaque" in connexion with the right branchial nerve, the 
" cervico-cardiaque " of this naturalist, as that which supplies 
the reproductive organs. I have not observed this ganglion and 
its branch. The eleventh or last pair of nerves, from the supra- 
cesophageal ganglions, come out of the posterior margin of the 
branchial, and pass to the dorsal skin, one on each side, and ap- 
parently supply the papillae ; these are the branchial nerves. 

The two pairs of infra-cesophageal ganglions rest upon the 
upper surface of the buccal mass below the gullet, and are con- 
nected, as before stated, to the supra- oesophageal by a wide, 
slender commissure. The buccal ganglions (fig. 5 e, e) are well 
developed, though very much smaller than the principal cerebral ; 
they are elliptical, and are connected across the median line by 
a commissure much longer than usual ; the commissure from the 
supra-oesophageal being attached to their outer margin. The 
twelfth and thirteenth pairs of nerves come from these ganglions ; 
the former issue from their outer margin in connexion with the 
commissure, and pass into the buccal mass ; these are the buccal 
nerves ; the latter come from the posterior margin and dip im- 
mediately into the buccal mass behind, and are the same which 
in Doris supply the tongue. 

The gastro- oesophageal ganglions (/,/), though of sufficient 
magnitude to be readily distinguished, are much inferior in size 
to the buccal, to which they are united in front by a longish 
pedicle. The fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth pairs of nerves 
belong to these ganglions ; the two former are applied to the upper 
portion of the gullet, one probably going to supply some minute 
salivary gland at present undiscovered. The nerves of the 

Ann. § Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 3 



34 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 

sixteenth pair are larger than those of the other two, and pass 
down the under surface of the oesophagus, parallel to each other, 
on their way to the stomach. 

The gastro-oesophageal ganglions are undescribed by M. Blan - 
chard, who states that they are not isolated in Janus from the 
buccal ganglions. In my specimens, however, they were as 
distinct as in any of the Nudibranchs, and further removed from 
the buccal ganglions than usual. The gastro-oesophageal are 
named by this naturalist the " ganglions aortiques," — evidently a 
false appellation, as all their nerves are distributed to the ali- 
mentary organs. 

The Reproductive Organs resemble those of Eolis and Doris, and 
are of vast volume and complication ; they (PL II. fig. 1 n, o, p) 
lie on the right side of the visceral cavity immediately behind 
the buccal mass. The sheath of the intromittent organ, female 
channel, and vagina in communication with the spermatheca open 
into one common vestibule, the lips of which, when the organs 
are fully retracted, form a nipple-like swelling on the right side, 
less than half-way down the body. The intromittent organ 
(PI. III. fig. 6 a) lies in front of the other parts, and in its re- 
tracted state appears to be of considerable dimensions, of a clavate 
form, with the smaller extremity leading to the external opening. 
The testis (b) is a rather short, stout tube forming two or three 
convolutions, with one end united to the thick or inner termina- 
tion of the penis, and the other, which tapers a little, to the 
oviduct. 

The ovary is very ample, filling the greater portion of the 
visceral cavity from the stomach backwards. It is composed of 
two masses, one (PI. II. fig. I p) lying in front and a little to 
the left of the other (/?'). They are both made up of large 
irregular lobules composed almost entirely of eggs. The oviduct 
(PI. III. fig. 6 c) leaves the ovary as a very delicate, slender 
tube, and is soon abruptly dilated (fig. 6 d & fig. 7 c) into at least 
five or six times its original diameter ; and is so continued on, in 
a tortuous course, to the front of the mucus-gland ; then, bending 
back upon itself, it again becomes excessively contracted, and 
shortly afterwards receives the duct-like extremity of the testis 
at a point (fig. 6e& fig. 7 d) where the oviduct is once more 
suddenly bent upon itself. After this it (fig. 6 / & fig. 7 e) is 
slightly enlarged just before it unites with a very short duct 
(fig. 7 h) from the spermatheca ; then, passing forward, it divides 
into two portions or branches, one (j) of which sinks into the 
mucus-gland near to the place of its union with the female 
channel (fig. 6 i & fig. If) leading to the external outlet close 
behind the penis. It is by this branch that the mature ova pass 
on being evacuated. The other branch (fig. 6 k & fig. 7 i), which 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 35 

must be considered the vagina, is continued on to the orifice 
opening externally between and above the male and female out- 
lets. This vagina, or copulatory passage, we thus see, com- 
municates with the oviduct as well as with the spermatheca very 
much in the same manner as in Eolis. 

The spermatheca (tig. Q>j & fig. 7 g), a rather small membranous 
sac of a globular form, lies half-buried in a fissure which divides 
the two portions of the mucus-gland, and gives off from its 
anterior margin the duct above alluded to. The mucus-gland is 
a large, pyriform mass, a little flattened, lying against the 
wall of the visceral cavity immediately behind the penis. It is 
composed of two parts, one (fig. 6 g) semi-pellucid and without 
colour, the other (h) of an opake fleshy hue. These parts are 
formed of a convoluted tube, very large and not much folded in 
the former, in the latter minute and intricately rolled up. They 
both open directly into the female channel (i). This gland se- 
cretes the substance forming the gelatinous mucus-like envelope 
that covers the eggs. 

Thus it is evident that the generative apparatus of Antiopa is 
very complete, exhibiting the same union of male, female and 
androgynous parts as observed in Eolis. Here, as in that genus, 
the spermatheca will receive the semen of another individual shed 
during coitus, and will discharge it, when required, into the 
oviduct; and as the latter is in connexion with the testis, it 
would appear probable that, in failure of copulation, the ova may 
be also fertilized by a species of self-impregnation. In Antiopa 
Spinola there is only one spermatheca, though perhaps the 
second dilated portion of the oviduct may act as an accessory 
receptacle. From this deficiency and from the general arrange- 
ment of the androgynous apparatus, the generative organs of 
this animal more closely resemble those of Eolis than of Doris ; 
though the form of the mucus-gland approximates nearer to that 
of the latter. 

M. Blanchard has entirely misunderstood these organs; his 
figure of them is most imperfect, and proves that he has failed 
to make out the various parts. He has never seen the sperma- 
theca, nor the junction of the testis with the oviduct, and of 
course knows nothing of the union of the latter with the sper- 
matheca ; he calls the mucus-gland, in connexion with the female 
channel, the testis, and the testis the vas deferens. 

After this account of the anatomy of Antiopa Spinolce, there 
can be little hesitation about its true position in the classification. 
It must undoubtedly be placed with the Eolididse, as proved by its 
digestive apparatus, the hepatic canals being arranged after the 
type of those of Eolis ; while the internal network of hepatic 
tubes, the backward and dorsal position of the anus, the character 

3* 



36 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Antiopa Spinolse. 

of the tongue, the presence of a portal heart, and the form of the 
mucus-gland, in connexion with the genitalia, show its relation- 
ship to the Dorididse. It seems likewise to have some affinity 
with the Tritoniadse, as evinced by the great size and character 
of the jaws, by the imperfect development of the cloak, and by 
the arrangement of the branchial papillae, which do not extend 
over the sides of the back as in Eolis, but are confined to the 
ridges representing the mantle. 

In this animal, then, we see blended the characters of the 
three great divisions of the order Nudibranchiata. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES II. AND III. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. General view of the viscera of Antiopa Spinolce, the dorsal skin 
having been removed : a, buccal organ; b, oesophagus; c, stomach; 
d, intestine ; e, anus ; f,f,f,f, branches from the anterior hepatic 
canals ; g, g, branches from the posterior hepatic canal ; h, a por- 
tion of the posterior hepatic canal ; i, internal network of tubes 
connected with the hepatic apparatus ; j, a gland-like body ap- 
parently in connexion with the network of tubes ; k, ventricle of 
the heart ; I, auricle ; the oval boundary represents the extent of 
the pericardium ; m, portal heart or vesicle opening into the peri- 
cardium ; n, portions of male organs ; o, portion of mucus-gland 
attached to the female channel ; p, p', anterior and posterior ova- 
rian masses ; q, supra-cesophageal ganglions. 

Fig. 2. Side view of buccal organ : a, channel of mouth ; b, oesophagus ; 

c, jaw. 

Fig. 3. Front view of jaws : a, anterior cap or plate ; b t denticulated cutting 
edge ; c, inner or plain cutting edge. 

Fig. 4. Side view of jaw : a, anterior cap or plate; b, denticulated cutting 
edge. 

Fig. 5. View of jaw with the cutting edges seen in front : a, anterior plate 
or cap ; b, denticulated edge ; c, plain edge ; d, point of attach- 
ment or fulcrum. 

Fig. 6. Tongue removed from the muscular support : a, anterior portion 
exhibiting rows of spines ; b, posterior tubular portion. 

Fig. 7- Tongue spread out, exhibiting the rows of spines apparently inter- 
rupted in the centre. 

Fig. 8. Central portion of a single row of spines from the tongue : a, 
central spine. 

Fig. 9. A single lateral spine more highly magnified. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Digestive apparatus: a, buccal organ; b, oesophagus; c, stomach; 

d, glandular portion of the same ; e, intestine ; /, anus ; g, g, an- 
terior branches of the anterior hepatic canals; h, h, posterior 
branches of the same ; i, i, posterior hepatic canal, giving branches 
to the posterior portion of the body ; j, branch from the posterior 
hepatic canal crossing the back in front of the anus ; k', ramus- 
cules leading to glands of papillae ; k, three glands of the papillae 
in connexion with the ramuscules, the rest of the glands having 
been removed. 



On the Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 37 

Fig. 2. Tongue seen from above : a, anterior portion ; b, posterior portion ; 
c, membrane dividing the two portions. 

Fig. 3. A gland removed from the papilla, much enlarged : a, terminal 
bifid portion ; b, lower portion or duct, curtailed. 

Fig. 4. A portion of the network of tubes in connexion with the hepatic 
apparatus : a, anus ; b, intestine ; c, gland-like body surrounding 
the termination of the same ; d, network of tubes. 

Fig. 5. Nervous system: a, a, cerebroid ganglions; b, b, branchial ditto; 
c, c, pedial ditto ; d, d, olfactory ditto ; e, e, buccal ditto ; /, /, 
gastro-oesophageal ditto ; g, commissure between the supra- and 
infra-cesophageal ganglions ; h, great oesophageal collar ; i, mid- 
dle ditto ; No. 1, olfactory nerve ; 2, 3 and 4, nerves supplying 
channel of the mouth ; 5, optic nerve ; 6, auditory ditto ; 7, nerve 
to side of body ; 8 and 9, nerves to foot ; 10, nerve to generative 
organs ; 11, ditto to skin of the back and branchial papillae ; 12, 
ditto to buccal mass ; 13, ditto to tongue ; 14 and 15, nerves to 
oesophagus ; 16, nerve to oesophagus and stomach. 

Fig. 6. Generative organs : #, sac or sheath of penis ; b, testis ; c, oviduct 
as it leaves the ovary ; d, dilated portion of the oviduct ; e, the 
point where the testis is united to the oviduct ; /, second dilated 
portion of oviduct; g, semi-pellucid portion of mucus-gland in 
connexion with the female channel ; h, opake portion of the same ; 
i, female channel leading to external orifice ; j, spermatheca ; k, 
vagina, or copulatory channel leading from external orifice to 
spermatheca ; /, visceral ganglion in connexion with nerve No. 10. 

Fig. 7- A portion of the generative organs spread out, exhibiting the con- 
nexion of the various parts : a, penis ; b, testis ; c, dilated portion 
of oviduct; d, point where the oviduct is connected with the 
testis ; e, second dilated portion of oviduct ; /, female channel 
leading to external opening; g, spermatheca; h, duct of the 
same ; i, vagina leading to external orifice ; j, branch from the 
vagina leading into mucus-gland. 



IV. — A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy and Systematic Arrangement. 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. vii. p. 452.] 

44. Philodromus Clarkii. 

Philodromus Clarkii, Blackw. Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Second 
Series, vol. vi. p. 338. 

A male of Philodromus Clarkii, having the palpal organs com- 
pletely developed, was taken at South gate in June 1849, and is 
preserved in Mr. Walker's cabinet. 

45. Philodromus variatus. 

Philodromus variatus, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third 
Series, vol. x. p. 102. 

In summer, when the sun shines brightly, this species may be 
seen on rails and gates in the neighbourhood of Llanrwst. Early 



38 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

in June the female constructs a lenticular cocoon of white silk of 
a slight texture, measuring ^rd of an inch in diameter, in which 
she deposits about 64 spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, not 
agglutinated together. 

46. Philodromus mistus. 

Philodromus mistus, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third 
Series, vol. x. p. 103. 

Affecting the same localities as Philodromus variatus, this spider 
pairs in May ; and in June the female spins a cell of white silk 
in which she constructs a lenticular cocoon of a slight texture, 
measuring ^th of an inch in diameter, and deposits in it between 
60 and 70 spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, not agglutinated 
together. A near resemblance may be traced between Philo- 
dromus mistus and Philodromus cespiticolis, Walck. (Hist. Nat. des 
Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 555). 

47. Philodromus aureolus. 

Philodromus aureolus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 556 ; 

Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 223. 
Thomisus aureolus, Hahn, Die Arachn. B. ii. p. 57. t. 62. f. 144, 145. 

Both sexes of this species, which were captured at Southgate 
in July 1849, are in Mr. Walker's cabinet. 

48. Philodromus oblongus. 

Philodromus oblongus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 558 ; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 123. 

trilineatus, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 227. 

Thomisus oblongus, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 112; Hahn, 

Die Arachn. B. i. p. 110. tab. 28. fig. 82. 
Thanatus trilineatus, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, 

p. 28. 

I have received living specimens of Philodromus oblongus which 
had been taken in the north of Lancashire and in Cheshire. 

Genus Sparassus, Walck. 

49. Sparassus smaragdulus. 

Sparassus smaragdulus,Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 582; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 123. 
smaragdinus, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 147, and 1832, 

p. 271. 
virescens, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 28 ; 

Die Arachn. B. xii. p. 87. tab. 416. fig. 1019. 
Micrommata smaragdina, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 115; 

Hahn, Die Arachn. B. i. p. 119. tab. 33. fig. 89. 

This handsome spider has the tarsi provided with scopulse con- 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 39 

stituting a climbing apparatus ; it is not uncommon in the south 
of England, and has been captured, in an immature state, in the 
woods at Tan y Bwlch, in Merionethshire, by Thomas Glover, 
Esq., of Smedley Hill, near Manchester. The sexes, when they 
have acquired their full development, are very dissimilar, and 
have been mistaken for distinct species. 

Family Drassidce. 

Genus Drassus, Walck. 

50. Drassus lucifugus. 

Drassus lucifugus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 613 ; 

Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 138; Koch, Uebers. des 

Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 18. 
melanogaster, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 87 ; Hahn, 

Die Arachn. B. ii. p. 11. tab. 41. fig. 102. 
Filistata femoralis, Wider, Mus. Senck. B. i. p. 206. taf. 14. fig. 5. 
Pythonissa lucifuga, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 54. tab. 194. 

fig. 468-470. 

According to Dr. Leach (Supplement to the 4th, 5th and 6th 
editions of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica/ article Annulosa) the 
Drassus melanog aster of Latreille (Drassus lucifugus, Walck.) has 
been found in England, under stones ; and on his authority I 
introduce it here as a British spider, never having seen a native 
specimen myself. 

Among the new genera proposed by M. Koch, for the recep- 
tion of certain groups into which he has separated the Drassi, 
are several including British species which I am not prepared to 
adopt. 

51. Drassus ater. 

Drassus ater, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 87 ; Walck. Hist. 

Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 618; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. ii. p. 54. 

tab. 61. fig. 142; Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 114. 
Melanophora subterranea, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes 

Heft, p. 17 ; Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 85. tab. 201. fig. 491, 492. 
pusilla, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 17; 

Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 90. tab. 202. fig. 496. 

atra t Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 88. tab. 201. fig. 493. 

Filistata atra, Wider, Museum Senckenb. B. i. p. 202. taf. 14. fig. 2. 

In the mountainous parts of Denbighshire and Caernarvon- 
shire this species is of frequent occurrence under detached pieces 
of rock. When adult, the terminal joint of each intermediate 
spinner is directed downwards at right angles to its base, and 
the full complement of papillae or spinning tubes connected with 
the short terminal joint of each inferior spinner is eight. Six of 
these papillae, which are of large dimensions, are probably used 



40 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

by Drassus ater chiefly in constructing its cocoon, the remarkably 
compact texture of which is best explained on the supposition 
that a copious supply of viscous matter in a state of fluidity is 
employed in its fabrication ; and the other two, situated on the 
inferior surface of the spinner, at a greater distance from its ex- 
tremity than the rest, are minute and almost contiguous. The 
large papillae vary in number with the age of the animal ; and it 
is a fact deserving of notice that they are not always developed 
simultaneously on both spinners, four, five, or six being some- 
times observed on one, when three, four, or five only are to be 
seen on the other ; but the two minute ones are present invariably. 
In May the female deposits 40 or 50 white spherical eggs, not 
agglutinated together, in a cocoon of a plano-convex figure, at- 
tached to the under side of stones by its plane surface ; it is of a 
fine but very compact texture, and measures f^hs of an inch in 
diameter : when newly constructed it is white, but becomes red- 
dish before it is abandoned by the young, which, at that early 
period of their existence, have each inferior spinner provided with 
two large and two small papillae. The female usually remains 
upon or near the cocoon, to which she is strongly attached. 

52. Drassus sericeus. 

Drassus sericeus, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 136; Walck. 

Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 619; Koch, Die Arachn. 

B. vi. p. 37. tab. 190. fig. 457, 458 ; Blackw. Linn. Trans. 

vol. xix. p. 113. 
Filistata sericea, Wider, Mus. Senck. B. i. p. 204. taf. 14. fig. 3. 

1 I have met with Drassus sericeus in several of the northern 
counties of England and Wales. It frequents the interior of 
houses, especially such as are old, and is decidedly nocturnal in its 
habits. Having, like other species of the genus, a climbing appa- 
ratus consisting of numerous hair-like papillse distributed over the 
inferior surface of the tarsi, from which an adhesive secretion is 
emitted, it can run with facility on the perpendicular surfaces of 
dry smooth bodies. The papillae connected with the terminal 
joint of each inferior spinner not only vary in number with the 
age of the spider, the full complement being nine large and two 
small ones, but a like number does not constantly occur on both 
spinners of the same individual. 

53. Drassus sylvestris. 

Drassus sylvestris, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third 

Series, vol. iii. p. 440 ; Research, in Zool. p. 342. 
signifer, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 31. tab. 188. fig. 452. 

M. Walckenacr has placed the Drassus signifer of M. Koch, 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 41 

which is specifically identical with Drassus sylvestris, among the 
synonyma of Clubiona lapidicolens, supposing it to be that spe- 
cies in an immature state (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 479). 
Now as I have taken adults of both sexes in the woods about 
Llanrwst, I am prepared to affirm that they are invariably much 
smaller than Clubiona lapidicolens, and that they also differ from 
it materially in structure, having the maxillae curved towards the 
lip, and all the essential characters of a Drassus. For these rea- 
sons the name given to it by me is retained. 

In July the female constructs a lenticular cocoon of white silk 
of a fine but compact texture, measuring T 3 oths of an inch in dia- 
meter, which she places in a cavity formed in the ground beneath 
stones and lined with silk, depositing in it about 123 whitish 
eggs of a spherical form, not agglutinated together. She is 
greatly attached to her cocoon, and is with difficulty compelled 
to abandon it. 

A specimen of this spider was transmitted to me from Berwick- 
shire in the spring of 1849 by Mr. Hardy. 

54. Drassus cupreus. 

Drassus cupreus, Blackw. Research, in Zool. p. 345. 

rufus, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 33. tab. 189. fig. 453, 454. 

Though the Drassus rufus of M. Koch, identical with Drassus 
cupreus, is regarded by M. Walckenaer as a variety of Clubiona 
livida (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 479), yet I have ascer- 
tained by the inspection of numerous specimens, in every stage 
of growth, that it possesses all the characteristics of a Drassus in 
so marked a degree that it might be selected as a type of the 
genus ; consequently, the name I have conferred upon it is re- 
tained. 

As regards the papillae connected with the inferior spinners of 
this species, which occurs under stones in various parts of Great 
Britain, the same law of development holds good to which atten- 
tion has been directed in treating upon Drassus ater and Drassus 
sericeus; moreover, I may remark that the number of the papillae 
is not uniformly the same even in adults of any of these spiders, 
but that the two minute ones belonging to each spinner are 
always present. 

In June the female constructs a lenticular cocoon of white silk 
of a fine but compact texture, measuring |ths of an inch in dia- 
meter, in which she deposits about 118 spherical eggs of a pale 
yellow colour, not agglutinated together. The cocoon is enve- 
loped in a large sac of very fine white silk, usually placed in a 
cavity of the earth underneath a stone, and this sac generally 
comprises the female. , 



42 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

55. Drassus nitens. 

Drassus nitens, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third Series, 
vol. hi. p. 439 ; Research, in Zool. p. 328. 

formosus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 488. 

Macaria formosa, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 97. tab. 203. fig. 501. 

In warm sunny weather in spring and summer this small 
but brilliant spider may be seen running on the ground in the 
woods of Denbighshire and Caernarvonshire. Like many other 
species of Araneidea it is partial to moisture and drinks water 
freely. A pair confined in a phial having become feeble and 
greatly emaciated, I introduced to them a few dfops of water, 
which they drank with avidity, and speedily resumed their 
strength and former plump appearance. In the month of May 
1833, females, in a state of captivity, constructed cocoons of a 
hemispherical form, measuring about ^th of an inch in diameter, 
in each of which they deposited 9 or 10 spherical eggs of a pale 
yellow colour, not agglutinated together. The cocoons were com- 
posed of delicately white silk of a very fine but compact tex- 
ture, and connected with the upper part of each was a tube of 
the same material, usually occupied by the female. 

Genus Clubiona, Latr. 
56. Clubiona holosericea. 

Clubiona holosericea, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 590 ; 
Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 91 ; Sund. Vet. Acad. 
Handl. 1831, p. 142 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. i. p. 112. tab. 29. 
fig. 84 ; Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 19. 

Clubiona holosericea, in common with other species of the ge- 
nus, has a small climbing apparatus situated below the tarsal 
claws, by means of which it runs securely on the perpendicular 
surfaces of dry smooth bodies. It is most abundant in well- 
wooded districts, constructing a cell of white silk, which serves 
it for a domicile, on the under side of leaves or behind the exfo- 
liating bark of old trees. In June the female spins in this cell 
a lenticular cocoon of fine white silk, measuring ^th of an inch 
in diameter, and deposits in it about 109 spherical eggs of a yel- 
lowish white colour, not agglutinated together. From this period 
she appears to direct her attention exclusively to her progeny, 
constantly remaining on or near the cocoon. 

57. Clubiona amarantha. 

Clubiona amarantha, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 591 ; 
Hahn, Die Arachn. B. i. p. 113. tab. 29. fig. 85. 

The haunts, habits and ceconomy of this species are similar to 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 43 

those of Clubiona holosericea. The female deposits about 145 
spherical eggs of a yellowish white colour, not agglutinated 
together, in a lenticular cocoon of white silk of a fine- texture, 
measuring T 3 jjths of an inch in diameter. This cocoon, for which 
she manifests much solicitude, is inclosed in a cell of white silk 
fabricated on the inferior surface of a leaf, the sides of which are 
curved upon it and are retained in that position by silken 
lines. Towards the end of June or the beginning of July the 
eggs are hatched ; but the young, like those of all other spiders 
whose ceconomy is known, do not quit the cocoon till they have 
completed their first change of integument. 

58. Clubiona epimelas. 

Clubiona epimelas, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 592 ; 
Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 115. 

Crevices in stone walls and the under side of fallen leaves are 
the usual haunts of Clubiona epimelas, which is found, though 
rarely, in the wooded parts of Denbighshire and Caernarvonshire. 
The male has the palpal organs completely developed in May, 
and in J une the female constructs a plano-convex cocoon of white 
silk of a very fine texture, measuring T 5 oths of an inch in dia- 
meter, in which she deposits about 154 spherical eggs of a pale 
yellow colour, not agglutinated together. The cocoon is attached 
by its plane surface to the under side of a stone or leaf, and is 
inclosed in a sac of white silk, which also comprises the female. 

59. Clubiona corticalis. 

Clubiona corticalis, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 593. 

domestica, Wider, Mus. Senck. B. i. p. 214. taf. 14. fig. 9. 

Philoica notata, Koch, Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 55. t. 268. f. 631, 632. 
Titulus 22, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 70. 

In the wooded parts of Denbighshire this spider is found 
among ivy and lichens growing on trees. It spins a large sac of 
white silk on the under side of leaves or behind exfoliating bark, 
in which the female constructs a cocoon of a lenticular form in 
the month of July ; it is composed of white silk of a very fine 
texture, is T 3 n ths of an inch in diameter, and contains between 30 
and 40 spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, not agglutinated 
together. 

60. Clubiona brevipes. 

Clubiona brevipes, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 603. 

M.Walckcnaer has confounded this species with Clubiona ama-> 
rantha (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 439), from which it 



44 Mr. W. Clark on the Skeneadse. 

differs in magnitude, in colour, in the relative size of its eyes, 
and, as regards the male, in the structure of its palpi and palpal 
organs. It commonly occupies a cell of compact white silk, con- 
structed on the inferior surface of leaves and of lichens growing 
on the trunks of trees in the woods of North Wales. Though 
not particularly active in its general movements, yet it can leap 
with agility. 

61. Clubiona comta. 

Clubiona comta, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 16. tah. 185. fig. 440 ; 
and B. x. p. 129. tab. 358. fig. 841. 

compta, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 478. 

fucata, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 605. 

Clubiona fucata, Blackw., which is identical with the Clubiona 
comta of M. Koch, is placed by M, Walckenaer among the syno- 
nyma of Clubiona corticalis (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. 
p. 439) ; yet it is not only very much smaller than that species, 
from which it differs decidedly in colour and in the relative size 
of its eyes, but the structure of the palpi and of the palpal organs 
also is widely dissimilar in the male. 

I have taken this rare spider in the woods of Denbighshire and 
Caernarvonshire. It conceals itself among the foliage in sum- 
mer, constructing a cell of white silk on the inferior surface of 
a leaf, the sides of which are curved towards it and retained in 
that position by fine lines of silk. The male has the palpal or- 
gans completely developed in June, and in that month females 
may be seen having the abdomen greatly distended with eggs. 

A specimen of Clubiona comta, captured by Miss Ellen Clayton 
at Church Town, in the north of Lancashire, was transmitted to 
me, with some other spiders, in the summer of 1843. 



V. — On the Skeneadse. By William Clark, Esq. 
To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Exmouth, June 3, 1851. 

I present an account of a highly important unrecorded animal, 
that has long been sought for, not only by the simple malaco- 
logist, but by the professors of the science, to settle the apocry- 
phal family of the Skeneadse. To show that its acquisition is 
very desirable, I need only mention that Professor Forbes did me 
the honour to request that I would include this minute creature 
in my researches, as he thought it would in all probability re- 
solve a malacological problem. I subjoin a rude sketch of the 
animal. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Skeneadse. 45 

Lower surface of the animal, without the shell, magnified 25- 
35 times. 

# Explanation. 
a. Genitale. 
^ b. Semi-serrated neck-lobe. 
c c, c. Curved auricles of the 
e. Shorter plain neck-lobe. 
d. Anus. 

The other organs shown are the eyes and ciliated tentacula. 
The vibracula, springing from tubercles of the operculigerous 
lobe, which carries an orbicular spiral corneous operculum of 
6-8 gyrations, and the sole of the foot. 

Trochus seijmloides, Mont, (certe). 
Skenea divisa, Fleming et auct. 
Animal inhabiting a discoid white shell of three spiral turns, 
striated around the umbilicus of the body- volution with fine 
capillary lines, the upper part of the whorl being plain ; it is 
pure hyaline white, except the eyes and head-disk. The head is 
a rather long, broad, finely wrinkled proboscidal muzzle, with a 
vertical fissure, having a pale red or pink disk, from whence the 
corneous jaws and lingual riband may sometimes be seen in ac- 
tion, but not so conspicuously as in the Rissoce \ the tentacula 
are long, flattish, frosted on the central line of the stamens, not 
irregularly setose at the edges, but most elegantly clothed, each 
on both sides, with 12-14 long hyaline cilia, arranged in sym- 
metrical series, inclining obliquely from base to point, and dimi- 
nishing in length in like manner. I have never seen tentacula 
so elaborately adorned : the eyes are very large, black, and lateral, 
attached nearly at the external bases on round inflations to the 
main stems, there being no distinct pedicles : no head-lobes were 
detected. There are two neck-lappets of different form, the one 
on the right side being narrowish, flat and semiserrated ; that of 
the columellar range is shorter, more suboval, and plain. The 
foot is subtruncate or subrotund in front, superficially labiated, 
forming at the angles long curved linear auricles somewhat of 
the shape of the Murex varicosus (Nassa, nonnull.), but longer 
in proportion, thin at the edges of the sole, which is not fringed ; 
it is moderately long and rather obtusely pointed ; the operculi- 
gerous lobe is also plain, the prototype of the sole, though dimi- 
nished to be well within its margins ; it carries near the extre- 
mity the circular corneous moderately close-set spiral operculum 
of 6-8 turns, and on each side, at equal distances, three not very 



46 Mr. W. Clark on the Skeneadse. 

long nor slender flattish tentacular filaments issuing from tuber- 
cles of the same elegant structure as the capitular ones ; these 
are not vibrated with the usual activity of the tribe, but the 
curved auricles of the foot may be said to be " lsete vibrantes." 
The genitale springs under the right tentaculuin ; it is flat pointed 
and lies horizontally, nearly extending to outside the aperture, 
not reflected in the branchial vault. The canal of depuration is 
visible at the right side just above the first vibraculum ; it is a 
short pendent shoot or cylinder. This animal inhabits the coral- 
line zone in fifteen fathoms water, five miles off Budleigh Sal- 
terton ; it is active, marches with quickness, not at all shy, and 
gave me good opportunities of observing its points. 

It thus appears that the principal differences between this 
species and its congeners are the mere specialties of the want of 
distinct eye-pedicles, and the long linear curved auricles of the 
foot. Axis ^j, diameter ^ uncise. 

This very important discovery of a desideratum that has 
hitherto escaped detection proves that the animal is nearly a 
strict Trochus, which does not in the specialties show a greater 
departure from the trochidian type than is often seen amongst 
the most classic species. This fact determines the fate of the ge- 
nus Skenea : its provisional members, the S. Cutleriana and S. 
nit ens of Philippi, called by some authors " Trochus pusillus," are 
in all probability Trochi ; but I will not venture to say as much 
of S. nitidissima. The S. Icevis is scarcely a variety of our present 
species. The S. costulata is apocryphal. 

Professor Forbes, when he deposited these species provisionally 
in Skenea, with infinite sagacity predicted that they would pro- 
bably prove Trochi ; he is right, at all events, as to the one he 
considered would when discovered determine the position of the 
others. I did not concur in this opinion, as I thought the en- 
tirety of the aperture and its want of angularity did not harmo- 
nize with the typical Trochidse ; my conjectures have not been 
confirmed ; but I feel pleasure in having the good fortune to dis- 
cover my own error, and verify the acuter perceptions of this 
profound naturalist. 

Can the genus Skenea be maintained even for the so-called 
"planorbis" ? which I have for the second time just examined; it 
appears to be absolutely a discoid Rissoa, allowing the necessary 
margin for specialties of the shape of the foot, operculigerous lobe, 
tentacula and opercula : these organs greatly vary in the Rissoa, 
and often differ more with each other, and the type, than even the 
discoidal "planorbis." Ought there not to be two sections in 
Rissoa, — one for the elongated Cerithium reticulatum, which re- 
peated examinations tell me does not exhibit a difference from it 
an any material point, and might as respects the animal be the 



Mr. W. Clark on the Skeneadse. 47 

type, instead of R. parva, and the other for the "planorbis," 
which is equally a Rissoa of another form ? 4ffc 

I have scarcely a doubt that the Adeorbis subcarinatus, from the 
aperture being of the same character as the Trochus serpuloides, 
T. Cutlerianus and T. nitens, will, when discovered, turn out a 
Trochus in all essential characters, even if it has a testaceous 
operculum like its near relative Phasianella pullus. Surely the 
British list may with advantage be relieved from the superfluous 
genera Cerithium and Skenea, and ultimately probably from Ade- 
orbis. Is it to be contended, that because an animal has an 
elongated shell of twelve volutions, and another a discoidal one 
of three, it cannot be a Rissoa, and that such a departure from 
the type demands that the genus Cerithium be constituted for 
the one and Skenea for the other ? I would ask, what is the 
classic number of volutions which stamp the Ilissoidean ani- 
mal ? It may be said that the so-called C. reticulatum has a 
canal at the base of the aperture ; this is scarcely so ; it is a 
mere contraction and attenuation at that part, giving an effuse 
aspect ; the mantle is even with the shell, without a canalicu- 
lation : many of the Rissoa have these parts quite as much de- 
veloped. Again, it is said that its operculum and that of the so- 
called Skenea planorbis are suborbicular : I say, not more so than 
some of the Rissoa ; and both these animals have very much the 
same paucispiral rapidly increasing character of the opercular 
increment as in the Littorince. I think that the C. reticulatum 
and S. planorbis differ less from the Rissoidean type, the parva, 
than any other of the Rissoa admitted by authors into that ge- 
nus. If these positions are not admitted, we ought, to be con- 
sistent, to manufacture a separate genus for every petty variation 
of each Rissoa, and expunge the term ' species ' from the mollus- 
can vocabulary. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 

Exmouth, 3 p.m., June 3, 1851. 
P.S. — I have great satisfaction to say that whilst I am writing, 
I have under examination the so-called Skenea Cutleriana, disco- 
vered alive within the last half-hour. The animal at first view 
exhibits the general characters of Trochus serpuloides ; the only 
differences between the two are, that in the now Trochus Cut- 
lerianus the cilia of the tentacula and vibracula are less close- 
set, the curved auricles of the foot much flatter and broader, 
the foot both anteally and posteally more rounded, and the eye- 
prominences may almost be called very short pedicles. The ani- 
mal is infinitely more active, exhibiting a three or four times 



48 Mr. W. Clark on the Skcneada?. 

greater rapidity of locomotion. I fully expect to examine the 
Skenea nitens, and perhaps the Adeorbis subcarinatus. — W. C. 

Since the above was written, my expectation respecting the 
S. nitens has been verified by the occurrence of three live speci- 
mens. I have thus had the singular satisfaction of contempo- 
raneously examining three rare unrecorded creatures ; — I almost 
think a similar concatenation will scarcely again occur to any 
naturalist : — 

Skenea ? now Trochus, nitens, nobis ; Trochus pusillus, auct. 

The same difficulty in distinguishing the specialties of this 
species from those of the two preceding ones exist. I can only 
say, that the tentacula and vibracula may be less long in propor- 
tion, the foot shorter, broader, and more rounded in front and 
behind, with the curved auricles more free or less attached to 
the anterior line of the foot, being only amalgamated with it by a 
broadish central lobe of union, than in either of the others ; the 
eye-pedicles may also be more pronounced than in T. serpuloides, 
but less so in T. Cutlerianus. I never saw three animals so similar, 
malacologically, with the hard parts so decidedly differing in 
most respects. I may say that this species has four lateral 
vibracula, and it is possible the other two may have the same 
number. In these very minute beings, from the continual change 
of position, we cannot always arrive at facts with certainty. My 
own impression is that all of them have four vibracula ; but how- 
ever this may be, in a generic point of view it is of no moment. 
This is the minutest animal of the three, and by far the most 
active ; thus again showing, as I formerly observed in the ( An- 
nals/ on C cecum glabrum, that nature, as she diminishes in volume, 
usually accompanies that condition with an equivalent of increased 
energy and activity. 

And finally, in addition to the three species just noticed, I 
give a list of others I have examined, the animals of which I be- 
lieve are all unrecorded ones, and will be communicated when 
the minutes are reduced to order. 

Chem. Sandvicensis. 

C. decussata. 

C. elegantissima. 

C. pusilla : very distinct ; not a var. of C. elegantissima. 

Rissoa costata. 

R. soluta. 

R. reticulata ; Beanii, nonnull. 

The two following may have been mentioned, but perhaps 
fuller accounts will be acceptable. 

Rissoa inconspicua, Alder. 

Conovulus bidentatus ? 



Mr. T. Tatum on new species of Coleopterous Insects, 49 

Addendum to the Paper on the Classification of the British Marine 
Testaceous Mollusca, ' Annals/ vol. vii. p. 469. 

Exmouth, June 19, 1851. 
In the postscript to this paper, I stated twR the foot of the 
Conovulus denticulatus was entire, and beyond doubt it breathed 
free air, and that the species usually called the C. bidentatus or 
albus had the foot divided transversely, and I considered it a 
Pedipes, and probably a pulmonifer. Since the above was writ- 
ten, I have decisively verified the last condition, and for the third 
time, the transverse scission of the foot. The Conovuli may 
therefore be regarded as established pulmonifers, and probably 
hermaphrodites with mutual congression : perhaps the better 
term for the respiratory qualities of this family and the Limneadae 
would be pulmonibranchiates. Their position in my classifica- 
tion remains the same. I beg that Qarychium may be added to 
the Conovulidan family, and, for the present at least, be regarded 
as a dioecious pulmonifer. Its position in the diagram of genera 
requires no change — it is only to be deemed a Conovulidan. 
With respect to Acme I have greater difficulty; the animal 
requires further investigation. I would be greatly obliged for 
some examples, sent in a half-pint bottle, in fine moss, well 
saturated, guarded by a wooden case, per post — moss in such a 
sized bottle would for a sufficient period escape exsiccation. 

As to Cyclostoma, though much more allied in structure to 
the Paludina and Littorince than to the free air-breathing 
animals, it may be more correct to term it a pulmonifer terres- 
tris — W. C. 

[Errata in my paper on the Classification of the Mollusca, * Annals,' 
vol. vii. p. 472, 1st column, 

Fifth Division. 

For * Oculi ad basin externara tentaculorum, read Oculi ad basin exter- 
nam tentaculorum, Assiminia excepta. 

And in the 2nd column of the same page, 4/2, **** proboscidifera et 
canalifera, for Oculi ad basin externam tentaculorum, read Oculi ad latus 
externum tentaculorum.] 



VI. — Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous Insects, 
By T. Tatum, Esq., M.E.S, 

Iresia smaragdina, 

Of a brilliant green above ; all the joints of the antennae black ; 
first joint of palpi fulvous, the two last black ; two deep curved 
lines between the antennae, the concavities directed outwards and 
connected in the centre by a transverse impression. Clypeus 
Ann. ty Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 4 



50 Mr. T. Tatum on new species of Coleopterous Insects. 

gray, base dark ; mandibles with the tip dark, the base fulvous. 
Head and thorax smooth and of a brilliant green. Elytra with 
deep sinuous transverse grooves, at the bottom of some of which 
are faint reddish reflections. Under part of body green, last 
divisions of abdomen with a slight golden tinge. Trochanters 
and femora fulvous. Tibiae and tarsi black. Length 5^ lines ; 
breadth 1^ line. 

Hab. Brazil. 

This species is larger than the Iresia Lacordairei, its thorax is 
wider behind, and the elytra are wider than in that species. 

Odontocheila DeGandii. 

Brilliant copper colour with slight bluish reflections. Head 
large, covered with fine waved lines ; eyes prominent ; palpi and 
antennae fulvous; clypeus fulvous with black tip; mandibles 
fulvous with black tips. Thorax narrow, shortish, sides slightly 
rounded, central furrow well marked; anterior and posterior 
furrows indistinct; surface marked by numerous waved and 
irregular striae. Elytra parallel, posterior angles well defined ; 
posterior margins having a central prominence; the surface 
covered with irregular and waved striae ; two well-defined white 
marks on each elytron, one a little below the middle, a sinuous 
line beginning a little within the margin and ending before 
reaching the suture in a hook directed forward ; the second mark 
nearly round, situated just beyond the posterior angle and just 
within the margin. Under part of the body bright copper, ex- 
cept last divisions of abdomen which are reddish, and not metallic. 
Trochanters and upper part of femora fulvous, lower part of 
femora and tibiae darker, tarsi nearly black. Length 4 lines ; 
breadth 1 line. 

Hab. Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

In form like O. nodicornis, but less than half its size, and with 
the thorax neither so long nor so cylindrical as in that species. 

Tetracha viridis. 

Of a brilliant green. Head with two deep irregular indentations 
between the eyes, surface smooth and polished, with a few slightly 
marked striae near the eyes ; clypeus black ; antennae brown, the 
two first joints black, the two next black, with small brown points 
at the root. Palpi reddish brown, with the tips of the last joints 
black ; mandibles reddish brown at the base, black at the extre- 
mity. Scutellum black. Under part of body black with green 
reflections. Femora black. Trochanters, tibiae and tarsi pitchy. 
Length 8 lines ; breadth 2^ lines. 

Hab. Minas Geraes (Brazil) ; M. DeGand. 



Mr. W. Mitten's Remarks on Mosses. 51 

This species resembles T. elongata, but differs in colour, in the 
head being smaller and the eyes less prominent, in the thorax 
being more cylindrical, less cordiform, and with the central de- 
pression less marked ; the elytra are narrower, less deeply and 
less numerously punctured, and the surface more smooth and 
polished. A 

Myrmecoptera lata. 

Elytra with a single white mark on each, beginning just below 
the shoulder, extending along the middle of the elytron to the 
centre, where it gets narrower and inclines to the outer margin, 
which it accompanies but does not quite include ; again becoming 
broader it terminates at the angle of the suture ; puncta very 
numerous and metallic. Also a row of larger impressions like- 
wise metallic near to, and parallel with, the suture. Trochanters, 
femora, &c, black. Length 6 lines. 

Hab. Abyssinia. 

This species resembles M. egregia, Germar, but is much larger, 
the head is smaller, and the thorax is longer, narrower, and more 
cylindrical. 

Carabus Boysii. 

Dull black. Head rather large and finely punctured ; mandi- 
bles large; last joints of palpi strongly securiform. Thorax cor- 
diform and finely punctate, with a well-defined central furrow ; 
anterior margin slightly concave and raised into a border ; pos- 
terior margin also slightly concave, sides sinuous with elevated 
borders, posterior angles considerably prolonged backwards. 
Elytra elongate, oval, narrower before than behind, strongly 
striated, each stria finely punctated and each interval punctated, 
but more coarsely; each elytron with three rows of deep and 
regular indentations. Length 14 lines ; breadth 4^ lines. 

Hab. India. 

This species comes near to the Carabus sylvestris. 



VII. — Some Remarks on Mosses, with a proposed new Arrange- 
ment of the Genera. By William Mitten, A.L.S. 

The author has been induced to offer to the consideration of 
bryologists the arrangement proposed below, from an impression 
that it may engage the attention of others more competent than 
himself to grapple with the difficulties which continually arise in 
endeavouring to strike out new arrangements, and whose more 
extensive knowledge of the vegetable kingdom may enable them 
at a glance to come to a proper appreciation of the conclusions 
he has arrived at. 

It was in 1847, whilst examining Phascum multicapsulare of 

4* 



52 Mr. W. Mitten's Remarks on Mosses, 

Smith, that the author's attention was first arrested by the fact 
that all the Cleistocarpous Mosses might be distributed among 
the Stegocarpous genera ; since which the subject has been neg- 
lected ; and he now publishes his ideas from seeing in the most 
recent works on bryology the continued adhesion to the old plan 
of keeping up a class of Cleistocarpous genera and species. 

In all arrangements of plants, Mosses, Musci, and Liverworts, 
Hepaticce, are placed after Equiseta, Lycopodia, and Ferns, as 
though these tribes were possessed of a higher degree of deve- 
lopment ; and even in the last systematic work on Mosses, by 
M. C. Miiller, the definition of the order commences with 
" Planta? Agamse," a term altogether inapplicable to Musci and 
Hepaticce, however well it may agree with the tribes above men- 
tioned, which, so far as seems known, are truly agamous. 

The Musci may be defined as follows : — 

Plants with stems bearing horizontal leaves which are mostly 
composed of one layer of cells and furnished with thickened 
nerves. Inflorescence surrounded by proper involucral leaves. 
Male flowers composed of anthers, antheridia : female of pistils, 
archegonia, which, as well as the antheridia, are mixed with 
slender threads, paraphyses. Fruit an unilocular capsule burst- 
ing at the sides or operculate, surmounted by a calyptra. 

From this definition it is apparent that the Musci are neither 
agamous nor cryptogamous, but are the highest order of Aco- 
tyledons, forming the next link to Monocotyledons, and, with 
Hepaticas, are entitled to take precedence of the Filices, Lyco- 
podia and Equiseta, in which inflorescence is unknown. On one 
side the Musci, with their horizontal nerved leaves and the pre- 
sence of stomata in their capsules, approach to Monocotyledons ; 
on the other side the Hepaticse, which, with their nerveless semi- 
vertical or vertical leaves, and the form of their perianths, espe- 
cially in Jungermannia, Plagiochila and Radula, resembling very 
closely the involucra of Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes, come 
near to the Filices. 

The inflorescence of Mosses is dioicous, monoicous, or her- 
maphrodite. In the growth of the species that are usually 
termed acrocarpous, the first flower produced appears to be 
always male ; and it is upon an innovation from beneath, or 
rarely through this, that the female flower and fruit are borne. In 
some species the antheridia are found in the axils of the comal 
without proper involucral leaves ; not springing out as a 
secondary growth, but appearing to be left there by the elonga- 
tion of the axis, which has passed as it were through the first and 
male flower to form the female, as seen in Bryum nutans. In 
Polytrichum undulatum after the production of a male flower the 



with a proposed new Arrangement of the Genera. 53 

growth is resumed by the axis through the centre of the flower, 
and a female flower produced at a considerable distance. It is 
only such mosses as these that are strictly acrocarpous. In 
Funaria hygromctrica, which in its mode of growth represents 
most of the so-called acrocarpous mosses, the plant first forms a 
male flower, then bears female flowers on innovations arising be- 
low it : but if the female flower had been produced at the point 
whence the innovation proceeded, without theinnovation, it must 
have been considered pleurocarpous, as i^Eygodon compactus 
(Hedwigia cestiva, Eng. Fl.) ; although it would in that case be 
as much acrocarpous as it actually is. In Fissidens the flowers 
are all terminal, or only the female terminal, or both sexes lateral; 
both of which last cases occur at times in F. bryoides. In the 
Hypnoid Mosses the mode of growth appears more complicated ; 
the principal axis being in many respects like a rhizoma growing 
at one end and decaying at the other, producing roots at the side 
and not having the lower end of the axis divided into roots. 

The capsules of Mosses are either without a regular opening 
and bursting at the sides, astomate ; or furnished with a persistent 
or deciduous lid, operculum, which on its removal leaves the cap- 
sules closed by a membrane, stomate : the mouth of the capsule 
naked, gymnostomate ; or with highly hygroscopic teeth arising 
from its inner walls, peristomate ; or with the sporular sac also 
divided above into processes and cilia, diploperistomate. 

In some well-marked genera, as Encalypta, Orthotrichum and 
Zygodon, there exist gymnostomate, peristomate and diploperi- 
stomate species, too closely allied in all other respects to be sepa- 
rated generically in any natural arrangement. In Weissia, inclu- 
ding as of one genus, Astomum Mittenii, Phascum crispum, P. ros- 
tellatum, and all the Hymenostoma, Gymnostoma, and Weissia of 
' Bryologia Europsea/ are seen species astomate, stomate, gymno- 
stomate, and peristomate ; and most of these mosses without the 
presence of fruit would be difficult enough to distinguish as spe- 
cies, to say nothing of genera ; — from which the conclusion seems 
evident, that as a more or less perfect series of progressive deve- 
lopment from astomate to diploperistomate capsules may occur 
in a single genus, so any degree of development less perfect than 
the diploperistomate may be considered but an imperfect state 
of that degree, and of no importance in generic distinctions 
whenever it is possible to trace a higher. 

The calyptra consists of the enlarged upper part of the arche- 
gonium, and is dimidiate, mitriform, or calymperoid, the last form 
being as it were a large mitriform calyptra split on one side ; but 
it well marks the few genera in which it is found. 

In the following arrangement, the plan of dividing the genera 
into groups dependent on the form of the cells of the leaves, as 



54 Mr. W. Mitten's Remarks on Mosses, 

employed by M. C. Miiller in his Synopsis, has been used, with 
however some considerable modifications, and, unless otherwise 
stated, the genera correspond with those adopted in that valuable 
work. 

Tribe I. Andre^acejE. 

Cells of the leaves parenchymatous, but very minute and re- 
mote. Capsule astomate, bursting regularly at the sides near 
the apex. Sporular sac adhering throughout to the external wall 
of the capsule. Calyptra mitriform. Small mosses, mostly of a 
deep brown or blackish colour : growing on rocks. 

Genus 1. Andresea, Ehrh. 

Tribe II. Dicranace^e. 

Cells of the leaves partly prosenchymatous and partly paren- 
chymatous, lax or more or less incrassated. Capsules mostly 
inclining to a cylindrical form, and sometimes arcuate, asto- 
mate, gymnostomate and peristomate. Teeth sixteen, each more 
or less forked or divided down the middle. Calyptra mitriform 
or dimidiate. Small or very large mosses, having mostly narrow 
leaves, which are attenuated from a complicate or clasping base, 
and with broad flattened nerves : growing on the earth, on rocks, 
or on trees. 

Sect. 1. Leptotrichoidece. 

Leaves without enlarged cells at the base. 

Genus 1. Archidium, Brid. 

2. Bruchia, Schw., including Phascum exiguum, Hook, et Wils., 
Eccremidium, eorund., and Garckea phascoides, C. Mutter (Dicra- 
num, Hook.). 

3. Angstroemia, B. et S., C. Mutter, including Astomum, 
Hampe. 

4. Trematodon, Rich. 

5. Brachyodus, Furnr. 

6. Campylostelium, B. et S. 

7. Seligeria, B. et S. 

8. Symblepharis, Mont. 

9. Leptotrichum, Hampe, including Lophiodon, Hook, et Wils. 

10. Distichium, B. et S. 

11. Eustichia, Brid. 

12. Drepanophyllum, Rich. 

Sect. 2. Dicranoidece. 
Leaves with enlarged and mostly coloured cells at the base. 

13. Blindia, B. et S. 

14. Eucamptodon, Mont. 

15. Holomitrium, Brid, 



with a proposed new Arrangement of the Genera, 55 

16. Dicnemon, Schw. 

17. Pilopogon, Br id. 

18. Dicranum, Hedw. 

Tribe III. Pottiace^e. 
Cells of the leaves all parenchymatous, often minute, incras- 
sated and papillose. Capsules astomate, stomate, gymnostomate, 
peristomate, and diploperistomate. Teeth sixteen or thirty-two, 
often cohering together : internal peristom^f cilia. Calyptra 
mitriform, dimidiate, or calymperoid. Small or rather large 
mosses with chlorophyllose lanceolate or strap-shaped leaves, 
having terete nerves and smooth or striate capsules : growing on 
the earth, on rocks, and on trees. 

Sect. 1. Trichostomoidea. 
Peristome of narrow slender teeth. 

Genus 1. Schistidium, Brid., including Acaulon, C. Muller. 

2. ? Gonomitrium, Hook, et Wils. 

3. Pottia, Ehrh., C. Muller, including Phascum bryoides, P. 
rectum, P. curvicollum, P. cuspidatum, P. subexsertum, P. splach- 
noides, P. tetragonum, P. cylindricum, and P. Drummondii ; but 
scarcely distinguishable from the next genus. 

4. Trichostomum, Hedw. 

5. Barbula, Hedw, 

6. Streptopogon, Wils. 

7. Ceratodon, Brid. 

8. Weissia, Hedw., C. Muller, including Astomum crispum, 
A. Mittenii, A. multicapsulare, and A. rostellatum of Bryol. 
Europ. 

9. Syrrhopodon, Schw. 

10. Calymperes, Sw. 

11. Tridontium, Hook. fil. 

Sect. 2. Zt/ffodontoidea. 
Peristome of broad teeth. 

12. Coscinodon, Spreng. 

13. Glyphomitrium, Brid. 

14. Brachystelium, Rchb. 

15. Gumbelia, Hampe. 

16. Grimmia, Ehrh. 

17. Cryptocarpus, Dzy. et Molk. 

18. Drummondia, Hook. 

19. Zygodon, Hook, et Tayl. 

20. Orthotrichum, Hedw. 

21. Macromitrium, Brid. 

22. Schlotheimia, Brid. 

23. Encalypta, Schreb. 



56 Mr. W. Mitten's Remarks on Mosses, 

Tribe IV. Funariace^e. 

Cells of the leaves parenchymatous, lax. Capsules more or 
less pyriform, apophysate, astomate, stomate, gymnostomate, 
peristomate, and diploperistomate. Teeth sixteen or thirty-two, 
sometimes cohering together : internal peristome of processes and 
cilia. Calyptra mitriform, dimidiate, or calymperoid. Mosses of 
great beauty, with chlorophyllose or pale pellucid leaves, and with 
capsules having sometimes remarkably large and coloured apo- 
physes : growing on the earth or on decaying animal or vegetable 
matter. 

Sect. 1. Funaroidea. 

Capsules not remarkably apophysate. Peristome of trabecu- 
late teeth. 

Genus 1. Ephemerum, Hampe. 

2. Ephemerella, C. Mutter. 

3. Physcomitrium, Brid., including Phascum patens, Hedw., 
and Schistidium serratum, Hook, et Wils. 

4. Pyramidium, Brid. 

5. Entosthodon, Schw. 

6. Discelium, Brid. 

7. Funaria, Schreb. 

8. Amblyodon, Pal. de Beauv. 

Sect. 2. Splachnoidete. 

Capsules sometimes remarkably apophysate. Peristome of 
mostly geminate teeth, which are not trabeculate. 

9. (Edipodium, Schw. 

10. Tetraplodon, B. et S. 

11. Tayloria, Hook., including Voitia, Hsch. 

12. Dissodon, Grev. et Arnott. 

13. Splachnum, Linn. 

Tribe V. Bryace^e. 

Cells of the leaves in the upper parts prosenchymatous, in the 
lower parallelogram. Capsules pyriform, clavate or cylindrical, 
stomate, gymnostomate, peristomate, and diploperistomate. Teeth 
sixteen : internal peristome of processes and cilia. Calyptra di- 
midiate. Small or rather large and graceful mosses, mostly with 
pendulous capsules : growing on the earth, on rocks, and on 
trees. 

Genus 1. Schistostega, Mohr. 

2. Meilichhoferia, Hsch. 

3. Leptochlsena, Mont. 

4. Orthodontium, Schw. 

5. Bryum, Dill. 



with a proposed new Arrangement of the Genera. 57 

Tribe VI. Bartramiaceje. 

Cells of the leaves parenchymatous. Capsules pyriforin or 
globose, gymnostomate, peristomate, and diploperistomate. Pe- 
ristome as in Bryum, but the processes splitting down the middle. 
Calyptra dimidiate. Small or very large mosses, mostly with 
rigid papillose leaves, and pyriform or globose capsules : growing 
on the earth or on rocks. 

Genus 1. Oreas, Brid. ^ 

2. Catoscopium, Brid. 

3. Plagiopus, Brid. 

4. Meesia, Hedw. 

5. Paludella, Ehrh. 

6. Conostomum, Sw. 

7. Bartramia, Hedw. 

Tribe VII. Mniace^e. 

Cells of the leaves parenchymatous, with cartilaginous walls. 
Capsules oval or cylindrical, gymnostomate, peristomate, and 
diploperistomate. Teeth four or sixteen : internal peristome of 
processes and cilia. Calyptra mitriform or dimidiate. Small or 
very large and beautiful mosses : growing on the earth, on rocks, 
or on trees. 

Genus 1. Hymenodon, Hook, et Wils. 

2. Fissidens, Hedw. 

3. Octodiceras, Brid. 

4. Mniadelphus, C. Mutter. 

5. Daltonia, Hook, et Tayl. 

6. Cinclidotus, Pal. de Beauv. 

7. Scouleria, Hook. 

8. Georgia, Ehrh. 

9. Leptostomum, R. Brown. 

10. Leptotheca, Schw. 

11. Timmia, Hedw. 

12. Mnium, Dill., including Cinclidium, Sw. 

Tribe VIII. Hypopterygiace^e. 

Cells of the leaves prosenchymatous. Leaves dimorphous. 
Capsules gymnostomate ? and diploperistomate. Teeth sixteen : 
internal peristome of processes and cilia. Calyptra mitriform 
and dimidiate. Very beautiful mosses, with simple or pinnate 
stems and tristichous leaves, one row of which are smaller and 
resemble stipules : growing on the earth or on trees. 

Genus 1. Hypopterygium, Brid. 

2. Cyathophorum, Pal. de Beauv. 

3. ? Helicophyllum, Brid. 



58 Mr. W. Mitten's Remarks on Mosses. 

Tribe IX. Hypnace^e. 

Cells of the leaves prosenchymatous, but mostly a few quadrate 
coloured ones at the base of the leaf. Capsules gymnostomate, 
peristomate, and diploperistomate. Teeth sixteen : internal pe- 
ristome of processes and cilia. Calyptra mitriform, dimidiate, 
or calymperoid. Small or large mosses with simple or much 
branched stems, and nerveless or one or more nerved leaves : 
growing on the earth, on rocks, or on trees. 

Genus 1. Rhegmatodon, Brid. 

2. Fabronia, Raddi. 

3. Neckera, Hedw. 

4. Aulacopilum, Wils. 
5.? Wardia, Harvey. 

6. Phyllogonium, Brid. 

7. Pilotrichum, Pal. de Beauv. 

8. Hookeria, Smith. 

9. Hypnum, Dill. 

Tribe X. Polytrichace^e. 

Cells of the leaves parenchymatous, firm. Capsules stomate 
and peristomate. Peristome of numerous inarticulate cilia, free 
or combined together, and forming short tooth-like processes 
which are more or less adherent to the tympaniform expansion of 
the columella at the mouth of the capsule. Calyptra dimidiate. 
Small or very large mosses, mostly with rigid acute leaves, large, 
more or less angular, asymmetric capsules, and calyptras mostly 
covered with hair : growing on the earth. 

Genus 1. Lyellia, R. Brown. 

2. Polytrichum, Dill. 

3. Dawsonia, R. Brown. 

Tribe XI. Buxbaumiace^e. 

Cells of the leaves partly parenchymatous and partly prosen- 
chymatous. Capsules asymmetric, peristomate and diploperisto- 
mate. Teeth beaded, free, or coherent together : internal pe- 
ristome of a plicate membrane. Small but remarkable mosses, 
with very large asymmetric capsules : growing on the earth, on 
rocks, or on trees. 

Genus 1. Diphyscium, Web. et Mohr. 

2. Buxbaumia, Haller. 

Tribe XII. Leucobryace^e. 

Cells of the leaves in one or more layers, dimorphous, external 
partly parenchymatous and partly proscnchymatous, foraminose 
on the internal walls, colourless ; internal cells placed between 



Royal Institution. 59 

the external layers, minute, chlorophyllose and duct-like. Cap- 
sules cylindrical, gymnostomate ? and peristomate. Teeth eight 
or sixteen. Calyptra mitriform or dimidiate. Mosses remark- 
able for the pale colour, iridescence, and structure of the cells of 
their leaves : growing on the earth, on rocks, or on trees. 
Genus 1. Octoblepharum, Hedw. 

2. Arthrocormus, Dzy. et Molk. 

3. Leucophanes, Br id. ^ 

4. Schistomitrium, Dzy. et Molk. 

5. Leucobryum, Hampe. 

Tribe XIII. Sphagnace^e. 

Cells of the leaves dimorphous, prosenchymatous, the larger 
colourless, perforate, often containing annular fibres ; the smaller 
chlorophyllose, placed between the larger. Capsules gymnosto- 
mate. Calyptra covering the whole capsule. Large mosses, with 
erect stems, pale or rose-coloured leaves, and globose sessile cap- 
sules : growing in bogs. 

Genus 1. Sphagnum, Dill. 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL INSTITUTION. 

Friday, February 7, 1 85 1 . 

On Metamorphosis and Metagenesis. By Professor Owen. 

The Lecturer commenced by passing under review the Linnsean 
characters of Minerals, Vegetables, and Animals, and the subsequent 
distinctions which had been proposed for the discrimination of the 
two latter kingdoms of nature. After discussing those founded on 
motion, the stomach, the respiratory products, the composition of the 
tissues, and the sources of nourishment, it was shown that none of 
these singly define absolutely the boundaries between plants and 
animals ; it requires that a certain proportion of the supposed cha- 
racteristics should be combined for that purpose. 

The individuals in which such characters are combined are specially 
defined members of one great family of organized beings, and the 
supposed peculiarly animal and vegetable characters taken singly, 
interdigitate, as it were, and cross that debatable ground and low 
department of the common organic world from which the specialized 
plants and animals rise ; and there are numerous living beings with 
the common organic characters that have not the distinctive com- 
bined superadditions of either group. 

Between the organic and inorganic worlds the line of demarcation 
may be more definitely drawn. The term ' growth ' cannot be used 
in the same sense to signify the increase of a mineral and of an 
organism. The mode of increase is different : there is a definite limit 
to it in the organic kingdom, and something more than mere growth 



60 Royal Institution. 

takes place in the progress of an organism from its commencement 
to maturity. This was exemplified by reference to the human sub- 
ject, to the lion which acquires its mane, to the stag which gets its 
horns, and to the change of plumage in birds during the course of 
growth. The changes of form and character are still more remarkable 
in the kangaroo ; and in the frog they are such as to have received 
the name of ' metamorphosis. ,' 

The development of the frog was traced to its exclusion from the 
egg in the form of a fish, with external gills, a long caudal fin, and 
without legs. 

The internal skeleton, like the external shape, is adapted for 
aquatic life. 

Only those parts are ossified which are to be retained in the 
mature state. The vertebrae are at first biconcave, as in fishes, with 
invervening spherical elastic balls filled with fluid : they are converted 
into ball and socket joints by the ossification of the sphere, and its 
anchylosis to the back part of the vertebrae. The pelvis and hind 
legs are progressively developed ; and, whilst this change is pro- 
ceeding, the tail is undergoing proportional absorption. The chief 
change in the skull of the larva is operated in the lower or haemal 
arches and their appendages. The maxillary arch is widened and 
provided with teeth, and the horny mandibles are shed. The man- 
dibular arch retrogrades as well as expands. The hyoidean undergoes 
a remarkable change of size and shape, and the branchial arches 
are absorbed, excepting a small portion which is converted into the 
hinder * horns ' of the hyoid for supporting the larynx. 

The scapular arch, which at first was connected with the occiput, 
whilst supporting the branchial heart — its primary function, begins, 
as soon as the fore legs bud out, to retrograde, and the sternum is 
developed to complete the * point d'appui ' for the fore limbs. 

The food of the larva is chiefly the soft decaying parts of aquatic 
plants ; it has a horny beak, a long alimentary canal disposed in a 
series of double spiral coils : but, as its frame undergoes the changes 
adapting it for life on land, and a purely animal diet, the mandibles 
are converted into jaws and teeth, and the long spiral intestine into a 
short and slightly convoluted one. 

Soon after the external gills have reached their full development 
they begin to shrink and finally disappear ; but the branchial circu- 
lation is maintained some time longer upon internal gills : by ana- 
stomoses between the principal branchial vessels these are converted 
into the aortic arches, carotids and subclavians ; the internal gills 
with the cartilaginous hoops supporting them are absorbed, and 
lungs and glottis for breathing the air directly are developed. 

Thus an animal formed for moving in water is changed into one 
adapted for moving and leaping on land ; a water-breather is con- 
verted into an air-breather ; a vegetable feeder into a carnivorous 
animal : yet the series of transmutations are limited to the nature 
of the species and produce no other. The frogs that croak in our 
marshes are as strictly batrachian as those that leapt in Pharaoh's 
chamber ; their metamorphoses have led to nothing higher than their 



Royal Institution. 61 

original condition, as far as history gives us any knowledge of it. 
With each successive generation the series of changes recommences 
from the old point, and ends in a condition of the animal adapted to 
set the same series again on foot. 

Having traced the principal stages in the metamorphosis of an 
animal from a swimmer to a leaper, the Lecturer next took an instance 
where one begins life as a burrower or a crawler, and is converted into 
an animal of rapid and powerful flight. 

Most insects quit the egg in the form of a worm, which masking, 
as it were, a different and higher form, is called the * larva ' ; it is active 
and voracious — but usually falls into a kind of torpor, during which 
the changes take place which issue in the flying insect ; during the 
passive stage of metamorphosis it is called a * pupa ' ; the last volant 
stage is the ' imago.' 

The chief steps in the metamorphosis were traced as they affect the 
outward form, the digestive organs, the circulatory, and respiratory, 
and nervous systems. 

The main differences in the metamorphoses of insects relate to the 
place where, and the time during which they are undergone. The 
young cockroach and the little aphis, which were first acephalous 
and apodal, and then had thirteen equal segments, with soft un- 
jointed legs, proceed to acquire a distinct head with antennae, a 
thorax with three pairs of long jointed legs, and an abdomen, before 
they quit the egg ; they thus enter upon active life under the guise 
of a crab, instead of a worm. With regard to the Aphis, that insect, 
instead of proceeding to perfect its individual development, may at 
once begin the great business of its existence by parthenogenetic 
procreation. Bonnet's experiments, which first brought to light this 
marvellous fact, have received uniform confirmation from all subse- 
quent inquirers, and no natural phsenomenon is now better deter- 
mined. 

From seven to eleven successive generations have been traced 
before the individual has finally metamorphosed itself into the 
winged male or winged oviparous female. 

In autumn, when the nights grow chilly and long, the oviparous 
imago completes her duty by depositing the eggs in the axils of the 
leaves of the plant, where they are protected from the winter frost, 
and ready to be hatched at the return of spring. Then recom- 
mences the cycle of change, which being carried through a succes- 
sion of individuals and not completed in a single life-time, is a 
' metagenesis ' rather than a • metamorphosis.' 

This phsenomenon, which until very recently was deemed an 
exception, and a most marvellous one, in Nature, now proves to be 
an example of a condition of procreation to which the greater part 
of organized Nature is subject. 

The Lecturer was inevitably limited in his choice of illustrations : 
and proceeded to an instance of metagenesis from the radiated sub- 
kingdom of animals. 

The stages of this metagenesis have been best and most completely 
traced in the Medusa aurita, by Siebold, Daly ell, Sars, and others. 



62 Royal Institution. 

The first step was made by Siebold, who, in 1839, traced the 
development of the Medusa aurita from the egg to a stage resembling 
a ciliated monad, then to a lobed rotifer, and next to a long-armed 
polype. 

This polype stage of the Medusa had been previously recognised 
in 1788, but without a suspicion of its true nature, by O. F. Miiller, 
who called it Hydra gelatinosa. 

It was next observed, and its habits more fully described, by Sir 
John Dalyell, in 1834, as Hydra tuba : and in 1836 he made known 
its singular metamorphoses into forms which Sars had previously 
described as Scyphistoma and Strobila ; and Dalyell saw the sponta- 
neous division of the latter into a pile or series of small Medusae. 
All the stages of the metagenesis were independently noted by Sars, 
who described them in 1841. 

The difficulty of accounting for the presence of Entozoa in the 
interior parts of animal bodies is rapidly disappearing as the know- 
ledge of their course of development advances. 

The principal stages of this development were described in a small 
worm (Monostoma mutabile), parasitic in the air-cells, intestines, and 
peritoneal cavity of many water-fowl. 

The ovum is converted into a ciliated monadiform embryo, which 
escapes from the bird, and swims about freely in the water. A clear 
mass may be discerned in the interior which exhibits independent 
movements. This body is liberated, grows rapidly, and generates in its 
interior a number of independent organisms provided with a cephalic 
speculum and a caudal appendage, referable by their form to the genus 
Cer carta. They are very active and insinuating, could even bore 
through the skin by the sharp needle-like armature of the head, and 
somehow or other do, under the guise of the Cercaria, again get 
access to the interior of the water-fowl ; fall into a state of torpor ; 
become circular flattened pupae ; and are finally metamorphosed into 
Monostomes — a sluggish pendent parasite utterly deprived of the 
power of existing in water, or of gaining access, as a Monostome, to 
the interior of any animal. 

Steenstrup, who has the merit of having first grouped together 
and pointed out the analogies of the different stages in the animals 
that undergo these successive changes, generalizes the facts under 
the phrase of * Alternate Generation,' and he calls the procreant 
larvae 'Amme,' or Nurses, and * Gross-amme,' or Grand-nurses. 
There is no particular objection to these names; but we naturally 
desire to know on what power the metageneses depend. 

Professor Owen thought the key to the power was afforded by the 
process which the germinal part of every egg undergoes before the 
embryo begins to be formed. 

A principle, answering to the pollen, that fertilizes the seed of 
plants, is the efficient cause of these changes : its mode of operating 
is best seen in the transparent eggs of some minute worms ; the 
principle manifests itself as a transparent, highly refractive globule 
in the centre of the egg ; it then divides ; and each division, attract- 
ing the vitelline matter of the egg about it, divides that matter into 



Royal Institution. G3 

two parts. This division is repeated with the same result, until the 
principle has diffused itself by indefinite multiplication through the 
whole yelk which then constitutes the ' germ- mass.' 

The next stage is the formation of the embryo : certain of the 
minute subdivisions called ' nuclei ' or nucleated cells, combine and 
coalesce to constitute the tissues of the embryos : they are afterwards 
incapable of generating. If all be so metamorphosed, the organism 
cannot procreate of itself; but if a part only of the germ-mass be 
metamorphosed into tissues, the unchanged remnant may, if nutri- 
tion, heat, and other stimuli are present, repeat the same actions as 
those that formed the first germ-mass, and lay the foundation of 
future embryos. 

In proportion to the amount of the substance of an organism 
which retains the primitive condition of cells, is the power of pro- 
ducing new individuals without receiving a fresh supply of the pollen- 
principle. 

Thus in a plant, when the seed has received the matter of the 
pollen-filament, analogous changes take place to those that have 
been described in the animal egg, and the embryo plant appears 
in the form of the cotyledonal leaf with its radicle or rootlet. From 
this shoots forth another leaf with its stem : and the cellular sub- 
stauce of the pith with its share of the pollen-principle goes on 
developing fresh leaves and leaf-stalks ; until a provision for de- 
veloping fresh pollen is made by transforming certain individual 
leaves into a higher form of the ' phyton ' or elemental plant. Thus 
a generation or ■ whorl ' of leaves assumes the character of sepals, 
another that of petals, a third that of stamens, a fourth that of 
pistils : and in the two latter forms we recognise the analogues of 
the perfect male and female of the animal. 

The development of the compound polype follows very closely 
the stages of the compound plant, which we call shrub or tree : 
the ovum, like the seed, having received the pollen-principle, is 
converted into countless cells and nuclei of cells by the process for 
diffusing that principle through, or of assimilating it with, the matter 
of the egg. Then certain germ-cells are metamorphosed into a 
ciliated integument, and the larva starts forth in a state answering 
to the cotyledonal leaf of the plant : the ciliated larva settles, 
subsides, and shoots up a stem from which a digestive polype is 
developed, answering to the leaf: but the pollen-force not being 
exhausted, a second branch and polype are developed, and so on 
until a preparation is made for a fresh supply of pollen-force, by 
metamorphosing the polype into a higher form of individual ; and 
this, in many compound polypes, is set free in the shape of a 
minute medusa. 

The true nature and relation of the individual polype to the 
compound whole is well illustrated by the propagations of the 
Aphides. 

By comparing with the diagrams of the metagenesis of the plant 
and polype, that of the Aphis, in which was represented the corre- 
sponding stages intervening between the ovum and the perfect male 



64 Royal Institution. 

and female individuals of the Aphis, the analogy between these 
stages in the plant, the polype, and the insect, was shown to be 
both true and close. The microscopic fertilizing filament of the male 
Aphis answers to the microscopic pollen-filament of the male leaf or 
* stamen ; ' the ovum of the female Aphis to the ovule of the 
female leaf or pistil : by their combination the fertile ovum results. 
The same processes of cell-formation ensue, and the embryo Aphis 
is formed by the combination and metamorphoses of certain of 
these secondary germ-cells ; but it retains the rest unchanged in its 
interior, which may be compared with the cells of the pith of the plant, 
and with the cells in the corresponding more fluid part of the pith of 
the polype. Under favourable circumstances of nutriment and warmth, 
certain of these cells repeat the process of embryonic formation, and 
a larval individual like that from the ovum is thus reproduced; 
which is only not retained in connection with its parent, because the 
integument is not coextended with it. 

The generation of a larval Aphis may be repeated from seven to 
eleven times without any more accession to the primary pollen-force 
of the retained cells than in the case of the zoophyte or plant ; one 
might call the generation, one by ' internal gemmation ' ; but this 
phrase would not explain the conditions essential to the process, 
unless we previously knew those conditions in regard to ordinary 
or external gemmation. 

At length, however, the last apterous or larval Aphis, so deve- 
loped, proceeds to be * metamorphosed ' into a winged individual, 
in which either only the fertilizing filaments are formed, as in the 
case of the stamens of the plant, or only the ovules, as in the case 
of the pistil. We have, in fact, at length f male and female indi- 
viduals,' preceded by procreative individuals of a lower or arrested 
grade of organization, — analogues to the gemmiparous polypes of the 
zoophyte and to the leaves of the plant. 

The process was described for its better intelligibility in the 
Aphides as one of a simple succession of single individuals, but it is 
much more marvellous in nature. The first-formed larva of early 
spring procreates not one but eight larvae like itself in successive 
broods, and each of these larvae repeats the process ; and it may be 
again repeated in the same geometrical ratio until a number which 
figures oidy can indicate and language almost fails to express, is the 
result. The Aphides produced by this internal gemmation are as count- 
less as the leaves of a tree, to which they are so closely analogous. 

It generally happens that the metamorphosis which has been 
described as occurring after the seventh or eleventh generation takes 
place much earlier in the case of some of the thousands of indi- 
viduals so propagated ; just as a leaf-bud near the root may develope 
a leaf-stem and a flower with much fewer antecedent generations of 
leaves from buds than have preceded the formation of the flower at 
the summit of the plant ; or just as one of the lower and earlier-formed 
digestive polypes may push out a bud to be transformed into a pro- 
creative and locomotive polype. The same analogy is closely main- 
tained throughout. 



Royal Institution. 65 

The wingless larval Aphides are not very locomotive ; they might 
have been attached to one another by continuity of integument, and 
each have been fixed to suck the juices from the part of the plant 
where it was brought forth. The stem of the rose might have been 
incrusted with a chain of such connected larvae as we see the stem 
of a fucus incrusted with a chain of connected polypes, and only the 
last developed winged males and oviparous females might have been 
set free. The connecting medium might even have permitted a 
common current of nutriment contributed to by each individual to 
circulate through the whole compound body. But how little of 
anything essential to the animal would be affected by cutting through 
this hypothetical connecting and vascular integument, and setting 
each individual free! If we perform this operation on the compound 
zoophyte, the detached polype may live and continue its gemmiparous 
reproduction. This is more certainly and constantly the result in 
detaching one of the monadiform individuals which assists in com- 
posing the seeming individual whole called ' Volvox globator ' ; and 
so likewise with the leaf-bud. And this liberation Nature has actually 
performed for us in the case of the iVphis, and she thereby plainly 
teaches us the true value or signification in morphology of the con- 
necting links that remain to attach together the different gemmi- 
parous individuals of the volvox, the zoophyte, and the plant. 

The analogy between the procreating larvae of the Aphis, the 
Medusa, and the Coralline is so true and so close, that if the larval 
Aphis be a distinct individual and not a part, so must be the strobila, 
the planula, and the gemmiparous leaf : if the succession of larval 
Aphides be truly described, as a succession of generations, so must 
that succession of planula, polype, and strobila which leads to the 
oviparous Medusa; and that succession of planulae and nutritive 
polypes which precede the detachment of the free procreative 
medusoid polypes in the Coryne ; and the like with the plant-gene- 
rations preceding the flower. 

It would have been easy, if time permitted, to multiply the illus- 
trations of the essential condition of these phaenomena. That 
condition is, the retention of certain of the progeny of the primary 
fertilized germ-cell, or in other words, of the germ-mass, unchanged 
in the body of the first individual developed from that germ-mass, 
with so much of the pollen-force inherited by the retained germ- 
cells from the parent-cell or germ-vesicle as suffices to set on foot 
and maintain the same series of formative actions as those which 
constituted the individual containing them. 

How the retained pollen-force operates in the formation of a new 
germ-mass from a secondary, tertiary, or quaternary derivative germ- 
cell, the Lecturer did not profess to explain ; neither was it known 
how it operates in developing the primary germ-mass. 

The botanist and physiologist congratulates himself with justice 
when he has been able to pass from cause to cause, until he arrives 
at the union of the pollen-filament with the ovule as the essential 
condition of development — a cause ready to operate when necessary 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 5 



66 Zoological Society. 

circumstances concur, and without which those circumstances would 
have no effect. 

The chief aim of the present discourse was to point out the cir- 
cumstances which bring about the presence of the same essential 
cause in the cases of the development of the successive generations 
completing the metagenetic cycle of the Aphis, the Medusa, the 
Polype, and the Entozoon. The cause is the same in kind though 
not in degree, and every successive generation, or series of sponta- 
neous fissions, of the primary germ-cell must weaken the pollen-force 
transmitted to such successive generations of cells. 

The force is exhausted in proportion to the complexity and living 
powers of the organism developed from the primary germ-cell and 
germ-mass. It is consequently longest retained and furthest trans- 
mitted in the vegetable kingdom ; the zoophytes manifest it in the 
next degree of force ; and the power of retained germ-cells to de- 
velope a germ-mass and embryo by the remnant of the pollen-force 
which they inherited, is finally lost, according to present knowledge, 
in the class of Insecta and in the lower Mollusca. 

ZOOLOGICAL, SOCIETY. 

June 11, 1850.— W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

A Monograph of Scarabus, a genus of air-breathing 
Gasteropodous Mollusca. By Arthur Adams, R.N., 
F.L.S. ETC. 

Scarabus, Montfort. 

Testa ovata, spira subohtusa, anfractibus compressis, varice utrin- 
que instructis ; apertura ovali intus utrinque dentata ; peristo- 
mate non continuo, labro simplici, subexpanso. 
The Scarabi have the eyes sessile on the inner bases of the ten- 
tacles, which are short and annulated ; they live like most of the 
other genera of Auriculidte, in the damp woods and mangrove marshes. 
None have been found in the African or American regions, but all the 
species at present known are from the East Indies. 

Scarabus imbrium, Montfort, Conch. Syst. vol. i.; Ferussac, 
Prodrome, p. 101 ; Chemnitz, Conch, vol. ix. pi. 136. fig. 1249 
& 1250. 

Helix scarabseus, Linn. — Helix pythia, Mailer. — Bulimus scara- 
b:eus, Bruguiere. — Auricula scarabseus, Lamarck. 

S* testa ovato-pyramidali, rufo-fusco variegatd, longitudinaliter 
valde striata ; spird acuminatd ; aperturd subratimdatd, spiram 
eequante ; labro postice inflexo. 

Hab* Island of Bohol, Philippines ; in dry woods, under stones, 
and in earth ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

The large size, pyramidal form and strongly striated epidermis are 
peculiar to this species : the upper tooth on the inner lip is more tri- 
angular, and the posterior part of the outer lip is more inflexed than 
in S. Lessoni. 



Zoological Society. 67 

Scarabus Lkssoni, Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat. pi. 48. fig. 32; 
Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, vol. ii. p. 334. pi. 10. fig. 4. 

Auricula Petiveriana, var. Deshayes. 

S. testd ovatd, longitudinal iter substriatd, rufo-castaneo varie- 
gatd ; spird lateribus concavis ; aperturd oblongd, spird lon- 
giore ; labio subplano, labro postice arcuato. 
Hab. New Ireland ; Hinds. (Mus. Cuming.) 
The oval form and oblong mouth render this species easily distin- 
guished from S. imbrium : the upper tooth on the inner lip is longer, 
and two of the five teeth in the outer lip are more prominent than 
the others. 

Scarabus Petiverianus, Ferussac, Prodrome, p. 101 ; Petiver, 
Gazophylacia Naturae, pi. 4. fig. 10. 

Cochlea Bengalensis, Petiver. — Auricula Peteveriana, Desk. 
S. testd ovato-oblongd, Iceviusculd, longitudinaliter tenuissimh 
striatd, albidd castaneo variegatd ; aperturd spiram cequante ; 
labro arcuato. 
Hab. Borneo ; Cagayan, province of Misamis ; Mindanao ; in 
damp woods, under decayed leaves ; //. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

This species is characterized by its smaller size, more ovate form, 
smoother epidermis, the arcuated outer lip, and rotundate aperture. 

Scarabus trigonus, Troschel, Wiegmann's Archiv, 1840. 

S. testd triangularis rufo-fusco marmoratd, anfractu ultimo trans- 
verso gibbo angulato, aperturd angustatd, labro valde rejlexo. 

Hab. Sarsogon ; Luzon ; dense woods, damp places ; H. C. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

The triangular form, approaching that of Tomogerus, at once di- 
stinguishes this species : the middle tooth on the inner lip is double, 
the upper tooth prominent : there are five teeth in the outer lip, two 
being more prominent than the others. 

Scarabus plicatus, Ferussac, Prodrome, p. 101 ; Chemn. Conch, 
vol. ix. pi. 136. fig. 1252, 1253. 

Helix scarabseus, var. Chemn. — Auricula plicata, Deshayes. — 
Scarabus triangularis, Benson. 

S. testd subtriangulari, obliqud, gibbosd, spird brevi, acuminatd, 
lateribus concavis, anfractu ultimo postice gibboso anticd sub' 
angulato distorto, epidermide longitudinaliter oblique striatd, 
castaned, fasciis pallidis confuse ornatd ; aperturd august d, la- 
bio anticb fexuoso, labro arcuato, antice valde dilatatd, reflexd, 
rimd umbilicali longd transversa. 
Hab. India ; Benson. Jaffna, in saline marshes ; Br. Gardner, 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

Scarabus striatus, Reeve, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, vol.ix, 
p. 220. fig. 9. 

Auricula scarabaeus, Quoy, Voy. de V Astrolabe, Zool. vol. ii. p. 162. 
pi. 13. f. 24, 

5* 



68 Zoological Society. 

S. teste! ovato-triyonali, fusco varieyatd, lonyitudinaliter valde 

striatd ; spird acuminata ; labio antico subflexuoso. 
Hab. San Nicholas, island of Zebu ; //. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 
The sharp-pointed spire, striated epidermis and flexuous inner lip, 
distinguish this form : in the outer Up two of the teeth are more pro- 
minent than the others, the intermediate ones being more or less di- 
vided or bifid. 

Scarabus Cecillii, Philippi, Zeitsch. fiir Malacol. 1847, August. 

S. testa ovato-oblonyd, Iceviusculd, tenuissime in lonyum ruyatd, 
corned; anfractu ultimo interdum castaneo, superius corneo 
bifasciato ; epidermide lineis obscuris ziczac-formibus, punctis- 
que, marmoratd. 
Hab. China. (Mus. Cuming.) 

The reticulated epidermis, narrow ovoid form, and angulated outer 
lip are peculiar to this species ; the aperture is oblong, equal to the 
spire ; the outer lip below the angle is rectilinear, and but three teeth 
are visible in the outer lip. 

Scarabus undatus, Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. vol. ii. 

p. 336. pi. 10. f. 6. 
Auricula scarabseus, var. Desk. 

S. testa ovatd, fused, lonyitudinaliter valde striata ; striis undu- 
latis subdecussantibus ; anfractu ultimo postice yibboso ; labio 
arcuato, valde refexo. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

The waved elevated lines which cross each other irregularly on the 
back, and the last whorl posteriorly tumid, will characterize this 
species : the upper tooth is large and elongated on the inner lip, and 
the lower tooth of the outer lip is rather lamelliform. 

Scarabus pyramidatus, Reeve, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, 
vol. ix. p. 221. fig. 12. 

S. testa ovato-pyramidali, pallida, aurantio-fusco varieyatd, lon- 
yitudinaliter substriatd ; aperturd aured, labio circulari. 

Hab. New Ireland; Hinds. Solomon's Islands; Capt. d'Orville. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

The pyramidal form, golden aperture, and light yellow-brown mark- 
ings distinguish this species, though some specimens are much more 
ovate than others : the peritreme is double and thickened, the middle 
tooth of the inner lip is simple and thickened, and in the outer lip 
two of the teeth are large and conspicuous. 

Scarabus Cumingianus, Petit. 

S. testa ovato-triyond, fused, lonyitudinaliter substriatd ; anfractu 

ultimo valde varicoso ; aperturd aeratd, labio calloso, labro 

valde postice sinuato. 
Hab. Boljoon, island of Zebu, Philippines ; in earth, among de- 
cayed coral in the woods. (Mus. Cuming.) 

The upper tooth on the inner lip is thickened with a calcareous 



Zoological Society. 69 

deposit ; the middle tooth is prominent, with a callosity at the lower 
part : on the outer lip three of the teeth are very prominent, the 
others are obsolete ; the varix on the last whorl is very prominent ; 
the umbilical fissure is wide and deep. 

Scarabus lekithostoma, Reeve, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, 

vol. ix. p. 220. fig. 6. 
S. testd ovatd, imperforatd, solidd, fusco variegatd ; aperturd 
aurantiacd, labio incrassato, labro duplicate, postice subsinuato. 

JIab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

The middle tooth of the inner lip is double ; in the outer lip there 
are three prominent teeth, the two posterior being approximated; 
there is no umbilicus, and the spire is concave at the sides ; the back, 
moreover, is strongly plicated near the sutures. 

Scarabus castaneus, Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. p. 336. 

pi. 10. fig. 7. 
S. testd oblongd, ovato-pyramidali, Iceviusculd, longitudinaliter 
substriatd, castaned ; spird elevatd, acuminatd ; aperturd ob- 
longd, spirant tequante, labro semicirculari. 
Hab. Sibonga, island of Zebu, in the woods ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 
This is a smooth, oblong shell, with a regularly arched outer lip 
with four teeth within it, two of which are much larger than the 
others. 

Scarabus pollex, Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll. p. 

pi. 16. fig. 9, 10. 
S. testd ovatd, compressd, fusco-castaned, lonyitrorsum valde stri- 

atd, anfractu ultimo confuse fasciato. 
Hab. Feejee Islands ; Hinds. (Mus. Cuming.) 
Distinguished from S. Lessoni by its coarsely striated surface and 
different markings ; and from S. castaneus by its larger size and 
darker colour, in being more striated, and by two dark yellowish 
bands on the upper part of the last whorl. 

Scarabus semisulcatus, A. Adams. S. testd ovato-pyramidali, 
Iceviusculd, rufo-castaned, longitudinaliter vix striata, anfracti- 
bus convexiusculis semisulcatis, fascia nigricante prope sutu- 
ram ; aperturd subrotundatd ; labio crasso, antice rotundatd, 
dilatatd ; labro semicirculari, postice subsinuato. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

A pyramidal, smooth, dark-brown shell, with the whorls strongly 
sulcated longitudinally near the sutures ; two of the teeth in the 
outer lip are much larger than the others, and the inner lip is rounded 
and thickened in front ; the umbilicus is large and deep. 

Scarabus sinuosus, Adams. S. testd ovato-oblongd, fiavescenti 
nigro-fusco maculatd ; epidermide tenuissime longitudinaliter 
substriatd; spird obtusd, lateribus convexis ; aperturd oblong d ; 
labio antice rotundato, refiexo ; labro postice valde sinuoso, hi 
medio infcxo, peritremate incrassato. 

Hab. Island of Negros, Philippines. (Mus. Cuming.) 



70 Zoological Society. 

The posterior tooth of the inner lip is elongated, the middle tooth 
double ; in the outer lip three of the teeth are prominent, the two 
posterior being approximated ; the umbilicus is partly closed by the 
reflection of the inner lip. 

Scarabus imperforatus, A. Adams. S. testa ovatd, compressd, 
imperforatd ; spird brevi, acuminata, lateribus concavis, Icevius- 
culd, longitudinaliter tenuissime substriatd, lutescenti fusco- 
castaneo variegatd, anfractu ultimo postice subanyulato ; aper- 
turd oblonyd ; labio antice excavato, reflexo, labro semicirculari. 
Hab. Borneo. (Mus. Cuming.) 

The last whorl is posteriorly gibbous ; the umbilicus is closed by 
the inner lip ; three of the teeth in the outer lip are prominent, the 
two posterior approximated. 

Scarabus panthertnus, A. Adams. S. testa ovato-pyramidali, 
tenui, Iceviusculd, longitudinaliter substriatd, lutescenti, macu- 
lis rufo-fuscis ornatd ; spird acuminata, lateribus convexis ; 
aperturd oblongd, labio antice rotundato, rejlexo, labro semicir- 
culari. 
Hab. Siquejor ; Philippines, woods, under stones. (Mus. Cuming.) 
The aperture is yellowish white ; three of the teeth in the outer lip 
are more prominent than the others, the intermediate ones being 
sometimes double ; the umbilicus is large and deep. 

Scarabus borneensis, A. Adams. S. testa ovato-pyramidali, 
luteo-fuscd, castaneo confuse fasciatd, Iceviusculd ; epidermide 
tenuissime, lonyitudinaliter striatd ; aperturd oblonyd, anyustd, 
spiram subcequante, anfractu ultimo inferne subanyulato ; fovea 
umbilicali anyustd, transversd. 
Hab. Borneo ; Lieut. Taylor. (Mus. Cuming.) 
This species is narrower and more ovate than S. plica tus, of a 
much smaller size ; the outer lip is rectilinear in the middle ; the 
teeth of the outer lip are connected by an elevated ridge, and three 
of the teeth are more prominent than the others. 

Scarabus chalcostomus, A. Adams. S. testa ovato-pyrami- 
dali, spird elevatd, acuta, longitudinaliter substriatd, pallide 
luted, rufo-fuscd variegatd ; aperturd ovali, tened ; labio antice 
subrecto ; labro semicirculari ; umbilico patulo. 
Hab. Solomon's Islands; Capt. D'Orville. (Mus. Cuming.) 
In general appearance this species resembles 8. pyramidatus, but 
it is more oval, larger, lighter, with the middle tooth on the inner 
lip double, and the lower tooth broad and ascending; two of the 
teeth in the outer lip are very large and tubercular. 

A Monograph of Phos, a genus of gasteropodous 
Mollusca. By x^rthur Adams, F.L.S., R.N. 

Phos, Montfort. 

Shell ovately fusiform, spire acuminated, whorls longitudinally 
ribbed and cancellated ; columella with a single anterior plait ; outer 
lip notched in front, striated within. The animal has a small head ; 



Zoological Society. 71 

the tentacles connate at the base, with the eyes near their distal 
third ; the foot is dilated in front, forming an elevated shield, acutely 
auriculate on each side, pointed behind, and ending in a single long 
filament. Operculum small, horny, and unguiform. In three species 
of this genus in which I have observed the animal, namely Phos 
senticosus, roseatus, and Blainvillii, the hind part of the foot ter- 
minated in a single median filament, and not, as in Nassa, in a 
bifurcate tail. 

1. Phos senticosus, Linn, sp.; List. PI. 967. fig. 22. 
Buccinum senticosum, Linn. 

Phos senticosus, Montfort. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; H. C. 

2. Phos Blainvillii, Desh. Chemn. pi. 125. f. 1201, 1202. 
Kiener, Mon. Buccinum, pi. 11. f. 38. 

Buccinum pyrostoma, Reeve. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; //. C. 

3. Phos Cumingii, Reeve, Elements of Conchology, pi. 3. fig. 16. 
Hab. ? 

4. Phos crassus, Hinds, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Moll. p. 37- pi. 10. 
f. 1, 2. 

Hab. Panama, Gulf of Fonseca. 

5. Phos virgatus, Hinds, I. c. p. 37. pi. 10. fig. 11, 12. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

6. Phos retecosus, Hinds, I. c. p. 37. pi. 10. fig. 3, 4. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

7. Phos veraguensis, Hinds, I. c. p. 37. pi. 10. fig. 13, 14. 
Hab. Pueblo Nueva, west coast of Veragua. 

8. Phos articulatus, Hinds, I. c. p. 38. pi. 10. fig. 7, 8. 
Hab. Panama. 

9. Phos roseatus, Hinds, I.e. p. 38. pi. 10. fig. 9, 10. 
Hab. North coast of Sumatra. 

10. Phos gaudens, Hinds, I. c. p. 38. pi. 10. fig. 5, 6. 
Hab. Gulf of Tehuantepec, west coast of Mexico. 

11. Phos cancellatus, A. Adams. P. testa ovato-fusiformi, 
albidd, obsolete fusco fasciatd ; anfractibus subrotundatis, 
lineis elevatis longitudinalibus et transversis, valdh cancellatis, 
cancellis ad angulos acuth nodosis ; aperturd intus fuscatd, 
antice tuberculoid, plied validd. 

Hab. 1 

This species resembles P. veraguensis ; but the areas between the 
cancelli are simple, whereas in P. veraguensis there is an intermediate, 
elevated line, crossing them, a circumstance not mentioned in the 
description of Mr. Hinds. 

12. Phos turritus, A. Adams. P. testa ovato-fusi for mi, tenui, 
subpellucidd, spird turrit d, acuminata, albido-fuscatd ; anfrac- 
tibus rotundatis, costis longitudinalibus angustis numerasis, 



72 Zoological Society. 

Uriels elevatis, transversis, ad costas nodulosis, ornatis ; colu- 
mella plied anticd subevanidd. 
Hab. Panama, coral sand, 6 to 10 fathoms ; H. C. 

13. Phos textilis, A. Adams. P. testa elongate ovatd, albidd, 
spird acutd, costis rotundatis, ci'assis, infra suturam nodoso- 
angulatis, lineis transversis, planis, subconfertis, elevatis, inter- 
stitiis longitudinaliter subtilissime striatis ; columella plied 
anticd validd. 

Hab. Dumaguete, Philippines ; H. C. 

In general form this species approximates P. Blainvillii, but the 
elaborate and distinct style of sculpture and white aperture at once 
distinguish it. 

14. Phos rufocinctus, A. Adams. P. testd ovato-fusiformi ; 
spird productd, angustd, albidd, fascia rufd ornatd ; anfracti- 
bus rotundatis, costis crassis, infra suturam rotundatis, lineis 
transversis, elevatis, nodulosis, confertis, ornatis ; columella 
plied anticd productd. 

Hab. Dumaguete ; H. C. 

The nucleus of this species is large and papillary. 

15. Phos scalarioides, A. Adams. P. testd ovatd, acuminata, 
turritd, albidd, fusco variegatd, obscure fusco bifasciatd ; an- 

fractibus rotundatis, costis longitudinalibus, distantibus, infra 
suturam rotundatis, lineis elevatis, transversis, ad suturas no- 
dulosis, interstitiis subtilissime longitudinaliter striatis ; colu- 
melld supernh callosd, inferne plied productd ; labro intus 
lirato. 
Hab. — 1 

A beautiful species, with regular, strong ribs, giving it the appear- 
ance of a Scalaria. 

16. Phos spinicostatus, A. Adams. P. testd ovatd, spird acu- 
minatd, albidd, sparsim fusco nebulosd; anfractibus rotundatis, 
costatis, costis distinctis, sub distantibus, infra suturam angu- 
latis et spinosis, lineis ti'ansversis elevatis ornatis ; columella 
rufo-fusco maculatd, plied anticd productd ; labro intus rufes- 
centi lirato. 

Hab. Batangas, in insulis Philippinis. 

17. Phos nodicostatus, A. Adams. P. testd ovatd, turritd, 
acuminatd, albidd, rufo-fusco maculatd ; anfractibus rotundatis, 
costatis, costis distantibus, infra suturam angulatis et nodosis, 
lineis transversis, elevatis, ad costas nodulosis ornatis ; colu- 
melld plicis evanidis, plied anticd validd productd. 

Hab. ad insulam Negros ; H. C. 

The two species, described above, are somewhat similar in form, 
but the peculiarity of the ribs and colour of the apertures readily 
distinguish them. 

18. Phos cyllenoides, A. Adams. P. testd ovatd, albido- 
fuscd, spird acutd, longitudinaliter plicato-costatd, costis su- 
perne nodosis, ad suturam evanidis, lineis impressis transfer- 



Miscellaneous. 73 

sis sulcata ; columella plied anticd, v aide product a ; labro in- 
tusfusco lirato. 
Hab. in insulis Philippinis. 

19. Phos cyanostoma, A. Adams. P. testd elongate ovatd, 
acuminatd, albidd, anfractibus rotundatis, costatis, costis eras- 
sis, cequalibus, infra suturam plicato-nodosis, cingulis elevatis, 
transversis, subdistantibus, interstitiis longitudinaliter subtilis- 
sime striatis ; aperturd cyaneo tinctd ; columelld tuberculatd, 
plied anticd validd. 

Hab. in insulis Philippinis. 

The interstices between the transverse ridges in this species are 
very beautifully engraved with fine longitudinal lines, and the aper- 
ture is tinged with blue. 

20. Phos i^evigatus, A. Adams. P. testd elongate ovatd, Icevi- 
gatd, pallide fused ; anfractibus subrotundatis, costatis, costis 
crassis, distantibus, Icevigatis, infra suturam valde nodosis, 
lineis tenuibus transversis ornatis ; columelld plied anticd pro- 
ductd ; labro extus plicato, plicis numerosis confertis, intus 
substriato. 

Hab. Promontorium Bonse Spei. 

A large, smooth shell, with thick, simple ribs. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Notices of one or two of the rarer Birds found in the South of 
Scotland. By John Alexander Smith, M.D.* 

The following brief notes of several of our rarer birds, which have 
been met with principally in Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire, within 
the last few years, will I hope be considered as not altogether un- 
worthy of notice. And the first which I shall mention is the 

Great Grey or Cinereous Shrike, Lanius excubitor, Linn. 
— I need hardly allude to its well-known appearance, its bent and 
toothed bill, its ash-gray plumage, with black wings, and tail bordered 
with white ; and the striking, large patch of black on its cheek. 
Several specimens of this rare bird have been shot in this district of 
Scotland. The first instance of its appearance occurred a good many 
years ago, near the village of Darnick, about a mile from the town of 
Melrose, Roxburghshire. The bird had been observed in the neigh- 
bourhood for several days, and at last was shot as it was flitting back- 
wards and forwards on the top of a hedge, with a small bird which 
it had killed ; — in all probability looking for some convenient thorn 
on which to impale its victim preparatory to making a meal of it. 
The second specimen was killed in the adjoining county, several years 
after this, near the town of Selkirk, and was in the possession of the 
late Mr. Anderson, Surgeon, there. And the third is the one which 
I now exhibit : its unusual appearance, and light-coloured plumage, 

* Read before the Roval Physical Society of Edinburgh, 5th February, 
1851. 



74 Miscellaneous. 

attracted the notice of the individual, who, after watching it for 
some time, got near enough to shoot it, in the neighbourhood of 
Newtown, St. Boswell's Green, Roxburghshire. I was informed by 
his brother, that it flew in a peculiarly jerking and undulatory manner, 
rising and falling in its flight along the hedge side. This was in the 
end of the month of February, or beginning of March ; the other 
individuals having been killed about the end of winter or beginning 
of spring. It seems to be a full-sized bird ; but from the slightly 
mottled appearance of the breast and belly, instead of white, as it 
is described, it may be a young male, or perhaps a female. [I regret 
this was not ascertained by dissection.] 

Cuvier says, " It is rather common in France, where it remains 
throughout the year." It is however only an occasional visitor in 
Britain, and has generally been observed between autumn and early 
spring. Yarrell, in his valuable and beautiful book on * British Birds,' 
gives various localities in England, and even Ireland, in which it has 
been found, but does not allude to any instance of its occurrence in 
Scotland. MacGillivray mentions in his excellent and elaborate work 
on British Birds, that to his knowledge it has been shot in the 
counties of Peebles, Lanark, Midlothian and Eastlothian. And that 
at the time his book was published, 1840, there were four Scottish 
specimens in Edinburgh, including one in his own possession ; and 
from having examined the bird in a fresh state, as well as stuffed, 
and in skin, he considers himself qualified to state, that when the 
wing is closed, as represented by Mr. Selby, and also by Mr. Gould, 
two contiguous patches of white are seen, one on the base of the pri- 
maries, the other on that of the secondaries, and of this he gives a 
figure {vide vol. hi. p. 191). He supposes these gentlemen, in re- 
presenting this bird with only one patch on the primaries, have mis- 
taken for it the Lanius borealis, or the Lanius ludovicianus. These 
birds however are distinguished from the L. excubitor, which they 
considerably resemble, by several characters, one of these being the 
different proportional lengths of the quill-feathers ; the Lanius 
borealis according to Cuvier, having the third primary the longest, 
and the fourth equal to the second : the L. ludovicianus has the 
second primary the longest, and the first and fifth equal ; while in the 
L. excubitor the first quill is only half as long as the second, the 
second shorter than the third, fourth, or fifth, which are nearly equal, 
and the longest in the wing, the sixth being but very little longer 
than the second. Yarrell, I may mention, describes this bird as 
having the wing primaries and secondaries black, with a white bar at 
their base, which when the wing is closed form two white spots. Now 
in the specimen exhibited, which corresponds exactly with all the 
characters given of the L. excubitor, there appears to be only one 
white spot, on the primaries, when the wing is closed ; as figured in 
the splendid works of Selby' s 'Ornithology,' and Gould's ' Birds of 
Europe,' already alluded to. The woodcut in Bewick's ' Birds ' seems 
also to correspond in this respect with this specimen. Whether or 
not this may be an accidental variety, I am unable to determine ; and 
may I suggest the possibility of its being a mark of a young bird (as 



Miscellaneous. 75 

in this specimen the point of the beak and the claws are exceedingly 
sharp, and the breast and abdomen slightly mottled with dusky or 
grayish lines), the white colour probably spreading more and more 
over the secondaries as the bird gets older 1 

The next bird to which I shall allude is also an accidental visitor 
or straggler ; coming however from a totally different region from the 
last, — the frozen north, to spend a milder winter with us. It is the 
Wax-Wing or Bohemian Chatterer, Bombycilla garrula, Flem. 
— This beautiful bird is, I doubt not, so well known as to require no 
description : I may only remind you that in adult birds, the points of 
the secondaries have attached to them the curious vermilion ap- 
pendages to which it owes its name. Coming from the north, its 
distribution through our island is just the reverse of the last ; being 
more common in Scotland than in England. About the end of 
January, or beginning of February, 1850, a small flock of these birds, 
some seven or eight in number, were seen in the neighbourhood of 
Melrose, and instead of being very shy, as they are generally described, 
they were so tame that one man shot no fewer than four of them, one 
after another, as they were hopping about in some trees, before the 
rest became so much alarmed as to take to flight : other two were 
shot in one of the cottage gardens of Melrose ; and another was killed 
some ten days after in the Abbotsford plantations. From the singu- 
larly knobbed or distorted appearance of this bird about the crop, 
the person who shot it considered it as diseased, and therefore not 
worth preserving, and accordingly his curiosity being excited, he set 
to work with his knife to discover if possible the cause, and was asto- 
nished to find as many as three large-sized hips of the common dog- 
rose in its crop — sufficient fully to account for its peculiar shape. 

Although this bird makes its appearance irregularly from time to 
time in this country, during the winter months, and often in consider- 
able numbers, still it is only as an accidental visitor that it occurs, 
and it is undoubtedly to be considered as a very rare bird. I may 
mention that in the ' Courant ' newspaper of Saturday last, I observed 
a notice of a Wax-wing having been killed the preceding day in a 
garden at Portobello, in this immediate neighbourhood. 

About the same time that the Wax-wings made their appearance 
near Melrose, a gardener at Dryburgh Abbey, a few miles farther down 
the Tweed, shot in his orchard the next rare bird which I t shall 
notice — 

The Great Spotted Woodpecker, Picus major, Cuv. — This 
bird is one of our rare permanent residents ; it is described as being 
extensively distributed over Britain, but in all parts is rare, and in 
Scotland is rarer than in England ; it is said to occur in some of our 
extensive northern forests ; but in the south of Scotland it is very 
rarely to be seen. This specimen is now in the possession of J. 
Meiklam, Esq., Torwoodlee. 

In the beginning of May last, a very fine specimen of an eagle, 
described as being the 

Cinereous Eagle, or Erne, Haliaetus albicilla, Cuv., was 
shot by a gamekeeper within a few hundred yards of Bowhill House, 



76 Miscellaneous. 

Selkirkshire, one of the residences of the Duke of Buccleuch. It was 
perched on some low alder bushes at the side of the river Ettrick, 
and was surrounded by flocks of crows and other birds, loudly com- 
plaining of his presence in that locality, their general feeling of innate 
enmity being in all probability increased by the fact of his having just 
lunched on one of them, as shown by the recent remains afterwards 
detected in his capacious stomach. This noble bird measured no less 
than 7 feet from tip to tip of his wings. I regret I have not been 
able to get a more particular description of it, so as to fix beyond a 
doubt the species ; but the appearance of any eagle is by no means 
a usual occurrence in this part of the country. It is now, I under- 
stand, in the possession of the Duke of Buccleuch. 

I may also notice in passing, that a few months ago a specimen of 
the 

Woodpigeon or Cushat, Columba palumbus, Linn., closely ap- 
proximating to a white variety, was shot on the Gattonside hills, 
near Melrose, Roxburghshire ; the head and neck being entirely 
pure white ; and many white feathers were also scattered over dif- 
ferent parts of its body. The bird was plump and in good condi- 
tion, and when killed was feeding with a flock of wood-pigeons of the 
ordinary kind. 

To the kindness of my friend Dr. Dumbreck I am indebted for 
being able to exhibit a specimen of the 

Quail, Coturnix vulgaris, Flem., which is one of our very rare, 
or perhaps from its habits, one of our less seen summer visitors. It 
was shot in this county, near the Pentland hills, at Cockburn, about 
three or four miles above the village of Currie, by a gentleman whose 
dogs sprung it while in search of game, in the autumn of 1847. It 
is apparently an adult female, not having the dark semicircular marks 
on the sides of the neck which distinguish the male. In the follow- 
ing year two nests of the Quail were come upon by the mowers, in a 
field on Craiglockhart Farm, about three miles from Edinburgh, near 
the village of Slateford ; and the poor hen birds were sitting so closely 
at the time, that the heads of both were actually struck off by the 
scythe. The nests contained respectively eight and twelve eggs, the 
usual range of (he number being described as from six to fourteen ; 
they are of a yellowish white, blotched and speckled with dark umber 
brown (some of which I now exhibit) : and a friend informs me he 
has in his collection an egg of this bird, taken from a nest found in 
the neighbourhood of Musselburgh. 

I may perhaps be allowed in conclusion to trespass on your patience 
a very little longer, with the brief details of a circumstance, and cer- 
tainly I should think rather an unusual one, connected with the very 
peculiar instinct displayed by some birds, in preserving their eggs and 
young from threatened danger ; for an account of which I am in- 
debted to Mr. Whitecross, Gunmaker, Danwick. The subject is one 
which I am not qualified by any observations of my own to judge of; 
but the facts are stated to have occurred as follows :— A pair of the 
Common Sandpipers, Toianus hypoleucos, had a nest with its four 
eggs, among the grass of a thinly wooded plantation on the banks of 



Miscellaneous. 77 

the Tweed ; and this establishment had been pretty frequently visited 
by some lads, who were anxious in their cruelty to capture the dam 
on the eggs, but she being on the watch escaped, and the four egg3 
were seen to be all in the nest ; the lads then retired to a little di- 
stance within sight, where they waited patiently for her returning and 
settling quietly down again ; she did soon return, but this time ac- 
companied by her mate, and the two birds soon after flew across the 
river apparently fighting, as was supposed, with one another ; they 
then, after an interval of a minute or two, returned singly to the nest, 
and left it again in company, struggling and fighting together as be- 
fore ; and this was repeated four different times, with the same short 
interval between each time ; after which there was a wearisome 
pause, the birds not again making their appearance ; when the lads 
having given up hope of catching either of them, went to take what 
they now supposed to be the forsaken eggs, but were astounded to 
find the nest empty, and the eggs gone ! ! Considering it as beyond 
a doubt that the birds had carried off their eggs, they immediately 
crossed the river to the other side, where they had seen them dis- 
appear ; but after a diligent search, could find no traces of them what- 
ever ; so well did the sagacious birds appear to have hidden their 
safely transported eggs ! The distance the birds were believed to 
have carried their eggs could not have been less than some 70 or 80 
yards ! Mr. Yarrell, in his well-known work on * British Birds,' when 
describing the Skylark, alludes to the fact of two or three instances 
being recorded of this bird's moving its eggs under fear of impending 
danger; and he quotes from Jesse's 'Gleanings' an account of a clergy- 
man in Sussex seeing a pair of larks rising out of a stubble-field, and 
crossing a road before him at a slow rate, one of them attempting to 
carry even a young bird in its claws, which however was unfortunately 
killed by its loosing its hold when the bird was some 30 feet from 
the ground. The instance I have just detailed of the Sandpiper is 
the only one of any other bird, as far as I am aware, described as 
following this extraordinary plan of removing its eggs to a place of 
safety. Perhaps some of the naturalists among your numerous 
readers may remember other instances of a somewhat similar kind ; 
helping, it may be, to throw some light on this little-known, exceed- 
ingly curious, and very interesting subject. — J. A. S. 

ACH.EUS CRANCHII. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Weymouth, June 10, 1851. 

Gentlemen, — I have the great pleasure of announcing the occur- 
rence of the rare Achceus Cranchii, Cranch's Spider Crab of Leach 
and Bell, as an inhabitant of the Dorsetshire coast. I dredged it on 
the 2 7th of May last, in six fathom water, on a shingly and rocky 
bottom with weeds in Weymouth Bay, just off Belmont and the 
Nothe. 

The fourth and fifth pair of legs are abruptly curved, falciform, 



78 Miscellaneous. 

and strongly toothed in their terminal joint. The hands and arms 
are much lighter than the body ; the fingers are tinged with rose 
colour at the base and spotted and striped with a purplish brown, 
the terminal joints of the legs with rose-colour ; the eyes are reddish 
brown ; the carapace is brownish blotched with red. This is a male 
specimen. The abdomen is six-jointed, broad, and slightly hollowed 
out opposite the second, third and fourth joints. I do not notice 
the carinse on the hands, as mentioned by Mr. Bell ; but this may be 
occasioned either by my specimen being immature, or my lens not 
being perfect : the inner margin of the first and second joints of the 
arm strongly and acutely toothed. This individual I caught in com- 
pany with Stenorhynchus Phalangium, S. tenuirostris, Tnachus Doryn- 
chus, Pisa tetraodon, and Hyas coarctatus, all of which nearly 
approach each other in their habits. Achceus Cranchii, like its con- 
geners, was covered with weeds. This crab is, when first caught, one 
of the most handsome. 

I am, Gentlemen, yours very obediently, 

William Thompson. 



GYMNETRUS BANKSII. 

Berwick, June 21. 

A specimen of this extraordinary fish was captured this morning at 
the mouth of the river ; its length is 8^ feet long, and it weighs up- 
wards of 10 stone. 

CARCHARIAS VULPES. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Weymouth, June 24, 1851. 
Gentlemen, — On Saturday the 21st, a specimen of the Fox 
Shark, Carcharias Fulpes, was caught at Wyke in a mackerel seine ; 
it measured 12 feet. I will try and get further particulars in time 
for the * Annals ' for July : this fish had been seen in the Bay some 
days before. 

I am, Gentlemen, yours very obediently, 

William Thompson. 

On the Chemnitzise. By George Barlee, Esq. 
To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Lerwick, June 20, 1851. 
Gentlemen, — In the paper you did me the favour to publish in 
your last month's ' Annals,' there is an error at page 485, line 24, that 
makes my statement appear contradictory, and which I shall feel 
obliged by your correcting. Instead of the words, " as I have only 
seen three or four of them," I beg to substitute, "as there are three 
or four of them I have not seen." Those species are, Chemnitzice 
formosa, clathrata, striolata and notata. 



Meteorological Observations. 79 

I have nothing to add to my former remarks, except that Chem- 
nitzia conspicua, which Mr. Clark considers to be a variety of C. in- 
sculpta or acuta, is clearly not so, as neither of the two latter species 
possess the very conspicuous internal transverse ribs or folds upon the 
outer lip, so apparent in the former ; which if it be not distinct, is un- 
doubtedly a variety of Chemnitzia conoidea, the only British recent 
species, I believe, that has that very peculiar character. 
I am, Gentlemen, yours very obediently, 

George Barlee. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR MAY 1851. 

Chiswick. — May 1. Very fine. 2. Clear : fine : slight frost at night. 3. Fine : 
rain at noon : cloudy. 4. Cloudy and fine : frosty at night. 5. Cloudy and 
cold. 6. Slight rain : cloudy and cold. 7. Fine, but cold. 8. Fine. 9. Fine : 
clear. 10, 11. Very fine. 12. Cloudy and fine. 13. Fine : clear. 14. Cloudy : 
clear and frosty. 15. Very clear : fine : frosty at night. 16. Very fine: densely 
clouded : rain. 17. Densely clouded. 18. Overcast : clear. 19. Cloudy : fine : 
clear. 20. Clear and cold : fine. 21. Overcast. 22. Cloudy and warm. 23. 
Hazy : fine : clear. 24. Very fine. 25. Cloudy : rain. 26 — 28. Fine. 29 — 
31. Very fine. 

Mean temperature of the month 51°*16 

Mean temperature of May 1850 51 '14 

Mean temperature of May for the last twenty-five years . 54 *13 
Average amount of rain in May 1-89 inch. 

Boston. — May 1. Fine. 2. Cloudy : rain p.m. 3. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 
4. Cloudy : rain and hail a.m. and p.m. 5. Cloudy : rain a.m. and p.m. 6. Cloudy : 
rain a.m. 7,8. Cloudy. 9. Fine. 10. Cloudy. 11. Cloudy : rain a.m. 12 r 

13. Cloudy. 14 — 16. Fine. 17. Cloudy. 18. Cloudy: rain p.m. 19. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. 20—22. Cloudy. 23, 24. Fine. 25. Cloudy. 26. Cloudy : rain and 
hail a.m. 27 — 31. Fine. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — May 1. Frost keen : hail-shower: rain- 
shower. 2. No frost, but cold : fair all day. 3. Cold : hail-showers : wind keen. 
4. Frost : hail : rain p.m. 5. Cold : dull : quiet. 6. Milder. 7. Mild and slight 
showers. 8. Dull and cloudy : rain p.m. 9. Heavy showers. 10. Dry and 
parching. 11. Wind high, but fair. 12. Fine: cloudy p.m. 13. Fine day. 

14. Very fine all day. 15. Fine : cloudy p.m. 16. Dull : slight showers. 17. 
Fine : dull p.m. 18. Wet morning: cleared and fine. 19. Hail-showers fre- 
quent. 20. Dull and showery. 21. Dull, but fair. 22. Cloudy : cold wind. 
23. Fine clear day and fair. 24, 25. Fine a.m. : slight shower p.m. 26. Fair 
and clear. 27. Fair, but chilly. 28. Fair and fine : wind strong. 29. Fair and 
fine: wind keen. 30. Fair and fine : very droughty. 31. Fair and fine : very 
warm. 

Mean temperature of the month ,, 48°*9 

Mean temperature of May 1850 49 "1 

Mean temperature of May for the last twenty-nine years ... 50 *9 
Average rain in May for twenty-four years l'89inch. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — May 1. Damp: cloudy. 2. Damp: drizzle: showers. 
3, 4. Snow-showers. 5. Bright : drops. 6. Damp : drops. 7. Clear : fine : 
clear. 8. Bright : cloudy : aurora. 9. Bright: clear. 10. Bright : fine. 11,. 
12. Cloudy : clear. 13. Fine : hazy. 14. Bright : hazy. 15. Clear : rain. 16. 
Fine: clear. 17. Cloudy. 18. Bright: clear. 19. Cloudy: showers. 20. 
Bright : drizzle. 21. Hazy. 22. Drizzle : showers. 23. Showers. 24. Fine : 
rain. 25. Showers : clear. 26. Bright : fine. 27. Damp : showers. 28. Hazy j 
drizzle. 29. Hazy : damp. 30. Showers : hazy. 31. Hazy. 



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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 44. AUGUST 1851. 



VIII. — On the Hinge of the Fossil Genus Platymya, Agassis ; 
with the description of a new species. By J. Lycett, Esq.* 

M. Agassiz proposed to constitute his genus Platymya with 
certain flattened and gaping bivalve shells whose figure differs 
sufficiently from that of other genera of fossil Myadae, and he 
characterized with precision the external features of the group ; 
but as the hinge remained unknown to him, the genus could not 
be considered as established. Subsequently M. D'Orbigny, from 
a consideration of several other species which he described in the 
1 Paleontologie Francaise/ believing that he had discovered in cer- 
tain of their moulds impressions of an internal spoon-shaped pro- 
cess, and likewise of the rib which abuts against it, concluded 
that some of the species at least were true Anatinas, and therefore 
designated them as such. On the other hand, M. Agassiz -f, 
whilst admitting the full importance of the characters noticed 
by M. D'Orbigny, and the possibility that in consequence Pla- 
tymya may be reduced to the rank of a subgenus only, states 
his impression that nevertheless it may be a good genus, and 
directs attention to an important distinction between the two 
forms, viz. that in the Anatinas the anterior region is the most 
produced, but in Platymya it is the posterior which is most pro- 
minent. M. Agassiz therefore refused to abandon his genus Pla- 
tymya, and reunited the six Anatinas of M. D'Orbigny to his 
own as additional species of Platymya. Platymya is exemplified 
in the ' Etudes Critiques ' by six species only ; the number of in- 
dividuals in each species is stated to be but very few, and that 
the form altogether had not previously been noticed by palaeon- 
tologists. All of the species pertain to the Cretaceous system of 
rocks with two exceptions, one belonging to the upper, and the 

* Read to the Cotswold Naturalists' Club, June 24, 1851. 
t Etudes Critiques sur les Mollusques fossiles, Myes, Introduction, p. xvi. 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 6 



82 Mr. J. Lycett on the Hinge of the Fossil Genus Platymya. 

remaining one to the middle division of the Oolitic system. The 
present species has claims upon our notice beyond that of a new 
species merely, inasmuch as it is the first English recorded ex- 
ample of the genus, — the first which has been identified in the 
lower division of the Oolitic system ; and lastly, it has the im- 
portant and novel advantage of having its test preserved and the 
character of its hinge clearly exposed. Although six years have 
elapsed since the publication of the ( Etudes Critiques/ the state 
of uncertainty in which the hinges of several of the genera 
therein described were left by its distinguished author has not 
hitherto been removed ; our own literature more especially is de- 
ficient in information relating to the extensive family of fossil 
Myadse : these circumstances it is trusted will be deemed a suf- 
ficient excuse for presenting a brief description of the genus Pla- 
tymya translated from the before-mentioned work of M. Agassiz. 

" The Platymyas are near to the Arcomyas in their form and 
general physiognomy, but are distinguished by a general flatness 
of the valves, by the nearly median position of the umbones, which 
are very depressed, by the extremities being much developed 
and very large. The two extremities gape much, more especially 
the posterior one. The cardinal area is much less characterized 
than in the Arcomyas ; the marginal keel which separates the 
area from the sides is not very distinct, and consequently is of 
little assistance in the determination of species. The ridges or 
folds of the sides are usually distinct, concentric and well marked 
upon the anterior side, but more indistinct and irregular upon 
the posterior. The lines of growth are not usually observed 
upon the exterior of the moulds, neither are they visible upon 
the internal moulds. Hinge unknown. The position of the 
umbones will always distinguish it from Gresslya, Homomya and 
Myopsis ; Mactromya is usually more short and convex." 

It will be perceived from the above extract, that a comparison 
of our new shell with the several species of Platymya must de- 
pend upon the external form only, inasmuch as no direct know- 
ledge of the hinge has heretofore been obtained, and the remarks 
of M. D'Orbigny are based solely upon impressions in the 
moulds. Whatever value however may be attributed to impres- 
sions in moulds must yield to a disclosure of the hinge itself, 
and in the present instance this direct evidence is combined with 
a shell whose external characters agree with those of Platymya, 
and cannot with propriety be referred to any other known genus. 

In two instances we have succeeded in exposing the hinge in 
each valve, and our definition of Platymya, derived from these 
examples, will be as follows : — 

Shell thin, nearly equivalve, transverse, compressed ; umbones 
small, depressed, contiguous, submesial ; cardinal area indistinct, 



Mr. J. Lycett on the Hinge of the Fossil Genus Platymya. 83 

its superior border having in each valve a narrow elongated 
groove with an acute edge, as in Mactromya ; both sides of the 
shell wide, more especially the posterior one, which is truncated ; 
both extremities gape slightly, more especially the posterior ex- 
tremity; ventral margin regular, curved moderately and ellip- 
tically. Hinge plate internally incrassated and lengthened pos- 
teriorly, having a single small obtuse cardinal tooth in the left 
valve and a corresponding oval pit in the right valve ; lateral teeth 
none ; muscular impressions unknown. 

The hinge apparatus maybe regarded as forming an .exception 
to the usual characters of fossil Myadse, which are for the most 
part edentulous ; the present form however can only be consi- 
dered as an aberrant modification of the same kind of hinge : the 
tooth is small ; it is of an oval figure, its greater length being 
lateral ; it projects but little, and the opposite corresponding pit 
consequently is but shallow. This kind of hinge, taken in con- 
nexion with the other characters of the shell, will be found to 
remove it from all other genera of the Myadse, both recent and 
fossil : there is nothing resembling the projecting spoon-shaped 
process and accessory tricuspid osseous rib supporting an internal 
ligament, as in Anatina ; on the contrary, there is every reason 
to believe that the ligament was external and supported upon the 
lengthened posterior grooves. The delicacy of the test and hard- 
ness of the matrix have foiled our attempts to expose the mus- 
cular impressions. 

The tendency of these details then is to support the conclusion 
of M. Agassiz with regard to the generic value of Platymya, a 
conclusion at which he arrived from a consideration of certain 
external characters only; these however constitute a generic 
entireness upon which he relied with confidence even after a 
palaeontologist of eminence had pronounced an adverse opinion, 
and he remained without the means of verifying his inductions 
by an examination of the hinge. The dental characters however 
of the several genera of fossil Myadse would seem to be of much 
less relative importance than they acquire in certain other fami- 
lies of the Lamellibranchiate Mollusks. In the fossil Myadse 
the teeth are for the most part absent altogether, the ligamental 
support being derived from a thickening internally of the poste- 
rior and superior border, forming a kind of lengthened posterior 
rib, and it is the only portion of the shell which is not thin and 
delicate. Without entering into details respecting the hinges of 
the several genera, it may suffice to mention that Mactromya, 
Goniomya, Cercomya, Ceromya, Homomya, Myopsis and Ar corny a 
have all with certain modifications this description of hinge ap- 
paratus, which should be regarded as of coordinate rank only 
with other characters which are external and arc connected with 
the general form and markings of the surface. Platymya has a 

6* 



84 Mr. J . Lycett on the Hinge of the Fossil Genus Platymya. 

similar kind of posterior elongated rib terminating anteriorly in 
a tooth and opposite corresponding fossa so small as not to form 
any projection beneath the hinge plate ; the internal moulds con- 
sequently would exhibit little of the structure of the hinge, and 
supply no sufficient data whereby its real character could be in- 
ferred. The narrow lengthened posterior groove in each valve 
resembles those in Mactromya, in which however an hiatus re- 
mains between the grooves which does not exist in Platymya. 
Ar corny a is destitute of these grooves. 

Example. Platymya Rodborensis. 




Shell compressed, subequilateral, with the posterior side wide, 
truncated, gaping moderately, the anterior extremity being nearly 
closed. The valves are equal, or with no apparent difference in 
their convexity. An obtuse and rather indistinct keel passes 
obliquely from the umbo to the infero-posterior extremity ; folds 
or ridges concentric and irregular, distinct only upon the two 
extremities of the shell, and passing over the keel bent nearly at 
a right angle. Young specimens have their lateral diameter 
comparatively greater, but like the adult shell the middle portion 
is nearly smooth. The general outline has some resemblance to 
P. tenuis (Etud. Crit. t. 10 a, fig. 5-6), but in that species the 
hinge-line is more nearly horizontal, and the posterior border of 
the shell has a much larger hiatus. Our shell has likewise 
less convexity, and its posterior aperture is much smaller than in 
P. hiantula (Etud. Crit. t. 10 a, fig. 7-13) ; to other species the 
resemblance is more remote. 

In common with other species of the genus, the general form 



Ann & Mag: .VaAM<rf.d2. Vold'.J'/aUlV 




Trintea by JlvOlmandel &. ~Wslic 



Mr. J. Morris's Palaonto luteal Notes. 85 

has some resemblance to several of the shorten Arcomyas, and 
more especially to the figure of A. ensis, Etud. Crit. t. 9. fig. 4-6 
(misprinted A. brevis), but the valves in that shell are less com- 
pressed and the umbones are more gibbose : our species how^.sr 
cannot be an Ar corny a, for M. Agassiz has satisfied himself, from 
an examination of numerous moulds, that the hinge of that ge- 
nus is without teeth ; we have fortunately succeeded in clearing 
the hinge of the shell itself in more than one specimen of Arco- 
mya, and are enabled to add our humble testimony to the same 
effect. There remains to be noticed a shell whose resemblance 
to our species is so considerable, that little doubt can exist that 
both belong to the same genus ; this is the Psammobia laevigata of 
Phillips, figured at pi. 4. fig. 1. vol. i, of the ' Geology of York- 
shire/ The resemblance of the external form to Psammobia must 
be allowed, and the hinge characters, though distinct from the 
Psammobia, are more nearly allied to its subgenus Psammotea, 
which has no tooth in the right valve ; but the figure of the tooth 
and pit in the recent shells will be found to be very different to 
our fossil ; the Psammobia likewise have an elevated nymphal cal- 
losity supporting the ligament which is wanting in the fossil. 

Though rare, our species was gregarious; several specimens 
occurred in near proximity. Height 13 lines, lateral diameter 
17 lines. 

Locality. Rodborough Hill near Stroud, where it occurs in 
the upper ragstone of the Inferior Oolite. 



IX. — Palceontological Notes. By John Morris, F.G.S. 

[With a Plate.] 

The following notes relate to some new or little-known orga- 
nisms of the chalk, and are chiefly contained in the collection of 
Mr. Wetherell of Highgate : — 

Thecidea, Defrance. Thecidium, Sow. 

The genus Thecidea, established by Defrance for certain Tere- 
bratuliform shells with a peculiar apophysary system, is very rare 
in a recent state, one species only having been obtained from the 
Mediterranean. The fossil species are not numerous : Bronn 
enumerates eight species, one from the Jurassic and seven from 
the Cretaceous formations. In this country the genus has only 
been recently noticed : Mr. Moore of Ilminster has discovered 
four in the Lias, and two others have been found in the Inferior 
Oolite, all of which are described and figured by Mr. Davidson * ; 
to these, another is now added from the Chalk. 

* Palajontographical Society, Article Brachiopoda. 



86 Mr. J. Morris's Palaontological Notes. 

Thecidea Wetherellii. PI. IV. fig. 1-3. 

T. testa parva, tenui, irregularis sublsevigata ; valva inferiori tri- 
angulari vel pentagonali, interne striata ; area brevissima, del- 
tidio magno ; valva superiori operculiformi planulata vel sub- 
convexa. 

A small^ thin and smooth shell, nearly as wide as long, of a 
pentagonal form, and triangular towards the cardinal region, 
rounded laterally and straight on the anterior margin. 

The inferior valve is attached by nearly the whole of its sur- 
face, the edges only being slightly elevated, and the beak de- 
pressed ; the cardinal area is small, and chiefly occupied by a 
large triangular, rather elongated deltidium ; besides the cardinal 
teeth, the interior beneath the deltidium is furnished with three 
laminar processes, of which the central one is generally the long- 
est and most elevated ; the inner surface of this valve is marked 
by longitudinal granular strise (fig. 3). The smaller valve is flat 
or slightly convex, and has a large apophysary system, divided 
on each side in a deep, arched or reniform sinus ; the cardinal 
process is large, and the margin of the valve is minutely gra- 
nulated. 

This species presents considerable resemblance in its general 
form to the recent T. mediterranea, and more to the T. triangu- 
laris, figured by Mr. Davidson, from the Inferior Oolite and Lias 
of England, and which is also found in the same formations as 
well as in the Great Oolite of Normandy. The apophysary system 
differs from that of the recent species in being more simple and 
less flexuous, and approaches that of T. hippocrepis, Goldf. ; but 
the dissepiment is not so broad as in that species. It is fre- 
quently attached to the shells of Ananchytes, Spatangus, and 
Inoceramus from the Upper Chalk of Northfleet, Kent, and has 
been dedicated to N. T. Wetherell, Esq., who has succeeded in 
preserving this and many other minute and rare organisms from 
the same locality. 

Talpina. 

Under this name M. von Hagenow has arranged certain pro- 
blematical branching bodies which traverse the spathose guard 
of the Belemnite, and whose position in the animal kingdom has 
not been defined, whether as belonging to the Annelides or to the 
boring Sponges. M. Hagenow remarks, that only the cylindric 
thread-like channels are left, by which the Belemnite has been 
perforated, most likely after the death of the animal, and perhaps 
only after the outer shelly substance was decayed, but evidently 
before the process of petrifaction commenced. These channels are 
close under the surface of the Belemnite, either simple or branched, 
and frequently show openings at the surface, and are filled with 



Mr. J. Morris's Palatontological Notes. 87 

chalk, and therefore appear in the brownish and half-transparent 
Belemnite as fine yellowish threads, which are still more marked 
when it is wetted or oiled. M. Hagenow * describes two species 
from the chalk of Rugen, and Quenstedtf has subsequently added 
two more ; all the forms are found in the Belemnites of the En- 
glish Chalk ; and it is somewhat remarkable that these parasitical 
bodies have been hitherto only detected in the section, Belemni- 
tella, D'Orb. — no traces of them having been observed in the 
Belemnites of the Jurassic series. 

Talpina solitaria, Hag. PI. IV. fig. 6 a. 

Simple, slender, rarely branched, cylindrical or little com- 
pressed channels, which either extend along the Belemnite in a 
straight or little-curved direction, or follow its cylindrical form 
in a spiral manner ; they are about the size of a fine knitting- 
needle, and have only simple openings. 

Talpina ramosa, Hag. PI. IV. fig. 4. 

Very fine thread-like channels which are variously branched 
or irregularly netted ; the orifices, which are visible to the naked 
eye, always exist at the end of the tubes, as well as at those points 
where the lateral channels diverge from the main one or from 
each other. 

The specimen figured is from the chalk at Norwich, and kindly 
lent me by Mr. S. Woodward. 

Talpina dendrina, Quenstedt. PI. IV. fig. 6 b, & 7. 

This form has a very dendritic appearance ; the branches are 
compressed, closely aggregated, generally arising from a common 
centre, and diverging in a somewhat radiating manner, variously 
dichotomous and rarely anastomosing. 

This form is very common on the Belemnites from Gravesend 
and Norwich, and has been figured with a view of directing the 
attention of geologists to the subject, as it is doubtful whether it 
has really arisen from organic action. 

Cliona or Clionites. Vioa, Nardo, Michelin. 

The origin of those singular organic impressions which occur 
in the shells of Inocerami and the flinty nodules of the Chalk, long 
remained in obscurity, but are now referred to the operations of 
a sponge allied to or identical with Cliona. 

The excellent monograph by Mr. Hancock on the characters 

* Jahrbuch fiir Mineral. 1840, p. 671. t Die Cephalopoden, p. 4/0. 



88 Mr. J. Morris's Palaontological Notes. 

and habits of the recent species, in a late Number of the ' An- 
nals/ is well known. 

Fossil species have been noticed in the shells of the Crag, Lon- 
don clay, the Chalk, and the Gryphsea of the Lower Greensand ; 
and Prof. M'Coy has lately described a species under the name of 
Vioa prisca, in an Avicula from the Silurian rocks. 

Mr. Parkinson (1811) appears to have first noticed these bo- 
dies as occurring in the state of siliceous casts, and suggested 
that they may have been the work of some animals of a nature 
similar to the Polypes ; and subsequently in 1814 the Rev. W. 
Conybeare * published a memoir on them, with some excellent 
illustrations of the common species, and asserting u that the ori- 
gin of these bodies was widely different from that assigned by 
Parkinson, they being in fact siliceous casts moulded in little 
hollow cells excavated in the substance of certain marine shells ; 
the work perhaps of animalcules preying on those shells and on 
the vermes inhabiting them." At the end of this paper is an 
interesting letter from Dr. Buckland which has been generally 
overlooked, as showing at that early period his suggestion that 
similar organisms which committed the ravages in the recent 
oyster, probably also effected the perforations in the shells of the 
extinct Inocerami : — 

ff The hollows that afforded a mould for the formation of these 
singular bodies appear to me to have been the work of some mi- 
nute parasitical insect. The small aperture, the cast of which 
now forms the projecting axis of each globule, was probably per- 
forated by this intruder as the entrance to his future habitation ; 
having completed this passage, and excavated at its termination 
a cell suited to his shape and convenience, he appears by the aid 
of a delicate auger or proboscis to have drilled many minute and 
almost capillary perforations into the substance of the shell on 
every side around him, taking care to leave always partitions suffi- 
cient to support the roof of his apartment. Having exhausted 
all the nourishment which could in this manner be procured with 
safety from the vicinity of this first establishment, the insect 
appears to have emigrated, and after working for itself a lateral 
passage to a sufficient distance, to have formed a new settlement 
in the midst of fresh supplies. In the recent oyster shell which 
I have transmitted, you will perceive that this process has been 
carried on, to a great extent, in the intermedial matter between 
two or three sets of the pearly plates comprising it; and yet 
without effecting the destruction of the exterior crust, or in any 
degree injuring the inner surface of the shell, which remains un- 

* * On tha origin of a remarkable class of organic impressions occurring 
in nodules of flint " (Geol. Trans. 1 ser. vol. ii. p. 328. pi. 14). 



Mr. J . Morris's Palaontological Notes. 89 

touched, and, notwithstanding these attacks, still equally adapted 
to every purpose required by the ceconomy of its inhabitant." 

We have given some illustrations of the most abundant spe- 
cies, Clionites Conybearei*, one (fig. 8) in which the siliceous casts 
of the cavities cover almost entirely the surface of an Inoce- 
ramus — a specimen presented by Mr. R. A. Austen to the Mu- 
seum of Practical Geology. Fig. 9 is a specimen filling a por- 
tion of the cast of a Belemnite from Norwich ; fig. 10 shows sim- 
ply the cavities left in the shell of an Inoceramus from Northfleet, 
Kent. Another species in a Norwich chalk-flint, C. glomerata 
(fig. 11), which appears to be distinct from the last, consists of 
one cell having an irregular globose form, obtusely tuberculated 
over the whole surface, and having two large canals diverging 
from it. 

Pearl-like bodies. — Most persons are aware that some forms of 
the conchiferous mollusks are subject to certain abnormal se- 
cretions, assuming a more or less regular form, and composed 
of fibro-calcareous matter generally arranged in a concentric 
manner ; sometimes it is solidly attached to the inner layer of 
the shell, of which it forms a portion ; at others it is found per- 
fectly free in the fleshy substance of the mollusk itself, of a sym- 
metrical shape, as in the perfect pearl. Evidence of phenomena 
resulting from similar conditions has been detected in certain 
fossil genera, but few if any instances have been recorded-)-. The 
collection of Mr. Wetherell contains many illustrative speci- 
mens ; in one, a Gryphsea (fig. 16) from the drift of Muswell 
Hill, and probably coming from the Oxford clay, is an irregular 
elongated body free at both ends, but attached by a considerable 
portion of its surface, the external lamina being continuous with 
the shell; the outer layers do not however show the regular 
fibrous arrangement of a pearlaceous body, but this may have 
been changed by subsequent mineralization. In another speci- 
men (fig. 12) the pearly body is attached to the interior of an 
Inoceramus, and shows the concentric arrangement of the fibrous 
substance, and which is better exhibited in the specimen (fig. 14), 
showing a complete section of one of considerable size, quite un- 
attached to any shell, from the Chalk of Kent, but from which 
Mr. Wetherell has obtained a few other specimens of similar struc- 
ture, varying in their dimensions. 

* Clionites Conybearei ; cells irregular, somewhat polygonal, with one or 
more papillae ; surface finely tuberculated ; connecting threads numerous. 
(References : Park. Org. Rem. pi. 8. f. 10 ; Dr. Mantell's Pictorial Atlas, 
pi. 40. f. 10.) 

t There is an indistinct allusion to the occurrence of pearls in a fossil 
state, in Woodward's ' Essay towards a Natural History of the Earth/ 1695, 
p. 23. 



90 Mr. R. Harkness on some new Footsteps in the 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. Thecidea Wetherellii, magnified. 

— 2. , ventral valve magnified. 

— 3. , dorsal valve magnified. 

— 4. Talpina ramosa, Hag. 

— 5. Figure magnified. 

— 6 a. Talpina solitaria, Hag. 

— 6 b. dendrina, Quenstedt. 

— 7- , figure magnified. 

— 8. Siliceous cast of Inoceramus, with Clionites Conybearei. 

— 8 a. Clionites Conybearei, cells magnified. 

— 9. Talpina solitaria and Clionites Conybearei in cavity of Belemnites 

mucronatus. 

— 10. Cells of Clionites in an Inoceramus shell. 

— 11. Clionites glomerata, in cavity of Bel. mucronatus. 

— 12. Pearl-like body attached to the inner shell of Inoceramus. 

— 13. Pearl-like body unattached. 

— 14. Section of ditto, showing concentric arrangement. 

— 15. Section of a Belemnite, with cavities of Clionites. 

— 16. Pearl-like body attached to a Gryphaea. 



X. — Notice of some new Footsteps in the Bunter Sandstone of 
Dumfries-shire. By Robert Ha.rk.ness, Esq. 

The quarry which has hitherto furnished the most numerous 
and well-preserved impressions of footmarks from the Bunter 
sandstone is Corncockle, in the parish of Applegarth, Dumfries- 
shire. Some few have also been obtained from the Craigs 
quarry near Dumfries; and recently the quarries at Locher- 
briggs, in the same neighbourhood, have afforded tracks of ani- 
mals. To these localities there may now be added the quarry of 
Green Mill, in the parish of Caerlaverock, which promises to 
rival Corncockle both in the number and perfection of its foot- 
steps. The nature of the sandstone in these different localities 
is similar, consisting of strata, made up of laminse of brownish 
and red-coloured sand, regularly bedded, dipping in the same 
direction and at nearly the same angle ; the only variation being 
at the Craigs quarry, where the stone is of a coarser nature than 
at the other quarries. 

With regard to the impressions which have been obtained from 
Corncockle, one of them is figured in Buckland's ' Bridgewater 
Treatise/ and referred to a Chelonian reptile ; and others are now 
being figured and described by Sir William Jardine in his new 
work ' The Ichnology of Annandale/ a publication in which the 
footprints are illustrated by coloured lithographs of the size of 
the originals, and which will form a valuable addition to our 
knowledge of the Triassic fauna, and be the first work devoted 
exclusively to Ichnology published in this country. The footsteps 



Bunter Sandstone of Dumfries-shire. 91 

to which this paper has immediate reference are procured from 
the quarries around Dumfries, and differ from those which Corn- 
cockle has hitherto afforded. Some of the impressions which are 
found in the latter locality are also common to the other quar- 
ries, but as these will be described in the work referred to, no 
further notice need here be taken of them. 

Amongst the most common footmarks which are met with is 
one in which in general there is a perfect resemblance between 
all the impressions, so much so as to induce the spectator to ar- 
rive at the conclusion that the hind and fore feet were identical 
in form. On an examination of numerous specimens this opi- 
nion would be found to be incorrect ; but, owing either to the 
nature of the substance receiving the impression, or from the 
structure of the animals which have produced them, it rarely 
happens that perfect tracks are found; the fore-feet having 
in general left no traces of their imprints, the hind feet only 
forming the impression. In a specimen in a good state of pre- 
servation from Locherbriggs quarry, in which both markings of 
the fore and hind feet are shown, the latter consist of a series of 
impressions about £ of an inch broad by about |- of an inch in 
length, curved gently in front, immediately within which there 
occur five impressions, of toes or rounded blunt claws ; the two 
outer ones being comparatively indistinct, but the three inner 
ones being broad and well-marked. At the distance of less 
than ^ of an inch in front of the impression of the hind-foot 
there is seen that of the fore one, which is less than \ of an inch 
in breadth, and commonly presents three claw-like markings 
running into each other at their sides. These toe or claw mark- 
ings are like those of the hind impression, rounded and blunt, 
and afford no other characters. In the case of the hind impres- 
sion, the front part of the foot is much more deeply marked than 
any other portion, and the sand has been thrown slightly back- 
wards, forming an elevated curved ridge at the back part of the 
impression, after the manner of the tracks which are formed by 
walking on snow. The interval which separates the impressions 
of one hind-foot from the other is about an inch, and the space 
between each of the impressions of one foot is about 2 inches. 
The distance between the right and left fore-feet markings is 
greater than between the hind impressions ; but this results from 
the comparatively small size of the former. 

This track indicates an animal of small size, but broad in pro- 
portion to its length, having its anterior extremities small, and 
its posterior ones largely developed. On the whole the characters 
are such as bear relation to Chelonia, and the animal probably 
bore some relation to the Chelichnus Duncani, Owen, found at 
Corncockle, but was probably distinct in species. It is common 



92 Mr. R. Harkness on some new Footsteps in the 

at Locherbriggs, Craigs and Caerlaverock, and rarely exceeds the 
dimensions before given, and to distinguish it may be called the 
Chelichnus plancus from its broad hind-feet. 

Another form of impression which has been only very recently 
obtained from the Green Mill quarry, Caerlaverock, is composed 
of a series of steps, consisting of markings of thick, rounded, 
blunt claws or toes. The steps, of which a slab in my possession 
affords eleven on each side, differ on the one side from those on 
the other. Those on the right side are formed of three indents, 
arranged almost in a line, but having the centre one slightly in 
advance of the other two. Behind the centre and the outer ones 
another marking similar to those in front occurs, and about the 
same distance from them as they are from each other. The dia- 
meter of each of these circular markings is about ^ of an inch ; 
and those on the left side differ from those on the right in 
having the hinder indents behind the inner one instead of be- 
tween the outer and centre ones. The indents in all the impres- 
sions are marked in front by a slight elevation, which extends 
for a distance equal to about their diameter before them ; and 
which appears to have arisen from the portion of the foot which 
caused the indents having been thrust obliquely forwards. The 
difference in the position of the hinder indent has probably been 
caused by one of the toes in each foot not having left its impress. 
No other portion of the foot has caused any marking, each step 
consisting solely of four claw-like impressions. The distance 
which separates the steps on each side from each other is less 
than the space occupied by the three front indents of each foot, 
being under an inch ; and the interval between the prints on the 
right and the left side is about 2 inches, exceeding the space oc- 
curring between the steps on either side by more than double 
the distance. 

From the impression as seen on the slab it would seem that 
the hind and fore foot were similar not only in form but also in 
size, both being large ; and the evidence which the impressions 
afford is such as to show that the animal which formed them 
was of much greater breadth than length. Altogether the cha- 
racter of the footprint, and the great distance between the feet 
on the right and those on the left side, show resemblance to a 
Chelonian form ; but this form was widely different from the one 
before alluded to, being apparently more nearly allied to Tes- 
tudinata than the previous footsteps. 

From the tortoise-like form of this step I propose to call it 
provisionally the Chelaspodos Jardini, the specific name being in 
honour of Sir William Jardine, Bart. 

On a slab of sandstone from the same locality as the before- 
described impression there are seen two distinct kinds of steps ; 



Bunter Sandstone of Dumfries-shire, 93 

one of these is of an elongated form, rounded at the anterior ex- 
tremity, and immediately within this extremity there are seen im- 
pressions of either toes or claws. Two of these on the outer side 
are shallow and comparatively indistinct; the one in front is 
deeply impressed, and the inner one contiguous to it is also well 
marked. Traces of a fifth may also be seen, but owing to the 
nature of the sand, when the animal passed over it, not being in 
a condition to receive a perfect impression, these steps are not di- 
stinctly shown. From the raised margin in front of the claw- 
like markings gradually disappearing behind, it would seem that 
the animal in its progress had pushed the sand forwards by the 
sloping manner in which it set down its feet. The breadth of 
this form of step is about | an inch, and as only the front and 
a portion of the sides are seen, its length cannot be determined. 
There are only four impressions on the slab, and the interval 
between each of these about 8 inches. The position of the steps 
is slightly inclined outwards, but as these are in a line they seem 
to belong to one side only, and have probably been produced by 
the same foot ; and as no other impressions of the same nature 
have been obtained, no conclusion can be arrived at concerning 
the form and size of the animal which produced this form of 
footprint. 

The character of the step appears somewhat allied to the Che- 
lichnus, and in order to distinguish this form it may be named 
the Chelichnus obliguus, from the oblique direction of the steps. 

The other form of impression which is associated with that 
just described, shows characters which will remove it from Che- 
Ionia, and which seem to place the animal which caused it 
amongst Saurians. 

This impression consists of a line of steps which are furnished 
with well-developed toes, three of which are very distinct, and 
two others can also be traced. The marks caused by the toes 
are much deeper and in a better state than the other parts of 
the foot ; but in one case the impress of the posterior part of the 
foot is sufficiently perfect to show that it had a rounded form, 
and was less than an inch in length, including the toes, which 
are themselves about \ an inch long ; these being broad at their 
base and tapering rapidly towards the extremity, which is pointed. 
The nature of the impressions is such as to show that these toes 
were curved ; and the step is devoid of the raised parts which are 
seen before the claws of the two preceding forms of footmarks, 
and appears to indicate that in progression the foot was put per- 
pendicularly downwards. The direction of the steps is inclined 
to the path of the animal, and the interval which lies between 
them is about 6 inches. These steps, like the preceding form, 
occur in a line, and are those of one side only ; they also seem to 



94 On new Footsteps in the Bunter Sandstone of Dumfries-shire. 

have been formed by the same foot, and therefore no inference 
can be drawn from them concerning the creature by which they 
were made : the elongated toes however seem to show some ana- 
logy to lizards, and therefore it is proposed to form a genus 
called Saurichnis for this form, and in consequence of its pointed 
toes to term it S. acutus. 

There has been found at the Craigs quarry, not on the surfaces 
of the beds, but on the faces of the laminae when the sandstone is 
divided, several indistinct impressions of various forms which 
the nature of the sandstone does not allow of being properly re- 
cognised. Along with these a form of footstep has been seen 
differing from those of the other localities, having an elongated 
form, about an inch in length, and broader at the anterior extre- 
mity than at the posterior. The space between the steps on one 
side is about 6 inches, and the interval between the correspond- 
ing impression on the right and on the left side is so small in 
comparison with the distance which occurs between the steps on 
the same side, as to show that the animal which formed them 
was of a long and narrow shape, and probably had a lacertian 
nature ; and perhaps was allied to the genus Herpetichnus which 
is found at Corncockle. Owing to the imperfect state of this 
footprint it would be premature to assign to it any name, and 
perhaps other impressions may be found which will enable us to 
trace out its affinities. 

About a month ago very perfect impressions of a batrachian 
foot were found at Green Mill, Caerlaverock, being the first 
which has been noticed in the quarries around Dumfries. In 
this instance both the hind and the fore feet have formed beau- 
tiful imprints. The former have the five toes distinctly visible, 
and the form of the sole of the foot is equally well seen. Its 
length is nearly an inch and a quarter, and its breadth about an 
inch. The hind part of the posterior impression has a curved 
form, resembling a segment of an ellipsis cut across the minor 
axis ; and the toes spread outwards and are thick ; the longest 
one being about twice the length of the sole. 

Immediately in front of the hind footmark the impress of the 
small fore-foot is seen, consisting of five thick, short toe-marks, 
having a depression behind them. The length of the stride ap- 
pears to have been about 3 inches, and the space which separates 
those on one side from those on the other is about 2 inches. 
The portion of the foot which has pressed most heavily on the 
sand is the hinder part, which has caused a deep indent and 
forced the sand forwards and upwards ; so that while the heel is 
deeply impressed, the toes are above the level of the surface of 
the plane over which the animal traversed, showing that the hind 
part of the foot came in contact with the ground first. 



On the Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 95 

This impression seems to belong to the Labyrinthodon, but 
differs somewhat from those of the Bunter sandstone of Cheshire, 
appertaining probably to another species. I propose therefore to 
call it the L. Lyelli. 

Another impression which seems to partake of a batrachian 
character is common at Green Mill ; but the animal which has 
caused it having been apparently of small size, the steps are 
rather indistinct. In this case the same difference obtains between 
the impress of the fore and hind step as marks the foregoing form. 
In the hind footmark three toes usually occur, two of which are 
longer than the sole of the foot, and the other about the same 
length. Traces of two other toes are in some instances visible ; 
but these are small, and occur one on the inner side and the 
other on the outer side of the impression. The whole length of 
the foot is commonly less than an inch, and its breadth about 
^ of an inch. About \ of an inch in front of the larger impres- 
sion are seen the marks of the fore-feet, which are in the form 
of indents ; but in some cases they present a foot-like marking 
resembling the fore-step of the Labyrinthodon. The length of the 
stride is about 3 inches, and the space between the impressions 
on the right and those on the left side is about 2 inches, distances 
somewhat similar to those in the preceding batrachian ; and the 
form of the step is such as to show some analogy between these 
two forms. The characters are however not such as to lead to 
the conclusion that the impression belongs to the Labyrinthodon ; 
and I propose to term this form of step Batrichnis, giving to this 
impression the name of B. Stricklandi, after Mr. Strickland, who 
has at different times noticed the ichnolites of Dumfries-shire. 



XI. — A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy and Systematic Arrangement. 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 44.] 

62. Clubiona lapidicolens. 

Clubiona lapidicolens, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 598. 
lapidicola, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 91 ; Sund. 

Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 139 ; Hahn, Die Araehn. B. ii. p. 9. 

tab. 40. fig. 100. 

The claim of Clubiona lapidicolens to a place among British 
spiders rests on the authority of Dr. Leach. See the Supplement 
to the 4th, 5th and 6th editions of the 'Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica/ article Annulosa. 



96 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

63. Clubiona accentuata. 

Clubiona accentuata, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 594 ; 

Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 268; Blackw. Linn. Trans. 

vol. xix. p. 115. 

punctata, Hahn, Die Arachn. B. ii. p. 8. tab. 39. fig. 99. 

Agelena obscura, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 128. 
Anyphcena accentuata, Sund. Consp. Arachn. p. 20, 21 ; Koch, 

Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 18. 

This active spider is of frequent occurrence in the woods of 
North Wales, running with great rapidity among the foliage of 
the trees, and sometimes concealing itself under the lichens 
which grow upon their trunks and branches. In June the female 
deposits about 157 spherical eggs of a pale yellowish white co- 
lour, not agglutinated together, in a lenticular cocoon of white 
silk of a very fine texture, measuring y^ths of an inch in dia- 
meter ; it is inclosed in a sac of the same material, attached to 
the inferior surface of a leaf, the sides of which are curved down- 
wards and are held in that position by silken lines connecting 
them with the sac. The female generally places herself on or 
near the cocoon, but speedily abandons it on being disturbed. 

64. Clubiona nutrix. 

Clubiona nutrix, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 601 ; 

Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 92 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. 

B. ii. p. 7. tab. 39. fig. 98. 
Drassus maxillosus, Wider, Mus. Senck. B. i. p. 209. taf. 14. fig. 8. 
Anyphcena nutrix, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 18. 
Chieracanthium nutrix, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 9. tab. 182. 

fig. 434, 435. 

According to Dr. Leach this spider has been taken once in 
England, near Cheltenham. See the Supplement to the 4th, 5th 
and 6th editions of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica/ article An- 
nulosa. 

65. Clubiona erratica. 

Clubiona erratica, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 602 ; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 115. 
Chieracanthium carnifex, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 14. tab. 184. 

fig. 438, 439. 

Specimens of this handsome species have frequently come under 
my observation when exploring the woods and commons of Den- 
bighshire. In July the female constructs a cell of white silk of 
a compact texture among the stems of gorse, heath, or the leaves 
of plants, which she curves about it and secures in that position 
by means of silken lines. In this cell she deposits about 140 
eggs of a deep yellow colour, not agglutinated together ; they are 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 97 

contained in an exceedingly delicate tissue of white silk of a sub- 
globose form, measuring ^th of an inch in diameter, which is 
attached to the surface of the cell. The female, after the depo- 
sition of her eggs, does not appear to quit the cell even for the 
purpose of procuring food. 

A collection of spiders made by the Rev. Hamlet Clark in the 
autumn of 1842, at Wappenham, in Northamptonshire, and 
obligingly placed by him at my disposal, comprised specimens of 
this species. 

Genus Argyroneta, Latr. 

66. Argyroneta aquatica. 

Argyroneta aquatica, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 94 ; 
Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 378. pi. 22. fig. 4 ; 
Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 131 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. ii. 
p. 33. tab. 49. fig. 118 ; Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes 
Heft, p. 14 ; Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 60. tab. 269. fig. 636 ; Blackw. 
Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 116. 

Argyroneta aquatica habitually passes the greater part of its 
life in the water, not only pursuing its prey in that liquid, but 
constructing beneath its surface a dome-shaped cell in which it 
places the cocoon containing its eggs ; this cell is supported in a 
vertical position, the open part being directed downwards, by lines 
of silk connecting it with aquatic plants, and, as it comprises a 
considerable quantity of atmospheric air, the spider can at all 
times occupy it without experiencing the least inconvenience. 
In swimming and diving, the body of Argyroneta aquatica is more 
or less enveloped in air confined by the circumambient water 
among the hairs with which it is clothed, the supply being always 
more abundant on the under than on the upper part in conse- 
quence of the greater length and density of the hairs distributed 
over its surface. 

This species is found in pools and ditches in various parts of 
England. It is of frequent occurrence in the fens of Cambridge- 
shire, from which locality I transported a pair to Crumpsall Hall, 
near Manchester, in the summer of 1833; each was inclosed in 
a small tin box, and did not appear to suffer materially from the 
confinement. After the lapse of ten days, during which period 
they were without water, I conveyed them to Oakland, in Den- 
bighshire, where they arrived in perfect health. On placing one 
of them in a large goblet more than half filled with water, it 
speedily formed a dome-shaped cell beneath the surface, attach- 
ing it to the side of the glass by means of numerous silken lines ; 
being well supplied with insects, it lived in this state of captivity 
till the commencement of winter, and on the temperature of the 
room in which it was kept becoming much reduced, it entered 

Ann. §■ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 7 



98 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

the cell and remained there in a state of torpidity, with its head 
downwards. A gentleman on a visit at the house, whose curio- 
sity to examine the spider minutely in its hybernaculum was 
greater than his prudence, inclined the glass so much that the 
air escaped from the cell, the water flowed in, and before I was 
informed of the occurrence the dormant inmate had perished. 

The aquatic habits of this species have induced M. Walckenaer 
to constitute with it a distinct family; but upon the same prin- 
ciple Lycosa piratica and Dolomedes fimbriatus might be sepa- 
rated from the Lycosidce, as they descend spontaneously into 
water and perform the function of respiration in that situation 
precisely in the same manner as Argyroneta aquatica does ; yet 
the position, which in conformity with their organization they 
so consistently occupy in the systematic arrangement of the Ara- 
neidea, has not been disturbed. Influenced by these consider- 
ations, and guided by the relations of affinity predominant in the 
structure of Argyroneta aquatica, I have included it among the 
Drassidce. 

Family Ciniflonida. 

Genus Ciniflo, Blackw. 

67. Ciniflo atrox. 

Ciniflo atrox, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 607. 

Clubiona atrox, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 605; Latr. 

Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 93 ; Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 

1831, p. 144 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. i. p. 115. tab. 30. fig. 87. 
Amaurobius atrox, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 15; 

Die Arachn. B. x. p. 116. tab. 355. fig. 831. 
Titulus 21, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 68. tab. 1 . fig. 21 . 

Remarkable differences in structure, functions and oeconomy 
effectually serve to distinguish the spiders belonging to the ge- 
nus Ciniflo from those of the genera Clubiona and Amaurobius 
with which they have been associated by arachnologists ; all have 
eight spinners, and have the metatarsus of each posterior leg- 
provided with a calamistrum, consisting of two parallel rows of 
spines, which is employed in the fabrication of their extensive 
and curiously constructed webs ; they are also sedentary in their 
habits, most frequently occupying crevices in rocks, walls, or the 
bark of old trees, between which and their snares a communica- 
tion is effected through the medium of one or more slight silken 
tubes. Though the importance of these characters is admitted 
by M. Walckenaer, yet he still retains the species of Ciniflo 
among the Clubionce (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. pp. 444, 
445). 

The female of this common spider in the month of June de- 
posits about 70 spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, not ag- 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 99 

glutinated together, in a cocoon of white silk of a loose texture, 
measuring / T ths of an inch in diameter ; it is nearly of a plano- 
convex figure, and is connected with the interior surface of an 
oval cell of white curled silk, on the outside of which bits of soil 
and other extraneous materials are distributed. This cell is ge- 
nerally constructed in or near the spider's retreat. 

On the 14th September 1842 I captured an adult female of 
this species in which the left intermediate eye of the posterior 
row was entirely wanting. 

68. Ciniflo ferox. 

Cinijlo ferox, Black w. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 116. 

Ctubiona ferox, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 606. 

Amaurobius ferox y Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 41 . t. 191 . f. 460,46 1 . 

Notwithstanding the superior size of this spider, it is very 
commonly confounded with Ciniflo atrox, which it closely re- 
sembles in form, colour and oeconomy ; both species are found in 
the same localities, and are abundantly distributed throughout 
the kingdom. 

Genus Ergatis, Blackw. 

69. Ergatis benigna. 

Ergatis benigna, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 608. 
Theridion benignum, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 337 ; 

Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 122. 
Dictyna benigna, Sund. Consp. Arachn. p. 16 ; Koch, Die Arachn. 

B. hi. p. 27. tab. 83. 6g. 184, 185 ; Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. 

erstes Heft, p. 12. 
Clubiona parvula, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third Series, 

vol. hi. p. 437. 
Brassus parvulus, Blackw. Research, in Zool. p. 337. 
Titulus 15, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 55. 

The various places which arachnologists have assigned to the 
spiders constituting the genus Ergatis, in their attempts to ar- 
range the Araneidea in accordance with the natural relations of 
affinity and analogy, afford a sufficient indication that the task 
of determining their true position, before the discovery of those 
marked characters which serve to connect them with the Ciniflo- 
nida>, was attended by no ordinary difficulties. M. Walckenaer, 
in his f Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt/ t. iv. p. 500, has formed with 
the species belonging to the genus Ergatis, previously included 
by him in the genera Drassus and Theridion, a small group which 
he has placed at the head of his genus Argus ; but so closely are 
they allied to the Ciniflones by their structure and functions, 
being provided with eight spinners and calamistra employed in 
the construction of their snares, that they cannot be removed 

7* 



300 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

from the family Ciniflonidce, which I have founded upon those 
characters, without doing violence to the recognised principles of 
classification. 

Ergatis benigna fabricates an irregular web of whitish silk at 
the extremity of the twigs of heath and gorse growing in various 
parts of England and Wales. It pairs in May, and in that and 
the succeeding month the female constructs two or three conti- 
guous, lenticular, white cocoons of a compact texture, measuring 
about ^th of an inch in diameter, on an average, which she at- 
taches to the stems surrounded by her web, enveloping them with 
the refuse of her prey. Each cocoon contains from 10 to 30 
spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, which do not adhere 
together. 

70. Ergatis latens. 

Ergatis latens, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 608 ; vol. xix. 

p. 117. 
Dictyna latens, Koch, Die Arachn. B. iii. p. 29. tab. 83. fig. 186. 
Theridion latens, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 340. 
Titulus 16, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 56. tab. 1. fig. 16. 

This species is found in the same localities as Ergatis benigna, 
which it resembles in habits and ceconomy. The sexes pair in 
June, and in the following month the female constructs several 
contiguous lenticular cocoons of greenish white silk of a compact 
texture, measuring about ^th of an inch in diameter, on an 
average; these she attaches to a stem of gorse or heath sur- 
rounded by her web, distributing about them the refuse of her 
prey; each contains from 10 to 16 spherical eggs of a yellow 
colour, which are not adherent among themselves. 

The statement of M. Walckenaer that this spider has the 
fourth pair of legs longer than the second (Hist. Nat. des Insect. 
Apt. t. iv. p. 501) requires correction, as the relative length of 
its organs of locomotion does not differ from that of its congener 
Ergatis benigna. 

Family Agelenidce. 

Genus Agelena, Walck. 

71. Agelena labyrinthica. 
Agelena labyrinthica, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 20 ; 

Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 129; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. ii. 

p. 61. tab. 65. fig. 150, 151 ; Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. 

erstes Heft, p. 14. 
Aranea labyrinthica, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 95. 
Titulus 18, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 60. t. l.fig. 18. 
In localities suited to its habits, this active spider is frequently 
very numerous, constructing among gorse, heath, and coarse 
herbage an extensive horizontal sheet of web, having a cylin- 



end Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 101 

drical tube connected with it which constitutes the abode of its 
possessor. The web is attached to surrounding objects by its 
margin, and derives additional support from fine lines, intersect- 
ing one another at various angles, whose extremities are in con- 
tact with its surface, and with such objects as are situated at a 
moderate elevation above it. The sexes pair in July, and in 
August the female fabricates a large sac of compact white silk, 
which comprises one or two lenticular cocoons composed of white 
silk of a fine texture, measuring about -/^-ths of an mcn m dia- 
meter, on an average. Each cocoon, according to its size, con- 
tains from 50 to 120 large spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, 
not agglutinated together, and is enveloped in a lenticular co- 
vering of strong white silk, which is made secure to the inner 
surface of the sac by silken lines closely compacted in the form 
of short strong pillars, evidently alluded to by Lister in the fol- 
lowing passage: "ipse autem folliculus stelke in modum for- 
matus est " (De Araneis, p. 62) . The sac is firmly attached to 
stems of gorse, heath, or long grass, and has usually withered 
leaves, particles of soil, and other materials of various kinds dis- 
tributed over its surface. 

In the ' Report of the Third Meeting of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, held at Cambridge in 1833/ 
p. 445, I have shown that the superior spinners of Agelena laby- 
rinthica and some other spiders have the spinning- tubes disposed 
along the inferior surface of the elongated terminal joint, and, 
consequently, that the opinion previously entertained, that the 
function exercised by these organs is simply that of touch, and 
that they are employed solely in regulating the application of the 
spinners to appropriate objects, is decidedly erroneous. 

72. Agelena elegans. 

Agelena elegans, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 619; Walck. 

Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 463. 
Hahnia prat ensis, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vih. p. 64. t. 270. fig. 639. 

Though M. Walckenaer has placed this species in the genus 
Tegenaria, yet he has omitted to change its generic name (Hist. 
Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 463) ; and, not perceiving that it 
is identical with the Hahnia pratensis of M. Koch, has also pro- 
posed to transfer it, together with the Hahnia pusilla {Agelena 
montana, Blackw.) of the latter naturalist, to the genus Argus 
(Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. pp. 465, 466, 503) ; but, as 
the generic characters of both these spiders and those of the 
Agelena appear to coincide, I can neither adopt the proposition 
of M. Walckenaer nor the genus Hahnia of M. Koch. 

Agelena elegans occurs in moist pastures near Llanrwst, and 
the males have the palpal organs fully developed in August. 



102 On the Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 

73. Agelena prompta. 

Agelena prompta, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 621. 

Agelena prompta is included by M. Walekenaer among the 
synonyma of Tegenaria emaciata (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. 
p. 462), from which species it differs in size, organization and 
colour. It conceals itself under stones in woods about Llanrwst, 
and the male has the palpal organs completely developed in Oc- 
tober. 

74. Agelena montana. 

Agelena montana, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 622. 

Hahnia pusilla, Koch, Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 61. t. 270. f. 637, 638. 

Argus montanus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 505. 

In transferring this spider to the genus Argus, with which it 
has no relation of affinity, M. Walekenaer has not perceived that 
it is specifically identical with the Hahnia pusilla of M. Koch. 

Females of this species were discovered in February 1837 
under stones, on Gallt y Rhyg, a mountain in Denbighshire, near 
Llanrwst. 

75. Agelena nava. 

Agelena nava, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 623. 
Argus navus, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 506. 

About midsummer, this species, which, notwithstanding its 
close connexion with the Agelence, M. Walekenaer has placed in 
the genus Argus (see the synonyma), may be seen in consider- 
able numbers running on the ground, and on rails and gates in 
pastures near Llanrwst. The palpal organs of the male are fully 
developed in May. 

76. Agelena brunnea. 

Agelena brunnea, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third Series, 
vol. iii. p. 351 ; Research, in Zool. p. 351. 

Agelena brunnea is of rare occurrence in woods in the valley of 
the Conway. The sexes pair in May, and in the same month the 
female constructs an elegant vase-shaped cocoon of white silk of 
a fine compact texture, attached by a short foot-stalk to rushes, 
the stems of grass, heath, or gorse ; it measures about ^th of an 
inch in diameter, and contains from 40 to 50 yellowish white 
spherical eggs enveloped in white silk connected with the inte- 
rior surface of the c©coon contiguous to the foot-stalk. Greatly 
to the disadvantage of its appearance, the entire cocoon is smeared 
with moist soil, which drying serves to protect it from the 
weather, and, as an additional security, the extremity is closed 
and directed downwards. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Liriosma. 103 

XII. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Liriosma. 

This genus, proposed by Poppig, and figured in his ' Nov. Gen/ 
tab. 239, for a species found by him near the Rio Negro, in Bra- 
zilian Guiana, is yet but imperfectly known : its characters there 
given are in many respects incorrect or incomplete. That bo- 
tanist referred it to Olacacea, it having been at first placed in 
Styracece by Endlicher. Two other species were soon afterwards 
announced, for which another new genus, under the name of 
Hypocarpus, was proposed by Prof. A. DeCandolle, in his ( Prodr.' 
viii. 245, which he considered to be more related to Styracece ; 
but he was soon undeceived, as in the addenda to the same vo- 
lume, p. 673, he recognised its identity with Liriosma. From a 
plant which I found near Rio de Janeiro in 1830, and which I 
then examined, I am enabled to complete the generic character, 
as far as regards the details of the fruit and seed, and at the same 
time, I now add my analysis of the floral structure of L. Gardne- 
riana. Both Poppig and DeCandolle describe the ovarium in 
this genus to be half imbedded in the adhering calyx ; I find on 
the contrary that although the lower moiety of the ovarium is 
glabrous, and closely invested by the fleshy cup of the calyx, it 
is yet perfectly free from it, even for a considerable period after 
the fall of the corolla ; the ovarium now increases more than the 
calyx, but at length the latter assumes the greatest increment, 
and at last wholly incloses it, becoming agglutinated with it, 
and converted into an enveloping pulp, leaving a small umbilical 
hollow in the summit and showing there the remains of its epi- 
gynous gland. The presence of a fleshy epigynous gland upon 
an inferior ovarium is a circumstance of the most ordinary oc- 
currence, where it is held to be an abortive whorl of stamens ; 
its existence upon a perfectly superior ovarium was therefore 
considered to be an impossibility, or when noticed it was always 
described as a mere basal enlargement of the style ; but I have 
shown that in Hyoscyamus this anomaly really exists, and have 
since met with the same occurrence in several other instances. 
In the present case, its development is most decidedly marked, 
under the form of a prominent, rounded, fleshy disk, distinct in 
colour and texture, and exterior to the true pericarpial mem- 
branes. It is still more prominent in Schopfia, and is found 
with a greater or less degree of development in most of the ge- 
nera of the Olacacea and Santalacece. The internal structure of 
the ovarium accords with the character pointed out by Mr. Ben- 
tham, as a prominent feature of one of his tribes of the Olacacea, 



104 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Liriosma. 

where its central placentation divides at its base into pseudo-dis- 
sepiments, leaving the summit of the internal space always free 
and unilocular, and the ovules suspended in that free space from 
the common apex of these incomplete divisions. This structure 
is decidedly marked in Liriosma, where the ovarium is 3-locular 
at base, with one ovule in each half- cell, suspended from the in- 
ternal angle of these incomplete divisions, and here the apices of 
the ovules, rising above the points of suspension, are seen conni- 
vent in the perfectly unilocular summit of the ovarium. Of these 
ovules, as in the Olacacece and Santalacece, only one is perfected 
in the fruit, which becomes an oval crimson-coloured drupe, con- 
taining a putamen covered by pulp and inclosing a single albu- 
minous kernel that fills its cavity ; this exhibits externally a di- 
stinct raphe-like thread, extending from the base to the summit, 
as if the seed were suspended by a funicular support ; but it will 
be seen that this thread partakes in no degree of the character 
of a true raphe, but is merely the remains of the pseudo-disse- 
piments, extended with the growth of the seed, and forced into 
a groove formed by pressure along its sides, there being seen at 
its summit a small cruciform extremity, resulting from the 
abortive ovules, similar to the structure that forms so remarkable 
a character of the Santalacece, as first pointed out by Mr. Robert 
Brown. This same appearance is well defined, and a true expla- 
nation of its origin is given by Mr. Bentham, in his excellent 
memoir upon the Olacacece, in the 18th volume of the ' Linnsean 
Transactions ' : he had observed the same structure in the genera 
Olax, Heisteria and Schopfia, but its true nature had been mis- 
taken by other botanists. The development of the seed in Liri- 
osma is therefore identical with that of Schopfia, a genus referred 
by Mr. Brown to Santalacece, but which Mr. Bentham first 
placed among the Olacacece with great reason ; and this proves 
that the views of the former, in regard to the close affinity ex- 
isting betwen these families, are founded upon truth, and I will 
presently adduce other proofs of their validity. The stamens, 
both fertile and sterile, in Liriosma, in form and structure 
resemble those of Olax : and L. Gardneriana and the typical 
species have their three fertile stamens placed in an alternate 
position, between each second petal and their six sterile stamens, 
intermediate between them, which are of course placed opposite 
the six petals. With the exact number and position of the sta- 
mens in the other species we are not informed, but I believe that 
in this genus, as in Olax, the real normal number of petals is 
six, with six fertile and six sterile stamens, the former being 
always alternate with, the latter opposite to, the segments of the 
corolla. 

The following is an amended generic character of Liriosma, 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Liriosma. 105 

drawn up from my own observations ; and after the enumeration 
of its species, I purpose subjoining some remarks upon the affi- 
nities of the order to which it belongs : — 

Liriosma, Popp. Hypocarpus, A. DC. — Calyx parvus, carnosus, 
cupuliformis, disco adnatus, margine libero, crenato, vel obso- 
lete 5-dentato, augescens, et ad fructum demum coalitus, eum 
tegens. Petala 6, saspe usque ad medium geminatim laxe 
connata, carnosa, sestivatione valvata, apice processubus toti- 
dem inflexa. Stamina fertilia 3, petalis alterna, dimidio bre- 
viora, et ante suturam cuj usque paris sita, e margine disci cu- 
puliformis orta ; filamenta complanata, pilis longis cottoneis 
barbata, demum glabra, libera, vel ad petalas imo ssepius laxe 
agglutinata, connectivo crasso lato continua ; anthera introrsse, 
ovatae, cordatse, 4-lobse, 4-loculares, 4-valves, valvarum mar- 
gine alterutro vicissim dextrorsum et sinistrorsum intrinsecus 
soluto, hinc longitudinal iter dehiscentes. Stamina sterilia 6, 
petalis opposita, et vix longiora, filamenta carnosula, longe 
barbata, demum glabra, apice appendiciformia et bifurcata, 
laciniis subulatis, acutis, tenuioribus. Pollen subglobosum, 
vesiculis 3 sequidistantibus notatum, integumentis tenuissimis. 
Discus hypogynus, cupuliformis, carnosus, calyce brevior et eo 
adnatus, ad marginem liberum inflexum petala et stamina suf- 
fulciens. Ovarium ovatum, per dimidium inferiorem disco cir- 
cumdatum, et illic glabrum, primo omnino liberum, cito ad- 
natum, superne conicum, glandula magna epigyna crassa car- 
nosa pilosa undique tectum, imo dissepimentis incompletis 
3-loculare, summo 1-loculare. Ovula 3, anatropa singulatim 
in loculis spurii sab axi placentifero centrali (cionospermio) 
suspensa, apicibus in loculi summo indiviso simul conniventia. 
Stylus simplex, inclusus. Stigma capitatum, sub-3-lobum. 
Drupa baccata, ovata, monosperma, calyce adnato tecta, apice 
umbilicata. Putamen subtenue, coriaceum. Semen loculum 
implens, sulco longitudinali pro receptione raphes spurii (e 
cionospermio in filum extenso) impressum. Integumentum 
tenuissimum. Embryo in albumen dense carnosum infra 
apicem inclusus, brevis, cotyledonibus minutis, ovatis, com- 
pressis, radicula ovata, umbilico proxima, supera. — Frutices 
Brasilienses ; folia alterna, breviter petiolata, ovata, integra (ra- 
rius subdentata ?), punctata ; racemi axillares, breves, pauciflori ; 
iiovesparvi,pedicellati; pedicellis ebracteatis, articulatis ;Jiorum 
partes prcemolles interdum sese laxe agglutinantes. 

1. Liriosma Candida, Popp. (Nov. Gen. iii. 33. tab. 239) ; — foliis 
ellipticis, utrinque acutis, obiter remoteque serratis, vel inte- 
ferrimis, utrinque glaberrimis ; racemis axillaribus, corym- 



106 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Liriosma. 

bosis, plurifloris, folio dimidio brevioribus, calyce petalisque 

lineari-lanceolatis, glabris, istis extus virenti-cinereis. — Prov. 

Rio Negro Brazilise, circa fluv. Teffe, confluentem Amazo- 

nicum. 

The leaves are described as being 5 inches long, 2 inches broad, 
the flowers supported by two bracts, the calyx obsoletely denti- 
culate, the petals thickened at their summit, 3-nerved, and cori- 
aceous. 

2. Liriosma pauciflora, A. DC. Prodr. viii. 673; Deless. Icon. 
Sel. v. 18. tab. 41. Olax pauciflora, Bth. Linn. Trans, xviii. 
678; Lond. Journ.Bot. ii. 375. Hypocarpus pauciflorus,^.DC. 
Prodr. viii. 246 ; — foliis ovatis, obtusis, junioribus cum ramulis 
pedicellisque pubescentibus; pedunculo axillari brevi, 1-3-floro, 
et pedicellis calycibusque molliter puberulis. — Prov. Bahia ad 
Serra d'Acuruk; v. s. in herb. Hook. (Blanchet, n. 2795). 

The above characters are wholly taken from the description of 
Mr. Bentham, who also states that the ovarium is adnate to the 
calyx ; the lower half is without doubt subsequently so, by the 
intervention of the cupular disk, but I suspect that at an earlier 
stage it is entirely free from the disk, as occurs in L. Gardne- 
riana : the upper uncovered moiety, as in that species, is covered 
with short erect hairs. The only specimens known were collected 
by Blanchet in the Serra d'Acuruk or Acu^,, — the rich diamond 
district discovered a few years ago in the province of Bahia. 

3. Liriosma Gardneriana, A. DC. Prodr. viii. 679. Olax Gard- 
nerianus, Bth. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. 375. Hypocarpus Gard- 
nerianus, A. DC. loc. cit. viii. 216; — foliis lanceolato-oblongis 
vel ovato-oblongis, acuminatis, apice obtusiusculo, imo subro- 
tundatis, textura teneris, ramulisque glabris; racemulo brevi 
4-12-floro, pedicello pedicellisque pulverulentis, calyce petalis- 
que extus glabris, ovario pubescente. — Prov. Ceark, Serra de 
Araripe, prope Bomjardim (Gardn. n. 1957). 

This is a small tree about 12 feet high, with odoriferous 
flowers, and with leaves mostly 3 inches long, 1^ in. broad, on a 
petiole of 2 or 3 lines ; the petals are of a sulphur-yellow colour, 
linear, 3 lines long, thick, fleshy, and quite glabrous. The six 
sterile stamens are two-thirds the length of the petals, and are 
always placed opposite to them ; the three fertile stamens are 
shorter, and situated at points between each second petal, and 
are therefore alternate with them; all the filaments are free 
above, but adhere at their base to the petals for the length of a 
quarter of a line, by which agglutination these are formed into 
three distinct bifid petals, cleft nearly to the ba^e ; but the fila- 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Liriosma. 107 

ments are easily detached, and then the united petals separate of 
themselves, thus showing the corolla to be in no degree gamo- 
petalous ; the four anther-cells open by two longitudinal lines, as 
above described, and are filled with a number of pollen-grains, 
aggregated into a mass, by a quantity of loose yellowish grumous 
matter : the pollen-grains are roundish, with three globular 
equidistant, marginal vesicles, each terminated by a mammillary 
point ; they are extremely thin in texture : all the filaments, both 
sterile and fertile, are covered with long white cottony hairs, 
which ultimately become glued to the petals. The ovarium is 
half immersed in the cupuliform disk ; the exserted moiety is 
covered by the fleshy epigynous gland, which is hairy : before 
aestivation, the lower portion of the ovarium is quite free from 
the enveloping disk, but it soon becomes agglutinated to it, by 
the same mucilaginous exudation (probably evolved by the disk) 
that glues the base of the stamens to the petals : even after the 
ripening of the flower, the cupuliform disk is most easily separated 
from the ovarium, without the slightest rupture of the parts ; but 
it cannot be torn away from the calyx without laceration. 

4. Liriosma Velloziana, A. DC. Prodr. viii. 673. Olax Velloziana, 
Bth. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. 375 ; — ramulis glabris, foliis 
obovatis, acuminatis, et mucronulatis, basi obtusiusculis, re- 
ticulato-venosis, nervis divaricatis, utrinque glaberrimis, petiolo 
brevi, canaliculato ; racemo brevi, axillari, 3-5-floro; ovario 
pubescente ; fructu ovali, incarnato, pulpa molli. — Rio de Ja- 
neiro. 

The leaves are smaller than the last species, about 2 or 2| inches 
long, 1^ inch broad, on a petiole 3 lines in length; they are 
acuminated from the middle of the leaf, and are more fleshy and 
opake : the raceme is shorter ; the drupe is oval, 9 lines long, 
6 lines in diameter, polished, and of a light scarlet colour, with a 
circular brownish depression in the apex ; it is soft and fleshy, 
inclosing a thin subosseous putamen ; the details of the structure 
of its seed will be found in the following remarks on the affini- 
ties of the natural order to which it belongs*. This is a low 
growing tree, which I found in the wooded margins of the bay 
of Jurujuba; it is among Gardner's collection, no. 5380f. 

* These will appear in the next Number of this Journal. 

f A representation of this plant and an analysis of its fruit, together 
with the details of the floral structure of the preceding species, will be given 
in plate 3 of the ' Contributions to Botany/ &c. 



108 Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzia?. 

XIII. — Further Observations on the Chemnitzise. 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Exmouth, July 18, 1851. 

After the many admissions to the ' Annals * I have lately been 
favoured with, I would gladly have withdrawn for a moment 
from the invasion of its pages, but an unexpected discovery, 
which was so forlorn a hope, that even the Gods would hardly 
have dared to promise the fulfilment of, having occurred, I am 
irresistibly led to present myself again to your notice, lest I should 
be guilty of a neglect to science, to the * Annals/ and its readers. 
I announce the discovery of one of, perhaps, the rarest of the 
British Gasteropodan unrecorded molluscan animals, the shell of 
which I found near thirty years ago at this place ; and my then 
specimens, I believe, passed into Mr. Jeffreys' hands, but by some 
strange omission this elegant object has until very lately remained 
without a name ; the cause has perhaps been its anomalous aspect ; 
as soon as I was aware of this circumstance I flew to the rescue 
of my own discovery, and in the ' Annals/ vol. vi. p. 459, N. S., 
I hazarded a conjecture of its position, and honoured my protege 
with the name of a lady of distinguished science ; I need scarcely 
say that the species I allude to is the Chemnitzia Gulsona. This 
rare creature was met with in the coralline zone of the South 
Devon coast, at Exmouth, in thirteen fathoms water -, it remained 
alive three days, and furnished me with the minutes I now sub- 
mit. It is necessary to say, that my friend Mr. Jeffreys did not 
concur with me in my opinion of the natural position of the ani- 
mal, and announced his conflicting views in the ( Annals/ vol. vii. 
p. 27, N. S. 

I also send descriptions of four other rare unrecorded Chem- 
nitzia ; that on the C, Sandvicensis being a continuation of the 
paper in the ' Annals/ vol. vii. p. 388, N. S. 

Chemnitzia Gulsonce, Clark. 

Animal inhabiting an elongated, slender, hyper-hyaline shell 
of six rounded volutions, the body occupying half the axis, with 
a large patulous, sinuated, and a little outwardly reflected aper- 
ture, the peristome of which is entire ; the animal rarely pro- 
trudes the eyes and tentacula ; the tip of the effete muzzle, the 
mentum of authors, is only seen, and also a part of the foot, 
which is so short as almost to allow of progression within the 
aperture. The shell is of such hyaline purity as to give a full 
view of the organs as if they were without that protection ; the 
mantle is flake-white and even with the shell j the neck is very 



Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzia?. 109 

long, cylindrical, like that of the Chem. spiralis, and finely trans- 
versely corrugated, ending at the tentacula, which, though some- 
what apart, are united by the usual membrane of the Chemnitzice ; 
they are thick, broad, short, not very membranous, rounded at 
the tips, which have the characteristic minute flake-white lobe or 
inflation. The black eyes are not very near together ; they are 
immersed exactly and close to the base of each tentaculum on 
minute white circles ; they do not in the least invade the area of 
the neck, but rather impinge on the stamens of the tentacula. 
The effete muzzle or mentum is undoubtedly the continuation of 
the neck, and has no connection with the foot, which position I 
propose to show in a separate work ; it is long, slender, grooved 
at the margins anteally and on each side, the upper and lower 
surface being perfect and unbroken ; the vertical fissure of the 
mouth is under the tentacular awning. The foot is of the palest 
frosted yellow, exceedingly short, narrow, deeply bifurcated in 
front, at rest rounded behind, and a little lengthened in action. 
The animal examined was an " Alma Venus," and when fully re- 
tracted occupies the fourth volution ; then the light green liver, 
and very pale red granular ovarium, occupy the three primary 
volutions ; but when the animal is fully out in the body of the 
shell, the liver and ovarium are altogether withdrawn from the 
first whorls, leaving them perfectly hyaline, and they are then 
deposited in the lower part of the third and the whole of the 
fourth volution, the other parts of the body and organs being in 
the fifth and sixth. The narrow arcuated branchial plume of 
about 15-18 rather coarse, opake, pale drab strands, and with 
the auricle and heart, distinguished by their intense snow-white 
colour, is perfectly visible, under a powerful Coddington lens, 
at the smaller and posterior end of the branchial plume. I have 
been thus particular as to the site of the organs, because I never 
met with a shell so perfectly hyaline in which their position 
could be so well seen. The operculum is an almost invisible 
film, pear-shaped or suboval, with a narrow border of pale bistre 
with a pinkish hue ; the striae of increment radiate as in most of 
the other Chemnitzice ; it is fixed on a plain lobe near the pos- 
terior extremity. I saw no ornamental appendages to the head 
and neck. In this example the apex is subreflexed, and there is 
a rudimental denticle on the pillar lip. Axis y 1 ^, diameter & 
uncise. 

This very rare animal is an undoubted Chemnitzia, and pro- 
bably the first of the species that has ever been seen alive. To 
add to the interest of this little narrative, I state, that Mrs. Gul- 
son, who last year allowed me the honour of attaching her name 
to this elegant shell, examined and saw her namesake in a living 
state. 



110 Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzise. 

Chemnitzia Sandvicensis, Walker, Test. min. rariora. 
Odostomia dolioliformis, nonnull. 

Animal inhabiting a white spirally striated subglobose shell of 
four volutions, with a reflexed apex and strong fold on the pillar. 
The colour throughout is hyaline pale azure. Mantle even with 
the apertural margin, except a slight canaliculation at the upper 
angle of the right side. The proboscidal muzzle, which some 
call the mentum, is the exact characteristic essential shape of the 
tribe ; in quietude it scarcely extends to the anterior margin of 
the foot, but on the march it considerably precedes that organ. 
The tentacula are proportionately longer than in its congeners, 
not so triangular, nor furnished with such broad lateral mem- 
branes, nor do they coalesce so decidedly as in some species to 
form a veil; nevertheless they are bevelled and subtriangular, 
with the eyes at the internal bases. The tip of each tentaculum 
has a point of flake-white, giving, I think, only the appearance of 
a slight inflation, or it may be real for a limited period, caused 
by the contraction of the muscle of the tentaculum. 

The foot is a singular deviation from that organ in the typical 
species ; it is short, broad and blunt, truncate anteriorly, there 
often twisting itself into acute angles, which, when they happen 
to fall in a line with the true tentacula, give the appearance of a 
pair on each side, but a change of position instantly makes that 
appearance disappear ; the anterior third portion of the foot is 
somewhat contracted ; at this point a transverse groove appears, 
from the centre of which another longitudinal one proceeds to 
the posterior end, dividing the foot below the transverse portion 
into two suboval lobes, each rounded at its termination and 
separated by an emargination : whether these grooves are only 
depressions or solutions of continuity, I could not in so minute a 
creature satisfactorily determine; but the appearance is a foot 
formed of three lobes, an anterior and two suboval lateral ones 
with rounded termini. This is the great singularity, and mala- 
cologists would constitute a genus for it, but in all the essential 
points it is a decided and typical Chemnitzia. The operculum 
is fixed on a plain, not extended lobe ; it has the flap-process or 
apophysis of the tribe, not in the same plane, but inflexed at 
right angles ; on each side the notch that receives the tooth it 
is cartilaginous and flexible in this species, and the striae of in- 
crement range in elliptical curves, as in the typical Chemnitzia 
pallida. 

The animal is not lively, at least the only one I have examined 
was not so, and it is possible more active creatures, which are 
exceedingly rare, may cause some modification of the points de- 
scribed. It inhabits the littoral zone, and is unrecorded. Axis 



Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzise. Ill 

T l j, diameter y 1 ^ uncise. This description will be the sequence of 
my account of the shell in a former Number of the ' Annals of 
Natural History/ 

A second example has shown, that the transverse groove in 
the foot does not exist, and that in the first specimen it was 
due to contraction, which when it is completely developed dis- 
appears ; nevertheless the structure is peculiar : at rest it is sub- 
oval, but divided into two portions by an apparent superficial 
line due to colour ; when fully deployed, the anterior one is con- 
stricted, slender, attenuated, capable of great extension, slightly 
auricled and emarginate, subhyaline white ; the posterior portion 
is suboval, short, broad, fleshy, of an opake pale drab, divided by 
a deep medial longitudinal fissure, that seems almost to penetrate 
the integuments into two lobes, forming together a rounded 
termination with a narrow central emargination. 

Chemnitzia decussata, Montagu. 

Animal inhabiting a pale drab spiral decussated shell of 4-5 
volutions ; it is hyaline white, except the proboscidal muzzle, that 
passes for the mentum with some malacologists, which is pale 
pink or red. The mantle is even. The muzzle of this species is 
less lobed and more truncate than in its congeners, but it has 
at times varying phases ; it is small, subcylindrical and narrow, 
and on the march, as is the invariable practice in all the species, 
it is in advance of the anterior portion of the foot, which, like 
the terminus of the rostrum, is truncate and without the auri- 
cular points at the angles ; it is rather broad, and when extended 
reaches halfway on the antepenultimate volution, posteriorly be- 
coming a little constricted, and has a very rounded termination. 
The tentacula are triangular, bevelled laterally, pointed, with the 
usual two minute flake-white lobes at the tips, which may be 
partly real, but principally simulations that depend on the will 
of the animal ; the lateral membranes, which are not so extensive 
as in some species, coalesce and form a shallow veil ; the eyes 
are very close together strictly at the internal bases, not im- 
mersed, but are a little elevated on minute prominences. We 
may remark, that in this tribe the membranes on both sides of 
each tentaculum simulate all kinds of shapes and foldings, which 
have been termed auriform or subtubular ; these are deceptions, 
and due to the will of the animal, as on the march the tentacula 
are always carried in a regular, smooth, triangular, bevelled po- 
sition ; these changes from one form to another only occur when 
the animal is disquieted by position ; then they are frequently 
and suddenly made, and as quickly assume a natural form. The 
operculum is of a narrow, rather elongated oval shape, carried on 
a simple lobe at some little distance from the posterior terminus 
of the foot ; it has the usual characteristic right-angled semi- 



112 Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzise. 

cartilaginous minute notched apophysis and oblique strise of the 
tribe. 

The animal is not at all shy, progresses rapidly, and inhabits 
the coralline zone at Budleigh Salterton, where we have taken it 
in twelve fathoms water, more than once, alive. The animal has 
not been described. 

Chemnitzia elegantissima, Montagu. 

Animal inhabiting a white spiral elongated glabrous shell of 
12-16 costated volutions ; it is, except the eyes, hyaline-white 
throughout. The produced rostrum, the mentum of some authors, 
is on the upper surface deeply medially grooved, and at the ter- 
mination imperforate ? there is at its clavate extremity a vertical, 
and a little below a linear transverse deeply impressed line, both 
having the appearance of a breach of continuity, though perhaps 
not really so. I mention these circumstances in this species to 
excite attention, as they are more developed than in such of its 
congeners as I have examined. The rostrum is conspicuously 
carried before the foot on the march, when it appears truncate, 
but at rest is rounded and sinuated as in C. pallida. The foot is 
also truncate, very slightly auricled ; the upper flap-skin or real 
mentum does not reach to its margin ; it is narrow, not very 
long, attenuates and tapers to a rounded broad extremity, car- 
rying at a short distance therefrom, on an obsolete lobe, a 
narrowish pear-shaped obliquely striated corneous operculum 
that has a subelastic rectangular apophysis, not notched in the 
centre, as the fold or denticle in this species is not usually 
visible; but in those examples where it is more or less pro- 
nounced, the notch is proportionately marked. The tentacula 
are short, triangular and pointed, having large lateral mem- 
branes which coalesce to half their altitude, and are capable of 
assuming various shapes, as the auriform, the semitubular, and 
longitudinal folds on the stamens, and of again being, as if ma- 
gically, returned to a smooth, pointed, correctly bevelled, un- 
folded, symmetrical condition, coalescing regularly at the bases ; 
all these phases are effected by the will of the animal ; in short, 
the tentacula in this creature have an arcuated, leaf-like, broadly 
subtriangular aspect, scarcely showing inflations at the obtuse 
tips; the eyes are at a little distance from the internal line of 
the bases. 

This elongated animal of sixteen volutions differs in no essen- 
tial point, and scarcely in specialties, from its pigmy congeners 
of three turns, whether they be smooth, costated, toothed, or 
edentular ; emphatically pronouncing as impossible, on reasonable 
grounds, a generic division of the family : all the species must, 
I think, range as Chemnitzia. I have omitted to say, that the 
mantle is even, plain, scarcely showing a trace of branchial cana- 



Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzise. 113 

liculation. This is the first year I have succeeded in obtaining 
live examples, which occurred in the littoral zone off Budleigh 
Salterton, where in former years I have taken abundance of fresh, 
excellent shells, but always without the inhabitant. The exist- 
ing malacological notes on this animal are so meagre, that the 
present account may almost be considered as that of an unre- 
corded creature. 

Chemnitzia pusilla, Philippi, tab. 28. fig. 21. 
Chemnitzia var. elegantissima, Ajaglorum. 

A single live specimen of this very distinct species has occurred, 
which enables me more decisively than in any of its congeners, to 
insist on the position, that the eyes and tentacula are planted 
across the rostrum (miscalled the mentum), which is an un- 
doubted continuation of the neck. What has led to the idea that 
the so-called mentum belongs to the foot, is that the pedal union 
with the general body of the animal is in this tribe a little more 
anteally advanced than in the Rissoa of similar proportions, 
thus giving the neck, and its sequence the rostrum, an apparent 
connection with the foot, which, if really organically viewed, it 
does not possess. 

It will only be necessary to notice the variations of the C, pu- 
silla from its more stately congener the C. elegantissima ; it is, as 
respects the shell, not half the size, much more tumid, and does 
not taper in the decided manner of an example of that species of 
similar size. The variations of the malacology are more pro- 
nounced : the foot is much longer, extending on the march to 
the third basal volution, and terminating in almost a needle 
point ; whilst in the other, in a similar condition, it is quite 
rounded, and does not reach beyond the body-whorl. In the 
t( pusilla, >} the tentacula when spread have the membranes united 
almost to the extremities, which are minute and pointed, so that 
they appear in action a single united leaf; in its congener they 
are more triangular, less, though greatly, membranous, and do 
not unite above half their length, and have very obtuse termi- 
nations. The C. pusilla has a palish purple streak on each ten- 
taculum, and on each side the rostrum ; this little fact is not 
without its value, as it proves pretty clearly, that the rostrum, 
miscalled the mentum, belongs to the neck and tentacula, and 
not to the foot : in the C. elegantissima both the same parts are 
hyaline-white. The two inhabit together the same littoral levels 
at Littleham Cove. I now take leave of the Chemnitzia, and will 
not again allude to them, unless I am compelled, as an " ultima 
ratio," or to communicate decidedly new facts. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark, 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 8 



114 M. L. R. Tulasne on the Reproductive Organs 

XIV. — On the Reproductive Organs of the Lichens and. Fungi 
(First Part). By M. L. R. Tulasne*. 

Among the various products originating on the thallus of the 
Lichens, the black points to which the attention of botanists has 
been recently directed by M. Itzigsohn, are not those least worthy 
of thorough examination. Long known to lichenographers, these 
points have been taken sometimes for parasitic Fungi of the order 
Pyrenomycetes, sometimes for anomalous fructifications, or even 
for peculiar species of Lichens. With regard to their organi- 
zation, M. von Flotow, who seems to be the last who has spoken 
of them, appears to consider them as little utricles filled with a 
mucilage in which swim cylindrical corpuscles of extreme tenuity, 
animated with a molecular motion. In his eyes these corpuscles 
are spores in a rudimentary condition, destined however subse- 
quently to become perfect reproductive organs. M. Itzigsohn, 
on the other hand, has been induced to regard the points in 
question as antheridia analogous to those of the Mosses and He- 
patiese, and the corpuscles they contain as animalcules endowed 
with a movement of translation. He affirms that these cor- 
puscles become developed, like the spermatozoids already known, 
within lenticular cells seemingly imbedded in the green tissue 
of the Lichen. Like MM. Kiitzing and Von Flotow, I have not 
been able to witness the vital motion attributed to these cor- 
puscles, even by employing the means recommended for the pur- 
pose ; and far from seeing them originate in special cells like the 
spermatozoids of the Muscinese, I have satisfied myself that they 
are developed on the surface of a basidigerous hymenium, and owe 
their origin to an acrogenous vegetation. 

Whatever resemblance there may be, at first sight, between 
the black or brown points in question and the antheridia of the 
stemless Jungermannise for instance, — that a kind of mucilage, a 
white, gray, or brownish pulp is poured out by both, — the ele- 
ments of this substance and the structure of the organ in which 
it is elaborated are unlike in the two cases. In the Lichens, the 
pulp effused from the thallus is composed solely of linear bodies 
which are very short and slightly curved, or more elongated and 
thin, either strongly curved into an arc or more or less flexuous ; 
but these corpuscles never appear to present cilia or appendages 
of any kind, and their confused movements do not differ from 
the molecular trembling described by Mr. Brown; in a word, 
they do not possess the characters which distinguish those sin- 
gular beings engendered in antheridia properly so-called. 

They differ no less, as I have said, in their mode of develop - 

* Translated from the Comptes Rendus for March 24, 1851. 



of the Lichens and Fungi. 115 

ment. The globule or conceptacle which produces theui is im- 
bedded iu the thallus of the Lichen, commonly beneath an ob- 
scure point or a prominence which reveals its presence. Some- 
times it possesses special walls, and may be extricated entire from 
the tissue in which it seems to grow as a foreign and parasitic 
body (for example, in Parmelia physodes) ; more frequently it is 
intimately connected with the parenchyma of the Lichen, and its 
form only marked there by its peculiar colour. In other Lichens 
it is divided into a number of loculi, sinuous cavities, by various 
processes, or more or less perfect partitions. Whatever may be 
the internal organization, it opens on the surface by a rounded 
pore, little converging slits or irregular chinks. 

The corpuscles which emerge through these orifices originate 
like acrogenous spores, isolated or twin, upon the cells which 
form the internal walls of the globule, or laterally from monili- 
form filaments, or various processes lining the cavity. Sometimes 
a long filament, which becomes divided into a variable number 
of corpuscles, becomes developed in place of one of these cor- 
puscles. This genesis has nothing really in common with that 
of the spermatozoids, which all originate in the interior of special 
cells, from which they disentangle themselves soon after their 
exit from the antheridium. But the circumstance that approxi- 
mates the corpuscles in question to true spermatozoids is their 
equal tenuity ; for, with a thickness which appears scarcely equal 
to a thousandth of a millimetre, the majority measure not less 
than three thousandths of a millimetre in length ; some are eight 
or ten times as long, but no thicker. 

Taking into consideration the whole of the characters presented 
by these point-like conceptacles, which I propose to call spermo- 
goni, one would be inclined to regard them as foreign bodies on 
the Lichen, as parasites upon its thallus, analogous to the Sep- 
toria, Phyllosticta, and other minute Fungi which live upon 
fading leaves, aware of course that these latter possess an orga- 
nization almost identical with that just described. Yet there 
will be hesitation in deciding thus, when it is recollected how fre- 
quent these spermogoni are on the thallus of almost all Lichens, a 
frequency sometimes so great as to exclude all normal organs of 
fructification (I have seen examples in Endocarpon fluviatile and 
E. hepaticum) ; that is to say, if the ascigerous apothecia alone 
deserve this name. The examples furnished by Verrucaria and 
analogous genera have also much weight on the question. It 
may be ascertained in V. atomaria, that its apothecia, when ob- 
served at a certain age, inclose at the same time and in great 
numbers both corpuscles wholly resembling those contained in 
the spermogoni of other Lichens, and fertile spores of the well- 
known structure. It is further observable that the development 

8* 



116 M. L. R. Tulasne on the Reproductive Organs 

of these corpuscles (which might be called spermatid) precedes 
that of the spore-bearing cells, for the young apothecia are 
densely filled with the first before the second have acquired a re- 
cognizable form. On the dissociated thallus of V. epidermidis, 
seminiferous perithecia and other smaller conceptacles contain- 
ing only the linear corpuscles or spermatia occur scattered and 
intermingled, and it is impossible to avoid regarding those two 
kinds of perithecia as belonging to one and the same plant. 

An examination, both of other crustaceous Lichens (e. gr. Ur- 
ceolaria scruposa, cinerea, Lecanora atra, circinata, Placodium 
murorum, radiosum, Squamaria lentigera, &c.) and of foliaceous 
Lichens (e. g. Parmelia tiliacea, aipolia, Acetabulum, Gyrophora 
hirsuta, pustulata, Loboria pulmonacea, Sticta glomulifera } her- 
bacea, &c), will in like manner show that the Itzigsohnian cor- 
puscles or spermogoni which occur in them must belong to them ; 
and it is impossible to doubt that they are peculiar organs of 
these plants, unfairly neglected by liehenographers hitherto. This 
opinion may be expressed with the more assurance since it is by 
no means the case, as M. von Flotow imagines, that these organs 
occur only on certain Lichens, for they are found upon so great 
a number that the list of the species which appear to be devoid 
of them is probably very limited. 

On the other hand, the extreme dissimilarity of form and size 
existing between the spermatia and true spores, the constancy of 
these differences, and above all, the mode of generation peculiar 
to each of these organs, render the idea that the spermatian cor- 
puscles are imperfect or young spores, altogether improbable. If 
this be so, neither perhaps does their extreme tenuity allow us to 
suppose that they are organs of fissiparous or gongylary repro- 
duction, the Lichens being moreover furnished very abundantly 
with organs of this nature in their gonidia and the gemmae of 
various forms of which these are the principal elements. Thus 
these reflections tend to increase the probability of the opinion 
which regards, with M. Itzigsohn, the brown points observed by 
him as organs of the male sex in the Lichens. But it must not 
be concealed that their little analogy, in regard to structure, with 
the antheridia of the Alga? and Muscinese, is unfavourable to 
their assimilation with these organs. So that just as the nature 
and true functions of the latter seem destined to be for a long 
time more or less problematical and questionable, this will doubt- 
less also be the fate of the spermogoni in the history of the 
Lichens. At the same time it is doubtful whether their dissi- 
milarity from the antheridia already known is a sufficient reason 
for denying the function attributed to them ; for, if among those 
there are some which are similar, as the antheridia of the Mosses 
to those of the Ferns, others, such as the antheridia of the Algse 



of the Lichens and Fungi. 117 

and those of the Salviniaceae, have scarcely any parity of struc- 
ture either between themselves or with the former. 

Perhaps the study of the Lichens alone may not proc ire suffi- 
cient data for the solution of the question of the nature and phy- 
siological functions of the spermatid : this doubt has led me 
to make some researches in the class of Fungi, the results of 
which, joined to those previously obtained by observations exclu- 
sively devoted to the Lichens*, indicate, if I am not deceived, that 
the latter, in spite of the name aerial Algae which has been ap- 
plied to them, are connected with the Fungi by an affinity much 
closer than has been generally believed. 



(Second Part.f) 
The great resemblance between the spermogonia of the Lichens 
and the Pyrenomycetes of the genus Septoria or their allies, leads 
to the suspicion that these little Fungi are not, as is generally 
supposed, autonomous productions — that they do not represent, 
alone, an entire vegetable species ; and since several of these 
have been described sometimes as Sphcerice, sometimes as Sep- 
toria, it is probable that they have been observed at different 
epochs of their development, and that each of these ambiguous 
Septorice corresponds to a peculiar Sphceria or other thecasporous 
Pyrenomyces, which succeeds it and forms with it but a single 
species of Fungus. What would be true of the Septoria, should 
extend to a great number of other genera of Pyrenomycetes or 
of Coniomycetes, which in like manner would comprise only the 
dissociated members of species composed of several terms. This 
assertion is in fact now borne out by several proofs. 

The Cytisporce, which have so much analogy to the Septoria, 
were called by Tode Spharice cirrhiferce, and in the most recent 
classifications are placed near the Sphceria or confounded with 
them. The reason of this is not to be sought in their organiza- 
tion, which differs extremely from that of the Spharia, but far 
rather in that remarkable correspondence, noted by M. Fries, 
between certain species of these two genera of Fungi. Patient 
research will show that this correspondence is a much more ge- 
neral fact than has been imagined, and it sufficiently authorizes 
the belief, that far from being the total expression of a species of 
Fungus, each of the Cytispores represents merely a particular 
state of a Fungus which subsequently presents itself under a more 
perfect form as a true Spharia, or at least as a thecasporous 
Sphaeriacean. It will be found that this is the real state of the 

* Vide l'lnstitut, xviii. annee, p. 16; or, Bull, de la Soc. Philomathiquc, ' 
1850, p. 26. 
t Comptes Rendus, March 31, 1851. 



118 M. L. R. Tulasne on the Reproductive Organs 

case in Nemaspora, Micropera, Polystigma, Ascochyta, and many 
other genera comprehended in the Cytisporacece or Phyllostictece. 
Thus, to cite only a few examples, Nemaspora Ribis belongs to 
Sphceria Ehrenbergi, N., Poly stigma rubrum to Poly stigma ful- 
vum, a thecigerous Fungus, Micropera Drupacearum to Sphceria 
Leveillei, &c. 

Any one attentively following this constant succession of the 
same fungous productions upon the same mycelium will naturally 
suppose that they are determined by a law, and that a necessary 
relation exists between these vegetable forms; but it will be 
found difficult to believe that they are so many different creations, 
parasitical upon one another, and it will be more readily sup- 
posed that they are connected by some other bond. A proof that 
this bond is that which exists between the members of the same 
body or the individuals of a single species, is furnished by the 
species of Tympanis and Cenangium, which are kinds of cespitose 
or coalescent Pezizas. The stroma of these Fungi, before giving 
birth to the thecigerous cupules or disks, produces abundantly 
upon its surface, borne upon basidia of various forms, not only 
naked spores, but also extremely slender cylindrical corpuscles, 
exactly like those emitted from the spermogoni of the Lichens, 
the Septorice, many of the Cytisporm, and other analogous Fungi. 
The same corpuscles are observed also upon the edge of the 
cupule of various species of Cenangium. 

In Rhytisma, a thecasporous genus, of the order Discomycetes, 
each species, so to speak, possesses a kind of precursor in a Me- 
lasmia, or Fungus with acrogenous spores, which plays towards 
it the same part as the Cytisporce and their analogues do in re- 
lation to the Sphcerice. According to what Mr. Berkeley says, 
Aster oma Ulmi should be a sort of Melasmia to Dothidea Ulmi. 
Several species of Hyslerium and Phacidium are also joined to 
Leptoslroma, which evidently belongs to them. 

With reference to some genera of the Coniomycetes, it has long 
been suspected that the Melanconia and their allies are only 
Sphcerice in a certain state of alteration (Sphcerice corruptee). 
M. Fries, following Link, has raised doubts as to their autonomy, 
but no one has yet shown, by a sufficient examination of their 
mode of increase, what they really are, that is to say (like Stego- 
nosporium, Didymosporium, Stilbospora and analogous genera), 
the gonidia of various Sphcerice (e. g. Sphceria stilbostoma, fava- 
cea, &c). The majority of the Tubercularice also represent the 
stroma of certain Sphcerice (v. g. S. cinnabarina, S. coccinea, &c), 
and their spores must also be received as the gonidia of the latter. 
A very exact comparison can be made between the spores of the 
Tubercularice and the dissociated elements of the articulated fila- 
ments, which by their union constitute the pulvinules called by 



of the Lichens and Fungi. 119 

the name of Dacrymyces Urtica, or the margin of the Peziza 
fusarioides, which is merely the perfect condition of the same 
fungus. Tubercularia persicina, Dittm. (JEcidiolum exanthema- 
turn, Ung.) and other analogous productions live intermingled 
with Uredines and JEcidice when the sori of these entophytes are 
scattered (e. gr. Uredo Euphorbia, suaveolens, jEcidium Cichora- 
cearum, Euphorbia;), or they occupy the centre of the area bounded 
by these sori when they are circular (e. c. Uredo compransor, Mer- 
curialis, concentrica, JScidium Grossularia, crassum, Convallaria, 
Paridis, &c.) ; in like manner punctiform productions, which, like 
JEcidiolum exanthematum, might well represent the spermogoni of 
the Uredinea, are constantly developed upon the opposite surface 
of the patch borne by Rcestelia cancellata, Centridium Sorbz, Cy- 
donia, &c. 

Among the Fungi most decisively proving the thesis now pro- 
posed, are the Sp/kzrice. S. Laburni, Pers., is a very complete 
species; its ascophorous perithecia arise like those of a large 
number of Spharia, around a cytispore with a whitish cirrhus, 
mixed, in addition, on the same stroma with conceptacles lined 
by a basidigerous hymenium, which would be referable to the 
genus Sporocadus or one of its analogues. Thus Spharia Laburni 
possesses three kinds of reproductive organs, viz. normal endo- 
thecal spores, acrogenous spores very like the fruit, those of the 
Sporocadus, and lastly other spores equally acrogenous, but very 
different and exceedingly slender, namely those of the Cytispora. 
In Sphceria hypoxylon and other Xylarice, I have as yet seen only 
two kinds of spores, namely the black endogenous spores which 
are known to belong to them, and in the second place the white 
seminules which cover the young branches of the stroma with \ 
fine dust. These seminules arise singly from a naked hymenium, 
clothed with short, straight basidia. Dothidea ribesia is more 
complete ; on the upper face of its pulviniform stroma it produces 
white seminules like those of the Xylarice, and in the substance 
of its parenchyma little cavities become excavated here and there, 
producing upon their walls acrogenous corpuscles resembling the 
seminules of the Septorice. Finally, it is known that it also 
possesses an innumerable quantity of superficial conceptacles 
filled with eight- spored thecce. 

The multiplicity of reproductive organs in all these Fungi 
requires the invention of a few new words to distinguish them 
from each other. The term spores remaining attached to the 
most perfect, those developed in the thecce, without relation of 
continuity with the parent plant ; we may apply the name of 
stylosjjores to those which originate naked, that is to say, from 
linear stalk -like cells analogous to the basidia of the Agaricinea. 
Then the more delicate seminules, the generation of which is also 



120 On the Reproductive Organs of the Lichens and Fungi. 

acrogenous, should receive, like the Itzigsohnian corpuscles which 
they wholly resemble, the name of spermatia, which merely con- 
veys the idea of a body destined, in some manner or other, to 
the office of reproduction. 

M. Fries applies the name of conidia to all the reproductive 
bodies which are not, as he thinks, normal spores, so that after 
the foregoing statements, this designation would embrace very 
dissimilar organs. I would propose to restrain the application 
of it to the gemma properly so-called, if it be agreed to regard 
as such the reproductive cells which arise directly from the my- 
celium (as in the Erysiphes, Ascophorce, and other Mucedinece) and 
appear to correspond especially to the gongyli of the Muscinese 
and Hepaticse. Leaving to it the general acceptation, the term 
conidia would be employed whenever it is impossible to determine 
the Dature of a reproductive body which it is required to describe. 
The difficulty of this problem will appear when the fungus 
under examination does not present the different kinds of repro- 
ductive organs united ; but then analogical reasoning will be 
usefully adopted. If, for example, Melasmice, the precursors of 
Rhytisma, are compared with the first condition of Tympanis, 
there will be an inclination to regard the seminules of these Me- 
lasmice as spermatia, rather than as stylospores of the future Rhy- 
tisma. Sphceria Laburni furnishes the interpretation of all the 
Sphceria constructed upon the same plan ; its cytispore, like that 
of its congeners, will represent the receptacle of the spermatia 3 
and its sporocadus the stylosporous perithecia. 

Another difficulty will be found in reuniting the elements of a 
single species of Fungus when they are not met with associated 
together in nature. If the Fungi above-named prove that these 
elements are often assembled together, so that there can be no 
doubt of their natural relations ; there are others which would 
show in different degrees the dissociation of the different con- 
stituent terms of the species. For example, we find the yellow 
stroma of Sphceria stilbostoma sometimes fertile at the same time 
in ascophorous perithecia and in Melanconium {conidia) ; some- 
times, on the contrary, devoid of one or other of these productions. 
The same is true of the stroma of Sphceria favacea, although, 
more frequently, it developes the Sphceria and their conidia 
isolated. In Sphceria nivea, we find on the same area, circum- 
scribed by the black margin of the mycelium, cytisporous tubercles 
and tubercles producing Sphcerice ; we also find, but much more 
rarely, tubercles which are cytisporous only in part, one half 
giving birth to thecigerous perithecia. The stroma of Sphceria 
castanea, N., most frequently presents the perithecia and the 
cytispora united ; yet it commonly produces the latter to the ex- 
clusion of the former, or vice versa, and does not enter into the 



Bibliographical Notices. 121 

class of the Spharia, among which the cytispore always accom- 
panies the ascophorous conceptacles (e. g. Spharia leucostoma, 
ambienSj corticis, pulchella, Leveillei, profusa, &c.) . 

It may be suspected that certain Sphceria do not exist at all, or 
are only met with commonly under the three principal forms which 
they may take on. In Spharia Laburni, even, the stylosporous 
form {SpJueropsis, Sporocadus) is as frequent as, if not more com- 
mon than, the perfect thecigerous state. S. sapinea appears to be 
known only with acrogenous spores, yet it is sometimes com- 
bined with its cytispore. S. Oreades, atrovirens, Hedera, and a 
crowd of others, commonly present themselves with merely a 
gongylary reproductive apparatus. Hence it might be concluded 
with much probability, that the group of the Spharopsides and 
that of the Cytisporacei (which claim a great number of Phyl- 
lostictei) include a number of Pyrenomycetes, the perfect states 
of which are to be sought among the Sphceriacece properly 
so-called, and which consequently must one day be united to 
them, when persevering investigations shall have clearly made 
known the constituent elements of each species. 

Finally, there is a constant fact to which it is still desirable to 
call attention, namely the order of development of the different 
terms of which we believe the species of Fungus to be composed. 
It is such, that the spermatia which may be contemporaneous 
with the stylospores always precede the appearance of the perfect 
or thecigerous form. This anterior development may take place 
even several months before, as is seen in the Rhytismce which 
only ripen their spores in spring, while their spermatia (Melas- 
mice) are developed at the close of the preceding summer. With- 
out in any way prejudging the nature and office of these sper- 
matia, it is imposible to avoid remarking that they precede the 
endothecal spores in the same manner as the antheridia of the 
Ferns or Equiseta precede the origin of the seminiferous capsules 
of those plants. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Manual of British Botany, containing the Flowering Plants and 
Ferns arranged according to the Natural Orders. By Charles 
Cardale Babington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. &c. Third edition, 
with many additions and corrections. London : Van Voorst, 1851. 
Pp. 434. 

Mr. Babington's ' Manual ' has become so well known to all Bri- 
tish botanists in the two previous editions through which it has 
passed, that a third can require of us no formal introduction. The 
features which distinguish it most strongly from other works of a 



122 Bibliographical Notices. 

similar nature are of such a kind as to afford no room for great or- 
ganic changes. The book is emphatically a " Manual " ; and most of 
the modifications and improvements introduced in the present edition 
tend to make it answer to its name even more thoroughly than before. 
We are aware that some persons would always have preferred to have 
had it more expanded and less concise ; but in this view they forget 
the important distinction between a Manual or Synopsis and a com- 
plete descriptive Flora. We have no work on British botany of the 
latter class more recent than Smith's ; and, excellent as that is in 
many respects, it is quite inadequate to our present wants : but it is 
delusive to expect that any mere enlargement of diagnoses with supple- 
mentary small-talk, however valuable or interesting, can really make 
up the deficiency. An author warmly devoted to his science exercises 
no small degree of self-control in forbearing to dilate on points which 
have specially engaged his attention : but the wisest plan for him is 
to make the sacrifice at once and confine himself to essentials, or at 
least to such conditions as are fully compatible with portability and 
salient clearness. A formidable difficulty however still remains : a 
book written in the vernacular and avowedly intended for the hand 
rather than the library must necessarily have somewhat of a popular 
character : whose interests then ought to be consulted, the botanist's 
or the botanophilist's ? Should facility of discovery of names, or strict 
scientific truth, be the primary object? The question is not very 
easily answered : it is too much the fashion just now to lavish pha- 
risaical contempt upon " mere collectors " : surely their shallow know- 
ledge of plants is better than none at all, and we have little chance of 
drawing out from among them recruits to the ranks of true botanists, 
if we scornfully leave them to the guidance of popular scribblers, 
scarcely better informed than themselves. On the other hand, it is 
manifestly wrong, though the occasional practice of illustrious 
authors may be pleaded in excuse, to sacrifice natural to definite and 
systematic but artificial arrangements, or to describe the facts of 
nature — not as they are, but — as they appear to the inexperienced 
eye, without giving warning of the illusion. Mr. Babington seems 
always to have had in view the benefit of both classes of readers, but 
more distinctly now than before : there is an increase of scientific 
rigour; confessedly natural genera are not fused together because 
each happens to have only one or two British representatives ; but 
English terms are in several cases substituted for Latin ones, new 
subdivisions of genera introduced for the sake of convenience, and 
alphabetical indices of species appended to the accounts of Rubus, 
Hier actum, Salix, and Car ex. All the descriptions have been care- 
fully weeded of superfluous words or observations, and fewer syno- 
nyms, authorities, and localities are given ; we observe also that the 
abbreviations are increased and some convenient terms borrowed from 
Mr. Woods : so that, notwithstanding the number of species disco- 
vered or discriminated in the last four years and the addition of an 
account of the Characese (occupying above four pages), there is an 
increase of only six pages upon the 2nd edition. It is almost super- 
fluous to say that the descriptions are effectually revised through- 



Bibliographical Notices. 123 

out (several useful hints being taken from Hooker and Arnott), 
and show marks of constant labour in both the field and the study- 
along with attention to the work of others up to the latest moment. 
Some persons may perhaps be annoyed at seeing the accounts of a 
few species, respecting which controversies have lately taken place or 
strong adverse opinions been expressed, left unchanged : but it is 
unwise, where grave doubts still exist, to make such alterations as 
can scarcely lead the way to fuller knowledge. Mr. Babington has 
advanced more than a step towards making our lists genuine summa- 
ries of British vegetation by including in brackets " a considerable 
number of plants which only occur in the Channel Islands, or there is 
reason to suppose have never been really detected in Britain ; or have 
been added to our Flora by previous writers, but are not now to be 
found ; or, although decidedly naturalized, have very slender claims 
to be considered as aboriginal natives." But the process of purgation 
must be carried further still and extended to nearly all the plants now 
marked with an asterisk. It is perhaps better not to banish these 
excluded species to the limbo of an appendix, but brackets are by no 
means sufficient to distinguish them from genuine natives : the use of 
small and insignificant type would probably be the best plan. There 
would then be room for an increased number of brief notes on plants 
likely to occur : we cannot think that Mr. Babington has done wisely 
in cutting them down in this edition. 

It is now time to give a brief account of the principal individual 
changes, premising that neither we nor our readers can be competent 
to judge of the merits of many of them without having seen in Britain 
the plants in question. Two new Thalictra are introduced, T. fleocu- 
osum (Reich., Fries) and T. saxatile (D.C.) which is identical with 
T. Kochii (Fries). Ranunculus aquatilis adds R. confusus (Godr.) 
to its already large progeny. Submersed leaves are described for 
both the yellow Water-lilies : we suspect they are known to but few 
botanists, except those whose attention may have been attracted by 
their curious appearance, somewhat like lettuces, at the bottom of 
clear lakes or slow streams. The Fumitory lately described by Mr. 
Babington as F. agraria (Lag.) is referred as a variety to F. capreolata 
in accordance with Dr. Arnott' s views : the account of the whole 
genus is remodelled. Nasturtium anceps of the last edition is wisely 
given up. The old arrangement of Brassica and Sinapis is restored. 
The stipulate species of Alsine are transferred, after Hooker and 
Arnott, to Barony chiacece : the genus so formed is not however 
called Spergularia, but Lepigonum ; and reasonably enough, for the 
former name was originally affixed to a mere sectional division, and 
its generic use is quite recent. Cerastium tetrandrum is allowed to 
be a form, probably a young one, of C. atrovirens, but of course 
Curtis' s name has the priority. Mr. Babington seems to abandon 
the characters drawn from the hypogynous ring in the Gerania ; we 
certainly have found it very variable. Ulex Gallii (Planch.) is still 
kept under TJ. nanus, but noticed at some length as probably distinct. 
As no allusion is made to the supposed Trifolium striatum of Anglesea, 
mentioned in an early number of the c Botanical Gazette,' we presume 



124 Bibliographical Notices. 

Mr. Babington has discovered some error. Orobus is merged in 
Lathyrus. Of the Rubi it is enough to say that they have been evi- 
dently worked up fully anew, and that there are now forty-three species 
where four years ago thirty-six were given. Dandelion and the Hawk- 
bits have nearly all recovered their old familiar names. Fries' s Mono- 
graph has of course rendered necessary a thorough revision of the 
Hieracia, but much research is obviously still required : H. Schmidtii 
(" Tausch ") vanishes, we know not whither : H. Lawsoni divides into 
H. anglicum (Fries) and H. pallidum (Biv.) : Mr. Babington' s H. 
denticulatum becomes H. strictum (Fr.), and Smith's is referred to 
H. prenanthoides : H. inuloides (" Tausch ") is now H. crocatum 
(Fr.) ; and several new species are added. The four supposed Armerice 
are of course united : the wonder is how they ever came to be sepa- 
rated : it is evident that Mr. Babington followed in Boissier's steps 
far too blindly. The Atriplices are better described than before, 
but they are not yet in a satisfactory condition. The Salices are pro- 
digiously reduced, chiefly according to Mr. Leefe's views : few things 
are wanted in British botany more than a really good monograph 
of this genus. Our hapless Blue-bell receives its fourth British 
generic name ! it seems likely, however, that it really ought to be 
called Endymion, and so romantic an appellation is sure to be popular. 
Sparganium natans of our ditches becomes 8. minimum (Fr.), the 
old name being retained for a long-leaved plant which would appear 
to be rare with us. The Potamogeton doubtfully referred to Fries' s 
P. zosteraceus is apparently considered a new species, called P. fla- 
bellatus : Mr. Babington's words lead us to believe that it is common. 
We now come to the complicated question of the arrangement of the 
Carices : in the first twenty-eight species the transfer of C. Boenning* 
hauseniana and C. axillaris to the Hypoarrhense and the change 
of position of C. elongata are the only alterations : may we take this 
opportunity of protesting against the received separation of Acro- 
arrhenae and Hypoarrhense ? The discrepancy of statements about the 
two species above mentioned shows the uncertainty of the characters ; 
nor is the grouping at all natural, however convenient : strictly speak- 
ing, we have in Britain but three series ; the (more or less) rhizomatous 
group from C. incurva to C. disticha (including C. brizoides, lagopina, 
and leporina), the uncoloured group with fruit tending to be squar- 
rose from C. vulpina to C. Boenninghauseniana, and the tawny 
panicled group (nearly parallel to the last) from C. elongata to C. 
teretiuscula : Mr. Babington describes sp. 16-21 as "glaucous," 
translated, we presume, from Andersson's " glaucescentia " : but he 
ought to have seen that the word here means " becoming glaucous " 
(see Andersson himself, p. 56), for several of the species are bright 
green when fresh. The distigmatic section is treated in accordance 
with Fries' s and Andersson's views, except that C. pulla and C. Gra- 
hami are unnaturally retained there : whether mere forms of C. vesi- 
caria or not, they are at all events most closely allied to it, and except 
in size and colour scarcely differ from some of its not uncommon 
lowland states. The next division is considerably improved with 
Andersson's help, except that the fallacious and arbitrary distinction 



Bibliographical Notices . 1 25 

of erect or pendulous spikes is retained, and C. glauca, though inti- 
mately allied to C. panicea, is banished to a distance ; nor should 
C. strigosa and C. pendula have been separated from C. sylvatica 
and C. Pseudocyperus, to which it might be well to add C. Icevigata and 
C. depauperata. Objections will doubtless be made to C. CEderi 
being restored to specific rank, and perhaps rightly : but then they 
must not be founded on ordinary small or condensed specimens of 
C. Jlava, which are evidently by no means what Mr. Babington has 
in view. Some confusion may arise from several changes of nomen- 
clature ; yet they appear unavoidable, and it is quite time for British 
botanists to cease to ascribe oracular authority to the Linneean Her- 
barium. Lastrcea uliginosa (Newm.) is retained as a variety of L. 
cristata, but Mr. Babington is "very imperfectly acquainted" with 
it : is any one otherwise ? Cystopteris dentata is again separated so 
far as the plants from the " Breadalbane Mountains and Cumberland" 
are concerned : they must therefore differ from the common dentate 
variety of C- fragilis of Wales and Teesdale. The account of the 
Charce is a brief summary of the provisional monograph given in our 
pages a year and a half ago : it is to be hoped that the neglect with 
which they have hitherto been treated may now exist no longer. 

This sketch gives a very imperfect idea of the volume : but, after 
all, it is in the field that the excellences of a Manual can best be tested. 
Still let no one suppose that all is done which requires to be done : 
even in the most familiar genera there is work for every one for some 
years to come : we know very little, for instance, of the different modes 
of growth collectively called "perennial " in the different species, and 
the imitation of them in annuals, particularly with reference to the 
relation of the vegetative and reproductive systems. But we are 
favourably placed at present for the progressive study of plants : the 
differences, which a few years back made wide schisms among British 
botanists, have latterly been greatly reduced ; and if the reproach, 
that \ it is our custom to study exotics, but dogmatize on native plants/ 
has not altogether passed away, its just application is at least much 
narrowed. 

We subjoin lists of the species introduced and suppressed in Mr. 
Babington' s present edition. 

Species Introduced. 

Thalictrum flexuosum, R. Rubus imbricatus, Hort. 

saxatile, D.C. incurvatus, Bab. 

Ranunculus confusus, Godr. thyrsoideus, Wimm. 

tripartitus, D. C. mucronatus, Blox. 

Thlaspi virens, Jord. ■ calvatus, Blox. 

Viola stagnina, Kit. fuscus, Weihe. 

Sagina ciliata, Fr. Hystrix, Weihe. 

Medicago sylvestris, Fr. pallidus, Weihe. 

Melilotus arvensis, Willd. pyramidalis, Bab. 

Poterium muricatum, Spach. scaber, Weihe. 

Rubus Leesii, Bab. Pyrus scandica (Sorbus, Fr.). 

fissus, Lindl. Epilobium lanceolatum, Seb. 8f 

affinis, W. et N. Mauri. 

latifolius, n. sp. Saxifraga Andrewsii, Harv. 



126 



Bibliographical Notices. 



Filago apiculata, G. E. Sm. 

spathulata, Presl. 

Gnaplialium norvegicum, Gunn. 
Hieracium rupestre, All. 

pallidum, Biv. 

oreades, Fr. 

saxifragum, Fr. 

atratum, Fr. 

caesium, Fr. 

dovrense, FY. 

gothicum, Fr. 

corymbosum, Fr. 

Orobanche Picridis, F. W. 

Schultz. 
Teucrium Botrys, L. 



Statice Dodartii, Gir. 
Anacharis Alsiuastrum, Bab. 
Simethis bicolor, Kunth. 
Luzula Borreri, Bromf. 
Sparganium minimum, Fr. 
Potamogeton trichodes, Cham . 
Naias flexilis, Rostk. 
Carex brizoides, L. 

(Ederi, Ehrh. 

Apera interrupta, Beauv. 
Triticum laxum, Fr. 
Lolium linicola, Sond. 
Cystopteris dentata, Sm. 
And the Charae. 



Nasturtium anceps. 
Brassica Cheiranthus. 
Viola lactea. 
Cerastium atrovirens. 
Hypericum maculatum 
Prunus insititia. 

domestica. 

Rubus fastigiatus. 

tenuis. 

Borreri. 

Leightonianus. 

Lingua. 

humifusus. 

Schleicheri. 

Carduus Forsteri. 
Hieracium Schmidtii. 
Linaria italica. 
Atriplex microsperma. 
prostrata. 



Species Suppressed. 

Urtica Dodartii. 
Ulmus campestris. 

major. 

carpinifolia. 

glabra. 

stricta. 

Salix decipiens. 

Russelliana. 

amygdalina. 

rugosa. 

ferruginea. 

sphacelata. 

cotinifolia*, &c. 

propinqua, &c. 

radicans, &c. 

retusa. 

Zostera angustifolia. 
Poa montana. 



Remarks on " Hymenopterologische Studien by Arnold Foerster, 
jstes Heft, Formicarise, Aachen, 1850." By William Nylander, 
M.D., of Helsingfors. 

Having had an opportunity of seeing the above-named treatise by 
M. Foerster, on the species of Formicidse inhabiting the German pro- 
vinces on the Rhine, in which he has done me the honour of be- 
stowing special attention on my essay on the natural history of this 
family f , I have thought that the expression of my opinion concern- 
ing the determination of some species in his work would not prove 
altogether unserviceable. As Mr. Walker has at the same time kindly 



* The changes of nomenclature render it impossible to extricate singly 
the species suppressed in this and the two next groups. 

f Adnotationes in Monographiam Formicarum borealium, 1846; Addi- 
tamentum in Monogr. Form. bor. 1846; Additamentum alterum inMonogr. 
Form. bor. 1847. 



Bibliographical Notices. 127 

submitted to me for examination typical specimens of the major por- 
tion of M. Foerster's species, transmitted to him by the author, it is 
on them chiefly that the following remarks are based. And I trust 
that the author will excuse me, if in some instances I entertain views 
differing from his ; and I hope that he will not consider I have been, 
in penning them, prompted by any other motive than the advantage 
of our science. M. Foerster generally considers minute, and in my 
opinion too obscure characters, as sufficient ground upon which to 
found a species. With all deference to him, I must remark, that 
the same species of Ant does not always construct its nest of the 
same materials nor in the same manner, so that specific distinctions, 
taken from such circumstances, cannot be looked upon as very 
stable : the hill-making Ants gather the materials they find nearest 
at hand ; if they inhabit pine-woods, they make use of the needles of 
those trees ; if they inhabit meadows, of bits of grass, &c. Some spe- 
cies however (F. pressilabris, exsecta) prefer meadows or thickets ; 
other, dry sterile heaths or fir-woods (F. rufa, conger ens). The size is 
also very variable in every species, and the colour is frequently more 
or less pale or dark. I will now proceed to the remarks on the 
species : — 

1. Under the name of '■'Formica congerens" (I. c. page 17. 5) is 
transmitted to Mr. Walker my F. congerens $ and F. rufa ? $ . 

2. Under the name of " F.polyctena " (l. c. 15. 4) I can see only 
a form of F. rufa. 

3. Under the name of " F. piniphila" I see my F. congerens. To 
this may belong F. truncicola, Foerster, I.e. 21.7, which is certainly 
not F. truncicola of my essay. 

4. " F. sanguinea " (I. c. 20. 6) is my F. dominula, and perhaps 
Latreille's F. sanguinea ; but his description agrees also with F. trun- 
cicola, whose geographical range is equally wide ; for this reason I 
was unable to decide on the identity of either ; but as his typical spe- 
cimens are in all probability lost, the question will most likely remain 
for ever unsettled*. I believe however that M. Foerster's opinion is 
correct, and I can have no predilection for my own names. I may 
observe that my F. dominula occurs in all kinds of nests, and on this 
account I am induced to consider, that it takes up its residence in the 
deserted nests of other species. Thus I have found it living in trunks 
of trees, in nests probably previously inhabited by F. truncicola, fusca 
or glebaria, or more rarely in old hills of F. exsecta, but most fre- 
quently in burrows in the earth, belonging I think to F. glebaria, 
whose workers only it enslaves. The F. truncicola also sometimes 
makes its nest in the earth. 

5. (( F. exsecta" (I. c. 23. 8), "F.flava" (I. c. 38. 17), F.fuli- 
ginosa (I. c. 28. 11), F. glebaria (I. c. 31. 13, F. fusca, Latr.), are 
the insects which are described under the same names in my essay. 

6. " F. stenoptera" (I. c. 26. 10) as far as I can judge does not 
differ from F. cunicularia, Latr. 

* I may observe that in the magnified figure of the head given by 
Latreille, the clypeus is figured entire, whereas in my F. dominula it is con- 
stantly notched. 



128 Bibliographical Notices. 

7. " F. fusca," Foerster, I. c. 33. 11, is undoubtedly the same as 
F. nigra, L. This opinion is based not only on the traditional testi- 
mony of the northern collections, but also on the characters given by 
Linnaeus himself: "Formica minor e fusco nigricans ;" whilst on the 
contrary he says of his F. fusca : " Formica media, corpus certo 
modo ad lucem videtur nigrum, alias cinereum," which agrees per- 
fectly with my F. fusca or glebaria. [On this subject as well as the 
synonomy of the other Linnaean species I have treated in the * Saell- 
skap. pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Notiser,' Heft 1 . 239 seqq.~] Unfor- 
tunately there are now no specimens of these two species with the 
Linnaean tickets in the collection preserved by the Linnaean Society. 
M. Foerster asserts somewhat too positively, that it is solely on the 
authority of Latreille, that I have founded my interpretation of the 
Linnaean F. nigra. 

8. (( F. timida" (I.e. 35. 15) and "jP. aliena" (I.e. 36. 16) ap- 
pear to me only different forms of one species distinguished princi- 
pally by their size, the latter being the smaller. But whether both 
these species are not merely forms of JP. nigra, L. (F. fusca, Foerster) 
is perhaps a question requiring further examination, for a paler colour, 
and the legs and antennae a trifle more naked are, perhaps, characters 
too fugitive upon which to establish specific distinctions. I admit 
that I should have easily referred the individuals of these species, 
which I have seen, to F. nigra, L. 

9. " Tapinoma collina" (I. c. 43. 21) is my F.glabrella (Addit. 2. 
38) ; and I cannot understand why M. Foerster has established a di- 
stinct genus for it, only on the single character, that in this species 
the little scale of the petiole is inclined forwards and almost incum- 
bent. My subdivisions of Formica and Myrmica had undoubtedly 
afforded more substantial generic characters. Formica glabrella ap- 
pears to be a species widely distributed throughout the central and 
southern regions of Europe. At Paris it is of frequent occurrence, 
and inhabits all kinds of soil, sometimes dry sandy places, and some- 
times humid mossy situations, often in very large and numerously 
tenanted nests, and is remarkable for its extreme agility and the sweet 
nectareous odour which it emits. 

10. "Myrmica ruginodis" (I. c. 66. 36), " M. Icevinodis" (I. c. 
64. 35), " M . scabrinodis " (I. c. 67. 37), are absolutely identical with 
my species of the same names. 

11. "M. acervorum" (I. c. 61. 32); the specimens sent to Mr. 
Walker are a pale form of my species bearing the same name. 

12. " M. fuscula" (I. c. 56. 29) is likewise mine (i. e. M. cespi- 
tum, Latr.). In the male sent I can discover no tooth on the meta- 
thorax, but merely an obtuse angle. 

13. " M. impura" (I. c. 48. 22) is in my opinion nothing more 
than a pale form of M. fuscula, which is very variable both in size 
and colour, and colonies are sometimes found consisting entirely of 
large individuals, while others are inhabited by small individuals only. 
I have observed the same circumstance in other species, more parti- 
cularly in F. nigra and F. herculeana (cf. Addit. 2. p. 28). Perhaps 
M. modesta, Foerster, I. c. 49. 23, which I have not seen, is also a 



Zoological Society. 129 

form of my M. fuscula ; and possibly by a typographical error its 
length has been indicated as 3| lin., since in the description it is com- 
pared with " M. impura" fuscula and tuberum, which species are 
little more than a line long. 

14. " M. teeviuscula " (I. c. 54. 27) is identical with my M. niti- 
dula ; very possibly I have erroneously described its antennae as con- 
sisting of twelve joints ; if so, I shall be happy to rectify my mistake 
as soon as 1 have an opportunity of re-examining my northern speci- 
mens. It may be remarked that the intermediate articulations of the 
flagellum are closely approximate. 

In M. muscorum, Foerster, I. c. 59. 31, which I have not seen, I 
can scarcely recognise my Myrmica of the same name, for the an- 
tennae entirely pale and the abdomen with a fuscous band, appear to 
indicate a different species. M. Foerster does not state whether his 
species has the thorax continuous above, or with a distinct transverse 
suture. 

I trust shortly I shall have another opportunity of returning to this 
subject. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

June 11, 1850.— W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following paper was read : — 
Synopsis of the species of Antelopes and Strepsiceres, 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES. By J. E. 

Gray, Esq., F.R.S., P.B.S. etc. 

The genera in this Synopsis are arranged after the plan, first sug- 
gested in a paper on the genera of the Hollow-horned Ruminants 
(Bovidce) in the ' Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.' xviii. 227. 

ANTELOPES. 

The Antelopes contain a large number of species separated into 
several genera, which may be arranged in the following sections : — 

I. The Antelopes of the Fields have a tapering nose, with 
the nostrils bald within. 

1. The True Antelopes are light-bodied and limbed, and small- 
hoofed, with a short or moderate tail covered with elongated hair to 
the base ; horns lyrate or conical. 

2. The Cervine Antelopes are large-sized, rather heavy-bodied and 
large-hoofed, and have an elongated tail with short hair at the base 
and tufted at the end ; horns lyrate or conical. 

3. The Caprine Antelopes are heavy-bodied and limbed, and large- 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 9 



130 Zoological Society. 

hoofed, with a very short, depressed tail covered with hair to the 
base ; horns conical. 

II. The Antelopes of the Sandy Deserts have a broad nose, 
and the nostrils lined with bristles within. 

4. The Equine Antelopes have the nose very broad, soft, spongy, 
and bristly. 

5. The Bovine Antelopes have the nose moderately broad, with a 
black, moist muffle. 

I. The Antelopes of the Fields. Nose tapering, the nostrils 
bald within, close together in front and diverging behind. 

1 . The True Antelopes. Body moderate-sized, elegant ; legs 
slender ; tail moderately elongate, hairy ; horns placed over the eye- 
brows. 

A. Horns lyrate (or rarely cylindrical, subspiral), strongly ringed 
at the base; nose ovine, without any naked muffle ; deep in- 
guinal pouches ; and tear-bag generally well-developed. 

* 1. Saiga. 

Horns short, strong, annulated, lyrate, white; nose very high, 
compressed, rounded ; nostrils very close together ; tear-bag distinct ; 
fur soft. 

1. Saiga Tatarica. The Colus or Saiga. 

Pale yellowish, crown and back greyish washed ; belly and anal 
region beneath the tail white ; young, crown greyer. 

Capra Tatarica, Linn. S. N. 97. — Antilope Saiga, Pallas. — Ibex 
imberbis, Gmelin. — Antilope Colus, H. Smith. — Colus Strabonis, 
Gesner. — Colus Tartarica,W agrier. — Cervicapra, sp. Blainv. — Saiga 
tatarica, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 3. 

Inhabits Siberia. Cab. Brit. Mus. 

2. Kemas. 

Horns elongated, rather lyrate ; nose with a dilated pouch on each 
side ; tear-bag distinct ? hair close, erect, spreading ; nose-hole of 
skull very large ; females hornless. 

1. Kemas Hodgsonii. The Chiru. 

Pale brown ; chest, belly and inside of the limbs white ; front of 
face and front of legs blackish. 

Antilope Hodgsonii, Abel. — A. Kemas, H. Smith (not horns, 
t. 181. f. 6). — A. Chiru, Lesson. — Kemas Hodgsonii, Gray, Knows- 
ley Menag. 3. 

Inhabits Thibet. Cab. Brit. Mus. 

3. Gazella, H. Smith. 

Horns strong, lyrate, black ; face tapering ; nose simple ; tear-bag 
distinct ; fur short, close-pressed. Females with smaller horns ; teats 
four. 



Zoological Society. 131 

* Knees with tufts ; back and rump brown, vent white. 

■f Lower part of side with a dark oblique streak ; feet with a tuft 
of black hair beneath. 

1. Gazella Dorcas. The Gazelle. 

Fur rather elongate and harsh, grey brown ; outside of fore legs, 
broad oblique streak along the side, edge of anal disc, front of face 
and face-streak, dark brown ; face-streak, throat, chest, belly, inside 
of thigh and anal disc, white ; tuft at under side of feet and end of tail 
black ; knee-tufts blackish ; young, back and side-streak rather paler. 

Capra Dorcas, Linn. — Antilope Dorcas, Pallas ; Licht. 3. t. 5. — 
A. Gazella, Pallas. — Gazella Kevella, H. Smith, $ . — G. Corinna, 
H. Smith, ? .—Gazelle, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 22-25. £ .—Kevel, Buf- 
fon, H. N. xii. t. 26. <£. not F. Cuvier.— Corinne, Buffon, H. N. xii. 
t. 27. $ . t. 30 (not F. Cuvier) ; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t. .—Kevel 
gris, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. 3. — Antilope Cora, H. Smith. — 
A. Arabica, Hemprich and Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. t. 5 ; Licht. Saugth. 
t. 6.— A. Cuvieri, Ogilby, Proc. Z. S. 1840, 35 ; Frazer, Zool. Typ. t. 

Far. Nose with a dark spot or streak. 

Var. Larger, legs thicker. 

Gazella Dorcas, var. Gray, Knowsley Menag. t. 3. 

Inhabits N. Africa; shore of Red Sea; Mogador (Wiltshire). 

The Earl of Derby has specimens which he calls Gazella vera, 
figured Knowsley Menag. t. 3 ; they are rather larger, greyer, and 
the legs are much thicker and heavier than the specimens from the 
shore of the Red Sea. The fur is similar, but not quite so long on 
the under side of the neck. The Kevel gris (F. Cuvier, Mam. Lith.) 
well represents this variety. 

The A. Cuvieri of Ogilby, from Morocco, is a much larger animal 
than the common G. Dorcas, but agrees with it in other characters, 
except, it is said, in having longer ears. 

M. F. Cuvier (Mam. Lithog. vii. t. 8. ? .) has figured and described 
an Antelope from Sennaar under the name A. leptoceros, which he 
says is very like A. Dorcas, but has larger horns, those of the males 
being twice and of the females half as long again as the head. The 
horns vary greatly in length in our specimens. 

ff Upper part of sides with a pale streak. 

2. Gazella Isabella. The Isabella Gazelle. 

Fur short, very soft ; pale yellowish brown, with a broad, rather 
paler oblique streak on the upper part of the side ; knee-tufts, front 
of face and lower face-streak, darker yellow brown ; upper face-streak, 
chest, back edge of tarsus, under side of feet, inside of limbs, belly 
and vent, white ; tail black. Female, horns very slender, longer than 
the head. Young, paler, the lower part of the sides rather darker. 

Gazella Isabella, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846. — Anti- 
lope Iridis (Die Iris Antelope), Licht. — A. Dorcas, Licht. Darstell. 
t. 5. — A. Dorcas, var. a. Sundevall. 

Inhabits N. Africa ; Egypt (J. Burton, Esq.), Kordofan (Sundev.). 

This species is easily known from the foregoing by the softness and 
fineness of the fur, and the lower side-streak being of the same colour 

9* 



132 Zoological Society. 

as the back, and from it and the following by having no dark edge to 
the anal disc. 

3. Gazella subgutturosa. The Jairon. 

Pale brown ; upper part of sides with a broad, rather paler streak ; 
crown and knee-tufts greyer ; face-streak indistinct ; nose, lower part 
of sides, belly, hinder side of fore and front side of hinder limbs and 
anal disc white ; streak on haunches dark brown ; end of tail blackish. 

Antilope subgutturosa, Guldenst. ; Pallas ; H. Smith, GrifF. A. K. 
t. 183. f. 5, horns. — Capra Ahu, Kcemp. — A. Boreas, var. persica, 
Riippell. — Gazella subgutturosa, Gray, K. Men. 4. 

Inhabits Tartary, Armenia and North Persia. Cab. Brit. Mus, 

Larger than the Chikara. 

** Knees with tufts ; rump mark and throat-spots white : no dark 
side-streak ; tail slender, compressed, only hairy above (Dama, 
Bennett). 

4. Gazella Soemmeringii. The Abyssinian Mohr. 

Pale brown ; nose, forehead and lower edge of face-streak and end 
of tail blackish ; chest and belly, angular mark on rump above the 
tail, face-streak and spot on the throat white ; limbs pale. Female, 
forehead paler in the centre. 

Antilope Soemmeringii, Cretzchm. in Riippell, Zool. Atlas, t. 19 $ . 
— Gazella Soemmeringii, Gray, K. M. 5. 

Inhabits Lower Abyssinia ; Sennaar. Brit. Mus. 

5. Gazella Mohr. The Mohr. 

Bay ; chin, spot on throat, chest, belly, edge and inside of limbs 
and angular spot on rump above the tail white ; spot on side of face 
and end of tail black. 

AntilopeMohr, Bennett, Trans. Z. S. i. t . 8 ; Knight, M. A. N. f. . — 
A. Dama, var. occidentalis, Sundevall. — GazellaMohr,Gra,y, K.M.5. 

Inhabits Morocco. Mus. Zool. Soc. Portendic. There called 
Seni-ci (Mr. Whitfield). Mus. Brit. 

The specimen in the Frankfort Museum, which was received from 
the Zoological Society, is one-third smaller than the Andra. It is 
brown, rump mark, lower part of the sides, belly, inside and edge of 
legs white, face iron-grey with longer hair at the base of the horns ; 
horns large, thick, the face-streak indistinct from the pale colour of 
the head. 

There is a fine specimen of this species living at Knowsley, and a 
female which died on the passage in the British Museum. 

6. Gazella Dama. The Nangeur. 

Bay ; chin, spot on throat, belly, lower part of sides and hinder part 
of the back, inside of the limbs white ; no spot on side of the face. 

Antilope Dama, Pallas. — Gazella Dama, Gray, K. M. 5. — A. ru- 
bra, Afzelius.— Nangeur, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 32. f. 3. t. 34. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Senegal. 

Not seen since Buffon' s time ; may be a bad figure of the former. 



Zoological Society. 133 

7. Gazella ruficollis. TheANDRA. 

Whitish ; neck and front part of the middle of the back reddish ; 
no face-streak. 

Antilope ruficollis, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 205. — A. Andra, Ben- 
nett. — A. Bama, Licht. Saugth. t. 3, 4 ; Ruppell, Zool. Atlas, t. 14, 
16; Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. t. 6. — A. Bama, var. orientalis, Sun- 
devall. — Gazella ruficollis, Gray, K. M. 5. 

Var. Young ? with an indistinct narrow brown streak across the 
outside of the thighs, and the forehead iron-grey, with longer hair at 
the base of the horns ; horns small. Mus. Frankfort. 

Inhabits North Africa ; Kordofan. Brit. Mus. ? . 

These species differ in size as well as markings. The Mohr and 
Andra differ from G. Soemmeringii in being of much larger size, and 
in wanting the black face and streaks. Bennett's Mohr has only an 
angular white spot on the rump, like G. Soemmeringii ; Buffon' s 
Nangeur is smaller, and has more white on the rump, thighs and 
sides ; and the Andra, which agrees with the figures cited, is almost 
all white, with a reddish neck and withers. 

*** Knees without tufts {but with rather longer hair, forming a 
linear keel in front) ; back and rump brown; sides with 
dark streak. 

8. Gazella rufifrons. The Korin. 

Bay brown ; sides above paler, with broad dark streak below ; tail 
black ; chest, belly, inside of legs, back edge of tarsus, and under side 
of feet and anal disc white ; face bright bay, side-streak broad white. 

Gazella rufifrons, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. — Kevel, male, 
F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. 3. — Corine, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. 
t. . young £ . — A. Icevipes, Sundevall. — Gazella rufifrons, Gray, 
K. M. 5. t. 4. 

Var. Nose blackish above (adult $ ) . 

Young ; pale yellowish, side-streak brownish. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Senegal. Mus. Paris. Gambia (Mr. Whit- 
field), called Seni. Brit. Mus. Sennaar (Sundevall). 

Buffon mentions a Corine as coming from Senegal, but he says it 
is smaller than the Kevel, and Daubenton says that it has knee-tufts, 
so that it cannot be this species. Indeed the Gazelle, Corine and 
Kevel of Buffon are clearly all A. Boreas of this memoir. 

The Kevel figured by M. F. Cuvier well represents this species. 
He says it was sent from Senegal, and probably it has not knee-tufts, 
for they are not indicated in the figure or mentioned in the text ; for, 
like other descriptions of this author, though it occupies more than 
two pages, all the peculiarities of the species are left out. The Corine 
of the same author, also from Senegal, well represents the young. 
M. F. Cuvier says the Kevel and Corine and A. Boreas form one 
species, but afterwards, under Kevel gris, he thinks they may be two. 

4. Procapra, Hodgson. 
Horns strong, elongate, lyrate, black ; face tapering, nose simple ; 
tear-bag none ; knee-tufts none ; tail very short : female hornless ; 
teats two. Asia ; not gregarious. 



134 Zoological Society, 

1. Procapra gutturosa. The Dseren. 

Pale yellowish ; hair long, soft, of anal region short, white ; tail 
black. 

Antilope gutturosa, Pallas, Spic. xii. 45. t. 2 ; H. Smith. — 
Gazella gutturosa, Gray, Knows. Menag. 3. 

Inhabits Mongolia, Siberia. Cab. Brit. Mus., male and female. 
Thibet. Mus. Ind. Comp. 

2. Procapra picticauda. The Ragoa or Goa. 

Hair sordid, brown with pale rufous tips ; under side, inside of 
ears, limbs and anal disc, reddish white ; tail black. 

Procapra picticauda,~H.odgS(m, J. A.S. Bengal, 1846, 173. 334. t. 

Inhabits Thibet; in the plains. Brit. Mus., skulls. Perhaps 
same as former in summer fur. 

5. Tragops, Hodgson. 
Horns lyrate, short, black ; face tapering, nose simple ; " tear-bag 
none ;" teats two : females with small horns. India ; not gregarious. 

1. Tragops Bennettii. The Chikara. 

Bay brown ; sides uniformly coloured ; knee-tufts, end of nose and 
tail black ; streak on haunches blackish ; face-streak, chest, belly and 
inside of limbs white. 

Antilope Bennettii, Sykes. — A. Christii, Gray. — A. Bharatensis, 
Hodgson. — A. Hazenna, I. Geoff., Voy. Jacq. Mam. t. 6, bad? — 
A. Dorcas, var. E., Sundevall. — Tragops Bennettii, Hodgson, 1847. 

Inhabits India. Cab. Brit. Mus. 

The feet are generally blackish, but sometimes brown like the back. 

6. Antidorcas, Sundevall. 
Horns lyrate, short, black ; face tapering, nose simple ; tear-bag 
not remarkably distinct ; back with an expansile white streak or fold ; 
hair close-pressed ; knees not tufted : females with small horns. 

1. Antidorcas Euchore. The Springboc or Tsebe. 

Pale brown ; face, throat, chest, belly, broad expansile streak on 
back to base of tail, edge and inner side of limbs white ; face-streak 
and middle part of forehead pale brown, side-streak oblique, dark 
brown : young paler ; side-streak paler, back-streak distinct. 

Antilope Euchore, Forster, Licht. t. 7; H. Smith ; Harris, W. A. A. 
t. 3. — A. saltatrix, Link. — A. marsupialis, Zimm. — A. Pygarga, 
Blumenb. — A. dorsata and A. saliens, Lacep. — A. Ibex, Afzelius, 
1810. — Gazella Euchore, Gray, Know. Men. 6. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

7. iEpYCEROs, Sundev. MSS.; Antilope, Gray. 

Horns elongate, wide-spreading, lyrate, black ; face tapering, nose 
simple ; knees not tufted, feet with tuft of (black) hair near pastern ; 
teats two ; no trace of suborbital sinus (Harris). 

1. iEpYCERos Melampus. The Pallah or Rooye Boc. 

Bay, sides paler beneath ; belly, anal disc and lower side of tail 
white ; crown, anal streak and tip of tail blackish ; tuft above feet 
and back of feet black. 



Zoological Society. 135 

Antilope Melampus, Licht. ; H. Smith, t. 181. f. 7; Harris, W. 
A. Africa, t. 15. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

8. Antilope, H. Smith; Cervicapra, Gray. 

Horns elongate, subspiral, erect, diverging; face tapering, nose 
simple ; tear-bag large. India ; gregarious. 

1. Antilope bezoartica. The Antelope. 

Grey brown ; lips, orbits, chest, lower part of sides and belly, edge 
and inside of limbs white ; nose, front of shoulder and outside of 
thigh, end of tail and front of feet blackish ; neck redder. 

Capra bezoartica, Aldrov. — C. Cervicapra, Linn., ? H. Smith. — 
A. Cervicapra, Pallas, Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. t. . — Antilope, F. Cuv. 
Mam. Lith. t. . $ . — Cervicapra bezoartica, Gray, Knowsley Men. 6. 

Var. and young. A narrow pale streak on the upper part of each 
side. 

Antilope bilineata, Temm., Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool. t. 

Inhabits India. Brit. Mus. 

b. Horns small, slender, straight, conical, tapering, more or less 
diverging and often bent forward at the tip ; the muffle is 
generally large and moist. 

f Tear-bag large ,• muffle generally large. 

9. Tetracerus, Leach. 

Muffle large; tear-bag large, longitudinal; horns, two pair very 
short, conical, straight ; knee-tufts none : female hornless. 

1. Tetracerus quadricornis. The Chouka. 
Front pair of horns conical, distinct. 

T. quadricornis, H. Smith, G. A. K. 1. 181. f. 3. 1. 186.— Antilope 
quadricornis, Blainv. — A. striaticornis, Leach. — A. tetracornis, 
Hodgson. — A. Chickara, Hardw. ; H. Smith. — T. Chicara, F. Cuv. 
Mam. t. . $ . — Cervus albipes, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. . female. 

Inhabits India, Himalaya. Brit. Mus. Thibet. Mus. Ind. Comp. 

M. De Blainville in describing this animal has read Moorshadabad, 
the habitat, for Hoornadabad, and thought it the name of the animal. 

2. Tetracerus subquadricornutus. The Junglibukra. 
Front pair of horns rudimentary, tubercular ; hinder horns conical, 

subcylindrical ; pale brown; side rather paler; chest, belly, inside 
and front of legs whitish ; feet paler, varied. 

Var. Female, front of legs blackish. 

Antilope subquadricornutus, Elliot, Madras Journ. 35. t. 4. f. 2.— 
Brown Antelope, Sykes. 

Inhabits Madras. Brit. Mus. Larger than the former. 

Mr. Hodgson, in MacClelland's Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 1847, 
notices and figures five species of this genus : 1 . T. lodes (rusty-red), 
t. 4. f. 3, and 2. T. paccerois (full-horned), t. 4. f. 1, 2, from skull. 



136 Zoological Society. 

10. Calotragus, (part) Sundevall; Oreotragus, (part) Gray; Re- 
dunca, (part) H. Smith ; Tragulus, H. Smith ; Cervicapra, sp. 
Blainv. 

Muffle large ; tear-bag arched, transverse ; horns subulate, elon- 
gate, erect ; hoofs triangular, flattish beneath, acute in front ; crown 
smooth ; tail very short ; groin and orbit nakedish : females horn- 
less ; teats four ; the knees not tufted ; inguinal pore none ; ear elon- 
gate ; false hoof small or none. 

* False hoofs none. 

1. Calotragus Tragulus. The Steinboc. 

Fulvous, ashy ; hair uniform ; small spot on nose, and two diver- 
ging streaks on crown to nape blacker ; upper part of throat, chest 
and abdomen white ; ears three-fourths the length of the head ; false 
hoofs none. 

Antilope Tragulus, Forster, Licht. 1. 14. — A. rupestris, H. Smith ; 
Harris, W. A. A. t. 25. f. 2. — A. campestris, Thunb. 1811; Afzelius, 
1815.- - A. pallida, H. Smith. — A. Pediotragus, Afzelius. — A.fulvo- 
rubescens, Desmoul. — A. rufescens, H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 188. — 
Calotragus tragulus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 7. 

Var. Without the black crown-streaks, throat whiter. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

This species varies much in colour, perhaps according to the season ; 
sometimes the hairs are whitish at the tip, giving the fur a glaceous 
appearance ; the black streaks are as distinct in the young as in the 
adult. 

** False hoofs small. 

2. Calotragus melanotis. The Grys Boc. 

Red bay, with intermixed white hairs, crown with two dark streaks j 
ears two-thirds the length of head ; false hoofs small. 

Antilope Melanotis,Thxmb. 1811; Afzelius; Licht. S. t.12 ; Harris, 
W. A. A. t. 26.— A. grisea, Cuvier, D. S. N. ii. 244, 1816; H. Smith. 
— A.rubro-albescens, Desmoul. — Calotragus melanotis, Gray, Knows- 
ley Menag. 7. 

Var. pallida. Pale ashy white, hairs some white, others lead- 
coloured with grey tips. Brit. Mus. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

11. Scopophorus, Gray; Calotragus, part Sundevall. 
Muffle small, bald ; tear-bag transverse ; horns subulate, elongate, 
acute, slightly recurved at the tip ; knees largely tufted ; inguinal 
pores distinct and bearded ; ears moderate, with a naked spot on the 
outside of their base ; hoofs triangular, false hoof distinct. 

1. Scopophorus Ourebi. The Ourebi. 

Temple-spot small, indistinct ; fur red-brown ; cheeks paler ; 
crown darker red brown ; orbits, chest, belly, and middle of upper 
part of inner side of legs white ; end of tail, arched line before the 
eye and spot between the ears black. 

Var. End of nose blackish. 



Zoological Society. 137 

Antilope Scoparius, Schreb. Licht. S. t. 13. — A. Ourebi, Shaw; 
Lesson. — Ourebi, Buffon, not F. Cuvier. — A. melanura, Bechst. 
Inhabits S. Africa, Cape of Good Hope. Brit. Mus. 

2. SCOPOPHORUS MONTANUS. The GlBARI. 

Temple-spot large, deep (more than half an inch over), naked ; 
fur greyish brown ; cheeks paler ; crown red brown ; orbits, chest, 
belly, under side of tail and middle of the inner side of the upper parts 
of the legs white ; end of tail and arched line before the eye black. 

Antilope montanus, Riippell, Zool. t. . — Scopophorus montanus, 
Gray, Knowsley Menag. t. 5. 

Inhabits W. and E. Africa ; Abyssinia (Riippell) ; Gambia. Called 
Gebari, or Mahomet's Antelope (Earl of Derby). Brit. Mus. 

Very like the former, but grey brown, and the temporal spot much 
larger, deeper, more distinct and bald, both when alive and in the 
skin, so that it does not depend on the stuffing. 

12. Oreotragus, Gray, Sundevall ; Tragulus, H. Smith, not Pallas. 

Muffle large; tear-bag arched, transverse; horns subulate, elon- 
gate ; hoofs squareish, high, compressed, much-contracted, concave 
beneath ; false hoofs large, blunt ; crown smooth ; tail very short ; 
hair thick, quill-like, spread out : female hornless ; teats two. 

1 . Oreotragus saltatrix. The Kiansi or Klippspringer. 

Dark brown, yellow grisled ; hair grey, brown at the end, with a 
short yellow tip ; beneath whitish ; edge of ears and feet above the 
hoofs black. 

Antilope Oreotragus, Forster ; H. Smith ; Licht. Saugth. t. 15. — 
A. saltatrix, Bodd. ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 24. — Oreotragus saltatrix, 
Sundev.; Gray, Knowsley Men. 8. 

Inhabits S. Africa; Abyssinia (Riippell). Brit. Mus. 

Varies in brightness and depth of colour according to the season. 

13. Nesotragus, Von Duben, Sundev. MSS. 

" Muffle large, bald ; lachrymal sinus deep, large ; face and fore- 
head not crested ; ears large; horns in males large ; false hoofs none ; 
tail very short. 

Very like Neotragus in form and character. 

1. Nesotragus moschatus. The Nesotragus. 

Reddish grey ; belly white ; feet pale red ; hair of back brown, 
with a pale sub terminal band and black tip. 

Nesotragus moschatus, Von Duben ; Sundev. Vet. Ac. Oefversigt, 
1846, 221 ; Pecora, 134; Gray, Knowsley Menag. 8. 

Inhabits Zanzebar, east coast of Africa. Male and female in the 
Stockholm Museum." 

14. Neotragus, H. Smith; Madoqua, Ogilby. 

Muffle none ; nose ovine ; nostrils close together ; false hoofs very 
small ; tear-bag roundish ; tail very short ; crown crested. 



138 Zoological Society, 

1. Neotragus Saltiana. The Madoqua. 

Antilope Saltiana, Blainv. — A. Hemprichianus, Ehrenb. S. P. t. 7; 
Licht. Saugth. t. 16. — Neotragus madoka, H. Smith. — A. Grimmia, 
Riippell. — A. Hemprichii, Riippell, Abyss. 25. — N. Saltiana, Gray, 
Knowsley Menag. 8. — N. Hemprichianus, Sundev. 

Inhabits Abyssinia. Brit. Mus. 

ff A glandular line on the side of the face, in the place of the 
tear-bag ; and the muffle large and bald. 

15. Cephalophus, H.Smith; Sylvicapra, Ogilby, Sundev. 

Muffle large ; tear-bag none, but a naked, glandular line, formed 
of two series of pores, on the side of the cheek ; crown crested, end- 
ing in a tuft between the horns. 

* "Knees and hind legs tufted ; ears and horns elongate ; tear-bag 
small, under the eye, and a narrow naked streak on cheek" 

1. Cephalophus? quadriscopa. The Four-tufted Ante- 

lope. 

" BuiF, paler on the sides ; tail, knee-tufts, front of nose, narrow 
inferior lateral and anal streak and streaks across legs blackish ; lips, 
breast, belly, inside of limbs, vent and houghs white." 

Antilope quadriscopa, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 261. 1. 188. — Cepha- 
lophus? quadriscopa, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 8. 

" Inhabits Senegal." 

This species is only known from Colonel H. Smith's description 
and figure. 

** Knees not tufted; ears elongate acute; horns slender, elongated. 

2. Cephalophus Grimmia. The Impoon or Duyker or 

Duyker Boc. 

Yellowish brown, greyish in winter ; hair yellowish, with blackish 
tip ; forehead yellowish bay ; inside of ears, chin, throat, abdomen 
and under side of tail white ; feet, streak on the nose, up the legs, and 
upper part of tail black ; ears elongate, nearly as long as head, acute ; 
horns black, elongate, slender, base rugose and subangular in front. 

CapraGrimmia, Linn. S. N. (ed.10) 70. — MoschusGrimmia, Linn. 
S. N. (ed. 12).— Antilope mcrgens, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1817; 
H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 264 ; Licht. Saugth. t. 1 1 ; Harris, W. A. A. 
t. 15. — A. nictitans, Thunb. Mem. Petersb. 181 1, iii. 312. — A. Bur- 
chellii, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 262. adult in summer? — A. Ptoox, 
H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 265 ? jun.?— A. Platous, H. Smith, G. A. K. 
v. 266. — Ceph. Grimmia, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 1. 1. f. 1, t. 2. f. 1, 2. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

This species varies greatly in the intensity of the colours and in the 
extent of the black on the feet and nose. Iii one young specimen in 
the British Museum the black on the nose is quite deficient ; though 
it has the bright colouring of the breeding-season, and is bright bay 
on the crown. 

The specimen in the Museum of the London Missionary Society 



Zoological Society. 139 

(No. 8 Blomfield Street, Moorfields, formerly in Austin Friars), 
Case 5, described by Colonel H. Smith under the name of A. Platous, 
is the size and has the horns and ears of an adult C. Grimmia, but 
differs in being paler, and having no dark colour on the nose or feet ; 
but it is evidently much bleached. It has certainly no relation to 
the C. sylvicultrix, with which Colonel Smith was afterwards inclined 
to place it as a variety (Griff. A. K. Syn. v. 344). 

There are three species which have been called Antilope Grimmia: — 

1. The Capra sylvestris africana of N. Grimm, Misc. Cur. No- 
rimb. 1705, 131. 1. 13, the authority for Capra Grimmii, Ray, Syn. 80, 
and Linn. S. N. (ed. 10) 70. Moschus Grimmia, Linn. S. N. ed. 12, 
from the Cape, of a dull grey colour. Probably the Duyker. 

2. Le Grimme of Buffon, H. N. xii. 307. 329. t. 41. f. 2, 3, from 
a head sent from Senegal by Adanson ; the Antilope Grimmia of Des- 
marest, F. Cuvier, and H. Smith, &c. ; the Cephalophus rufilatus. 

3. The A. Grimmia of Pallas, with large ears and a black streak 
to the horns, like C. Campbellice, but is from Guinea. I know of no 
species common to the W. and S. coast of Africa, so that it is pro- 
bably yet to be distinguished. 

The "Fitomba" or "Philantomba" appears to be the generic name 
of all the W. African Cephalophi or Bush Antelopes. 

3. Cephalophus Campbellice. The Black-faced Philan- 
tomba. 

Grey and black grisled, beneath white ; cheeks, neck and chest yel- 
lowish ; forehead yellow, with a black streak on the nose widening on 
the forehead and ending in a tuft behind the horns ; feet and front of 
fore-legs reddish black ; fur soft ; hair grey, with black ring and tip ; 
ears elongate acute. 

Antilope Grimmia, Pallas, Spic. Zool. xii. 18. 1. 1 ? — C. Burchellii, 
var. (C. Campbellice), Gray, Cat. B. M. 162. — C. Campbellice, Gray, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, 164 ; Knowsley Menag. 9. t. 2. f. 3. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

This species is at once known from the Duyker by being much 
darker and distinctly grisled or dotted, and the under side being much 
whiter. 

We have an adult female of this species sent us as A. mergens, var. 
Burchellii, by M. Sundevall (the other specimen of the same name 
being a true Duyker), and a young specimen which has been in the 
British Museum for several years, sent from Africa, under the generic 
name of Philantomba, by Mrs. Campbell. 

The A. Grimmia of Pallas, Spic. Zool. i. 18. t. 3, which he de- 
scribes as grey grisled, becoming brownish ash on the buttocks ; 
throat, chest and beneath the body white ; head and neck yellowish 
grey ; a black streak between the horns, forming a fascia on the fore- 
head and broader on the nose ; fur softer than the Deer, but rough, 
of lower part of the neck rougher and more lax ; feet and line on fore- 
legs blackish ; tail black above ; ears rather acute : inhabits Guinea ; 
agrees in most respects with this species, but most probably is yet to 
be procured from W. Africa. 



140 Zoological Society. 

*** Knees not tufted; ears moderate, acute; horns short, conical, 

thick. 

4. Cephalophus Madoqua. The Abyssinian Bush Buck. 
Yellowish brown, slightly punctulated with black ; neck yellowish ; 

limbs blacker ; face-streak and feet black ; hair rather rigid, close- 
pressed, reddish grey at the base, end polished yellow brown, with 
dark tips ; forehead reddish. 

Antilope Madoqua, Riipp. Abyss, t. 7. f. 2 ; Sundev. — Madoqua, 
Bruce' s Travels, vii. 360. t. 56. — C. Madoqua, Gray, Knows. Men. 9. 

Inhabits Abyssinia. Mus. Frankfort. 

This species is very distinct from C. coronatus, being darker, and 
the fur more rigid and close-pressed. 

5. Cephalophus coronatus. The Red-crowned Bush Buck. 

Pale yellowish brown ; middle of back and front of fore-legs varied 
with a few scattered black hairs ; crown bright bay ; crest blackish 
brown, bay in front ; feet and streak up the nose blackish ; inside of 
ears, chin, throat, chest, belly and inner side of legs whitish ; horns 
short, conical ; ears about half as long as the head, acute. 

Cephalophus coronatus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. x. 1842, 
266. 1846, 164 ; Knowsley Menag. 9. t. 6. f. 1, 2. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Gambia, Macarthy's Island. Mr. Whitfield 
called it The Coquetoon. Brit. Mus. 

**** Knees not tufted; ears moderate, rounded; horns conical, 
thick; without any streak over the eyes. 

6. Cephalophus sylvicultrix. The White-backed Bush 

Buck. 

Blackish brown, minutely grisled ; hair brown, with whitish tips ; 
back with a large yellowish white spot, narrow in front ; throat, chest 
and belly redder ; crown, nape and legs darker ; horns ? 

Antilope sylvicultrix, Afzelius, N. Act. Upsal. vii. 1238; H.Smith, 
G. A. K. 1. 187. — C. sylvicultrix, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 10. t. 8. f. 1 . 

Inhabits Sierra Leone, in swampy places. Brit. Mus. 

Varies in the size of the dorsal spot. 

In the British Museum is a young male : length 29 inches ; height 
18; tarsus 6*9. 

7. Cephalophus Ogilbii. The Black-striped Bush Buck. 
Pale bay brown, with a deep black dorsal streak ; beneath pale ; 

crown and haunches brighter bay ; neck and withers, and sides of the 
dorsal line varied with deep brown hairs ; streak up the fore-leg, 
upper part of hock, feet (above the hoof) and end of tail blackish ; 
horns short, thick, conical, very rugose on the inner front edges of 
the base. 

Cephalophus Ogilbii, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842; Knows- 
ley Menag. 10. t. 8. f. 2 ; Frazer, Zool. Typ. t. . — Antilope Ogilbii, 
Waterh. P. Z. S. 1838, 60. 1842, 129. 

Inhabits Fernando Po (J. Thompson, Esq.). Brit, Mus. Not half 
the size of the preceding. 



Zoological Society. 141 

8. Cephalophus dorsalis. The Bay Bush Goat. 

Dark bay ; shoulders and legs darker ; hair brown, a few on the 
haunches white-tipped ; crown and nape, broad streak along the back 
to end of tail black ; spot over each eye ; lips, sides of chin, front of 
chest, under side of tail and inside of thighs pale brown. 

Cephalophus dorsalis, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, 165; 
Knowsley Menag. 10. t. 7. f. 1. 

Inhabits Sierra Leone : called Bush Goat. Brit. Mus. The head 
is very large, the skull short, broad, forehead rounded. 

9. Cephalophus niger. The Black Bush Buck. 

Sooty black, greyer in the front half of the body ; chin, throat, 
abdomen and inside of thighs grey ; forehead and crown dark bay and 
black mixed : cheeks pale brown and black varied ; tail, end whitish. 

Antilope niger, Mus. Leyden. — Cephalophus niger, Gray, Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, 165 ; Knowsley Menag. 10. t. 7. f. 2. 

Inhabits Guinea. British Museum. Sierra Leone (Mr. Whitfield) . 
Knowsley Museum. 

In the British Museum there is a male from the Leyden Museum, 
nearly as large as the former. 

10. Cephalophus Natalensis. The Natal Bush Buck. 
Bright red bay ; nape, withers and feet varied with dark grey hairs; 

nose-streak short, blackish ; lips, chin, upper part of throat and end 
of tail white ; lower part of cheeks, throat and abdomen pale yellow- 
ish ; crown and tuft bright red ; horns short, conical. 

Antilope natalensis, A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. 217; Illust. 
Z. S. A. t. 32. — Cephalophus natalensis, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 10. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Port Natal. Brit. Mus. Five specimens of 
different ages. Resembles C. Ogilbii in size and colouring, but wants 
the dorsal streak. The females are horned. 

11. Cephalophus rufilatus. The Coquetoon. 

Deep reddish bay ; legs, nape, streak on the nose to the crown and 
broad streak on the back blackish grey; ears blackish; crest and 
upper part of tail black ; cheeks rather paler ; chin and abdomen 
pale yellowish ; inside of ears whitish, with a brown spot on the outer 
side ; horns conical, rather elongate, obscurely annulated, slightly 
recurved. 

Cephalophus rufilatus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, 166; 
Knowsley Menag. 10. t. 9. — Antilope Grimmia, H. Smith, G. A. K. 
v. 266.— Le Grimme, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 41. f. 2, 3? 

Far. 1 . Sides paler, greyish red ; forehead rough. 

Le Grimme, F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. t. . not good. 

Inhabits Sierra Leone, called Coquetoon. Brit. Mus. 

The hair is rather paler at the base, of the dorsal streak grey, with 
a blackish tip. 

M. F. Cuvier's (Mamm. Lithog. t. .) figure is the pale variety, 
which Mr. Whitfield regards as distinct ; he says it is called Grimme 
by the natives : the separate head of Cuvier's plate appears to have 
been taken from the Guevei. 



142 Zoological Society. 

***** Knees not tufted; ears moderate, rounded; horns short, thick, 
conical ; head with a pale streak on each side over the eyes to 
the base of the horns. 

12. Cephalophus Maxwellii. The Guevei. 

Grey brown or sooty brown ; sides of head and body greyer ; chin, 
throat, chest and belly whitish grey ; abdomen and front of thigh 
white ; broad streak over each eye to the base of the horns yellowish 
white ; feet and end of nose rather darker ; fur rather rigid ; hair 
uniform. 

Antilope Maxwellii, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 267. — A.pygmea, Pal- 
las, Spic. xii. 18? — The Guevei, Buffon, H. N. — A.pygmea {Guevei), 
F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. t. . good. — A. Frederici, Laur. ; Sundev. 
—A. Philantomba, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 121 ; 1839, 27.— Cepha- 
lophus Maxwellii, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 11. t. 12. 

Inhabits W. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

The adult male in the British Museum is bright sooty brown, 
darker near the rump ; the female is nearly uniform pale grey brown. 
It is well figured by M. F. Cuvier. It is known from C. monticola 
by being larger, by the whiteness of the eye-streak, and of the front 
of the thigh and chest. 

13. Cephalophus monticola. The Notjmetge or Cape 

Guevei. 

Grey brown ; streak over the eyes, legs and outer part of thighs 
rufous ; feet grey brown ; chin, chest, abdomen, and under side of tail 
and inside of ears white ; fur soft, grey, with intermixed rather rigid 
black hairs. 

Antilope monticola, Thunb. Stockh. N. H. xxxii. t. 5. — A. ccerulea, 
H.Smith, G.A.K. v.855 ; Darnell's Afr. Seen. t. ; Harris, W.A.A. 
t. 26. — A. perpusilla, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 854. — A.pygmea, Licht. 
Saugth. 1. 16 ; Sundevall. — Cephalophus monticola, Gray, Knowsley 
Menag. 11. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

The colours vary in intensity ; in a female in the British Museum, 
the rufous colour of the thighs and the white of the chest are more 
distinct than in the male, but this may depend on the season when 
they were killed. A very young fawn (perhaps hardly born), which 
was brought home from the Cape by M. Verreaux, is darker, and the 
reddish tint extends over nearly the whole body. 

Thunberg described the South African species, but says that there 
is a specimen in the Stockholm Museum, brought by Afzelius from 
Sierra Leone, which agrees with his animal ; so he evidently did not 
observe the difference between the two species. 

14. Cephalophus melanorheus. The Black-rumped 

Guevei. 
Grey brown ; throat and sides paler ; rump and upper part of tail 
black ; chin, chest, abdomen, back and front edge of thighs and under 
part of tail white ; narrow streak over the eyes whitish ; feet like the 
back ; fur soft, pale grey, with intermixed rather rigid black hairs. 



Zoological Society. 143 

Cephalophus melanorheus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846 ; 
Knowsley Menag. 11. 1. 10. — C. Philantomba, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. 
M. 163 (not H. Smith). 

Inhabits Fernando Po (/. Thompson, Esq.). Brit. Mus. 

This species is coloured like the Guevei from W. Africa, but smaller, 
and has the soft fur and interspersed black hair of the Cape Guevei, 
C. monticola, but it is easily known by the black mark on the 
rump. 

15. Cephalophus punctulatus. The Grisled Guevei. 

Dark fulvous brown ; sides and legs rather paler ; narrow streak 
over the eyes and inside of ears pale brown ; chin, throat, chest, belly 
and front of thighs and under part of tail white ; hair grey at the base, 
with brown ends and yellow subterminal rings ; crown and upper part 
of tail darker ; feet pale, varied. 

Cephalophus punctulatus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846 ; 
Knowsley Menag. 1 1 . t. 1 1 . f. 1 . 

Inhabits Sierra Leone. Brit. Mus. A young specimen presented 
by Colonel Sabine, R.E. 

It is at once known from the other Gueveis by the fulvous colour 
which is produced by the yellow subterminal rings of the hairs. 

Colonel H. Smith indicates a species under the name of C. Philan- 
tomba, but so indistinctly, that it is impossible to know for what it is 
intended. 

16. Cephalophus Whitfieldii. TheWHiTE-FOOTED Guevei. 

Yellowish ash ; shoulders, outside of limbs and hinder parts of back 
rather darker ; ears and crown pale yellowish brown ; streak over the 
eyes, cheeks, throat, belly, inside of the limbs and ring round the feet 
above the hoof ashy white ; hair ashy grey ; of the back brown at the 
end, with a yellow tip. 

Cephalophus Whitfieldii, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 12. 1. 11. f. 2. 

Inhabits Gambia {Mr. Whitfield). Mus. Brit. Young. 

Smaller than the Grisled Guevei, and much paler and yellower. 

****** No tear-bag nor glandular streak on the face, and the 
muffle large and moist; crown smooth. 

16. Nanotragus, Sundev.; Neotragus, part H. Smith. 

Horns very short, conical ; legs slender ; tail subpectinate ; hoofs 
small, triangular, false hoofs none; crown not crested; ears small, 
rounded. 

1. Nanotragus perpusillus. The Royal Antelope. 

Fulvous ; throat, belly and edge of thighs and tip of tail white. 

Capra perpusilla, Linn. Mus. Ad. Fred. i. 12. — Moschus pygmeus, 
Linn. S. N. (ed.12) 92. — Antilope pygmea, Pallas, Spic. Zool. xii.18; 
Cuv. D. S. N. ii. 241 ; H. Smith.— A. regia, Erxleben, 278.—^. spi- 
niger, Temm. Monog. — Nanotragus regius, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 
12. — Royal Antelope, Penn. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Guinea. Brit. Mus. 



144 Zoological Society. 

The smallest-hoofed animal. The feet were formerly often used 
as tobacco-stoppers, and are figured mounted by Seba, t. 43. f. a, b ; 
Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 42, 43. 

1 7. Eleotragus, Gray ; Redunca, H. Smith ; Cervicapra, 
Blainv., Sundev.; Nagor, Laur. ; Sylvicapra, Ogilby. 

Horns conical, bent back and then forward at the top ; hoofs and 
false hoofs rather large; tear-bag none; teats four; inguinal pores 
distinct. 

f Horns erect, slender, and face narrow ; nose swollen ; muffle large, 
extended far behind the nostrils; fur woolly hair. Pelea. 
S. Africa. 

1. Eleotragus Capreolus. The Rehbock or Peele. 
Temple-spot none ; head slender, compressed ; horns erect, scarcely 

diverging, very slender ; fur short, woolly, grey brown ; back redder ; 
throat and beneath white ; end of nose and chin blackish ; feet darker. 

Antilope Capreolus, Thunb. ; Afzelius, N. Act. Upsal. vii. 251.1818; 
Licht. Saugth. t. 8; Harris, W. A. A. t. 25. f. 1 .— A. villosa, Burchell, 
1822; H. Smith. — A. lanata, Desmoul. — Eleotragus Capreolus, Gray, 
Knowsley Menag. t. 12. from life. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. Knowsley, living. 

ff Horns diverging, thick, conical; head broad; nose not swollen. 

* Muffle large, extended far behind nostrils; fur gristed, harsh, 
straight, with a subterminal pale band, and often whorled ; 
a naked spot on the temple. South Africa. 

2. Eleotragus arundtnaceus. The Inghalla or Reit Bock. 

Head broad ; temple-spot naked ; horns diverging, conical, taper- 
ing. Brown, yellow grisled; hair pale brown, with a subterminal 
yellow band ; cheeks and neck yellower ; base of ears, chest, belly 
and insides of the legs and under side of bushy tail white ; front of 
legs black. 

Antilope arundinacea, Shaw, Zool. — A. Eleotragus, Schreb. Licht. 
t. 9 ; H. Smith ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 26.— A. redunca, H. Smith ; 
Gray, Cat. B. M. — A. cinerea, Afzelius, 1815. — A. Lalandii, Desm.; 
Fischer. — A. Lalandiana, Desm. — Eleotragus arundinaceus, Gray, 
Knowsley Menag. 12. 

Far. Larger. 

A. Isabellina, Afzelius, N. Act. Upsal. 1815, vii. 244; Licht. t. 10; 
H. Smith ; Sundev. 

Far. With a large black rhombic spot on the back of the head be- 
hind the ears. Female in Brit. Mus. 

Inhabits S. Africa, in marshy places. Brit. Mus. 

Afzelius, Lichtenstein, H. Smith and Sundevall have described two 
species of this genus as coming from South Africa ; the smaller they 
call A. Eleotragus, and the larger A. Isabellina. The latter author 
has given a comparative character between the two kinds, but he has 
onlv seen two specimens of the former (a male at Berlin and a female 



Zoological Society. 145 

at Stockholm), and several specimens of the larger kind. I have ex- 
amined with care a series consisting of four males and five females 
from different parts of South Africa, and can find no distinction be- 
tween them, except a slight difference in the length of the fur and in 
its colour. Two specimens in the British Museum are larger than 
the rest, and have the tarsus one-fourth longer than the others ; they 
have a shorter fur and are of a rather brighter colour, and the front 
of the leg is blacker ; but the fur and colour probably depend on the 
season when they were killed. In these respects they agree with 
SundevalPs description of A. Isabellina, but they both have the tem- 
poral spot large and quite naked, while Prof. Sundevall described the 
spot on this species as pubescent. The female of the larger specimen 
has the black spot on the back of the head ; some of the smaller 
ones have the temple-spot much smaller and less naked than the 
others. The two larger specimens have a single whorl of hair in the 
middle of the back ; the others, with longer hair, show the whorls 
more distinctly, and have the hair from the central whorls to the 
shoulders forming a more or less diverging line. After examining 
these specimens and those in other collections, I conclude that they 
form only a single species. M. Sundevall, in a note just received, 
observes, " Mr. Wahlberg considers A. Isabellina and A. Eleotragus 
as very distinct, and our specimens seem to show a difference, though 
not very well expressed. Also I have committed a mistake, for the 
young female described in my Synopsis as y. under A. Isabellina, is 
really A. Eleotragus." 

** The muffle smaller, scarcely extending beyond the nostrils ; fur 
fulvous, not gristed; hair grey, with yellow tips; tail less bushy. 
W. and E. Africa. 

3. Eleotragus reduncus. The Wonto or Nagor, or Red 
Antelope. 

Head broad ; horns conical, thick at the base, diverging ; fulvous 
brown, rather pale on the sides ; hair soft, yellow tipped, all in regu- 
lar order ; chin, throat, spot under ears and over eyes, inside of limbs, 
under side of tail and lower side of body white ; front of leg some- 
times blackish. 

Antilope redunca, Pallas?; Riippell, Abyss, t. 7, good. — A. rufa, 
Afzelius, 250, from Buffon. — A. reversa, Pallas 1 — Nagor, Buffon, xii. 
t. 46 ? — Oureby, F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. t. $ . — A. Isabellina, Gray, 
Cat. Mamm. Brit. Mus. — Eleotragus reduncus, Gray, Knowsley Me- 
nag. 13. 1. 13. 

Inhabits "Senegal." Mus. Frankfort and Mus. Leyden. Gambia 
{Whitfeld), where it is called Wonto. Male and fawn, British Mu- 
seum, and a young male living at Knowsley, from the Gambia. 

Var. Larger, colour brighter. 

A. Bohor, Riippell, Abyss, t. 7 ; Sundev. 

Inhabits Abyssinia. Mus. Frankfort. 

Pallas and Afzelius' s account of this species is derived from Buf- 
fon's description ; both he and Adanson (Hist. Nat. xii. 326) say that 
it is "all pale red," and Buffon further observes that it has not the 

Ann.$Mag.N.Hist.8er.2. Vol. viii. 10 



146 Linncean Society. 

white on the belly of the Gazelles. This does not agree with onr ani- 
mal, which is white in several parts, but certainly not so white as the 
Gazelle, and has black on the legs ; but as yet no other animal has 
been brought from West Africa, which better agrees with their account 
or figure. 

M. Sundevall considers specimens of the Nag or of Senegal and the 
Bohor of Abyssinia, in the Frankfort Museum, as distinct, the former 
having the hair of the back whorled, the fore-leg with a dark stripe, 
and the latter having the hair not whorled and the legs pale. Our 
Specimens, from Gambia, have the hair not whorled, and more or less 
distinct streaks on the fore-legs ; hence I am inclined to believe the 
Nag or and the Bohor to be alike. Sundevall' s animal may be the 
Kob, but that has only one whorl on each end of tjj^e back, a nearly- 
cervine muffle, and the end of the tail black. 

When in Frankfort, I observed that the male Antilope Bohor, from 
Abyssinia, was rather larger than the male of " A. redunca" from 
Senegal, in the same collection, and much brighter, and the horns 
more slender ; the female was darker and browner than the male ; 
both sexes have more black on the carpus and tarsus than in the spe- 
cimen of A. redunca in the same museum. 

Colonel Hamilton Smith formed a genus for two pairs of horns on 
part of the frontal bones in the College of Surgeons belonging to this 
group of Antelopes, which he called Raphicerus acuticornis and R. 
subulata (Griffith, A. K. t. 181. f. 2, 1). The figures are not suffi- 
cient to identify the species, and we now know that the horns of the 
same species differ greatly in individuals of the same species, and 
during the growth of the same specimen. R. acuticornis may be the 
horns of the Buyker Boc, Ceph. Grimmia 1 
[To be continued.] 

LINN^AN SOCIETY. 

December 3, 1850. — Robert Brown, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Adolph Schlagintweit, at the request of the President, gave a 
summary of some of the principal results of the investigations of 
himself and his brother into the Vegetation of the Alps in con- 
nexion with height and temperature, as contained in their " Unter- 
suchungen ueber die physikalische Geographie der Alpen." 

He stated that very remarkable differences are to be observed in 
the limits of the altitude of vegetation in the district of the Alps. In 
the mean results for large divisions, we may plainly recognize the 
influence of geographical position, as well as that of the nature of 
the soil, and of the massiveness of the mountain range. The limit in 
fact becomes higher the more we approach the southern and western 
groups, a phenomenon which is connected with the general changes 
of climate. The mean temperature varies in these latitudes from 
0*5° to 0*7° of Celsius for one degree; and at the same time the 
isothermal lines show an evident inclination from west to east. Many 
very essential differences cannot, however, be explained by geogra- 
phical position alone ; another important influence is dependent on 



Linnaan Society. H7 

the form of the mountain-range, the limits of vegetation being 
generally connected with the mean magnitude of the elevation, and 
reaching higher in massive and lofty groups of Alps than in the 
lower chains. The favourable influence which the massiveness of 
the elevation exercises on the vegetation, is essentially the same as 
that which is also evidenced with regard to the temperature of the 
air and soil ; and corresponds to the difference which is remarked 
between the climate of a plateau, and that of a ridge or free peak in 
the neighbourhood. In different valleys or on the spurs of a moun- 
tain remarkable differences in the altitude of the limit of vegetation 
often manifest themselves according to the exposure, the direction 
of the wind, or the proximity of separate and extensive masses of 
glacier ; but these influences are for the most part merely local, and 
the general variations of the limit of vegetation dependent on the 
massiveness of different groups of Alps are but little affected thereby. 
A comparison of the annual isotherms with the limits of vegetation 
proves that the different groups of vegetation do not always 
terminate at the same annual isotherm. With the exception of 
the Beech, he showed that up to the height of Conifers, these 
limits in the Northern Alps are reached at warmer isotherms than 
in the Central Alps; and a somewhat lower mean temperature 
is observed on corresponding points of the group of Monte Rosa and 
Mont Blanc. This is immediately dependent on the fact that the 
growth of plants is not determined alone by the mean temperature 
of the year, but also by that of the seasons and of the months. The 
warmth of the summer is in this view of peculiar influence ; the 
greater this is in connexion with the same mean temperature of the 
whole year, the higher plants ascend, and the colder are the annual 
isotherms which mark their limits. A review of all the meteor- 
ological observations made in the district of the Alps shows that in 
the Central Alps and in the group of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, 
the summer warmth is greater and the climate consequently more 
extreme than in the lower chains of the Northern Alps ; by which 
means the relation of the limits of vegetation to the annual isotherms 
in these different mountain-groups is explained. 

He further stated that his and his brother's investigation of the 
periodical development of the vegetation at heights of from 1500 to 
8000 Paris feet showed among other things that the retardation of the 
development by the elevation is in general less during the flowering 
than during the ripening of the fruit ; it amounts in the Alps during 
the former period to ten days, during the latter to twelve and a half, 
and on the average of the whole period of vegetation to eleven days. 
The mean temperature is diminished in general about 2° of Celsius 
for the same difference of height, during the period of the develop- 
ment of vegetation. From their own observations on the influence 
of height on the growth of Conifera, he concluded that in Pinus 
Larix, P. Abies, P. sylvestris and P. Cembra, an evident diminution 
in the thickness of the annual rings takes place at greater elevations. 
A regular diminution, however, must not be expected for each 
degree of elevation. Not only the variations in the temperature of 

10* 



148 Linncean Society. 

the air, of the soil, and in the climate generally (which concur to 
disturb the Coniferte at greater heights) produce a diminution 
of their yearly growth ; but the different nature of the soil has also 
great influence on their growth. The mass of well -decomposed 
earth, the presence of boulders or firm rock, the exposure of the 
locality, the humidity of the soil, and in some degree also its inclina- 
tion, have so great an influence on the growth of the tree, and are 
moreover especially in the lower regions so irregularly distributed, 
that the influence of elevation, which should be most closely con- 
nected with the changes of climate, may be and is partially oblite- 
rated. Very frequently indeed in investigations of the geography 
of plants, a similar concurrence and a mutual correlation of the 
various causes by which the changes of vegetation are produced, are 
to be recognized. The observation of the progress from year to 
year shows that very frequently considerable variations occur in the 
amount of growth in separate stems. These are not, however, con- 
nected with definite years of the development, but irregularly dis- 
tributed during the life of a tree. As they commonly extend over a 
long series of years, and do not agree in different trees for definite 
numbers of years, they cannot be produced by the climatic circum- 
stances of unfavourable years. The larger oscillations of growth are 
dependent, on the contrary, on the nature of the soil, inasmuch as 
the roots during their extension meeting with more or less favourable 
and rocky spots, the productiveness of a tree may be essentially 
changed during many years. 

An enumeration of all the phanerogamous plants found in the 
Upper Moll district (in the Tauern, in Upper Carinthia) at between 
7000 to 8000 Paris feet high, and between 8500 to 10,000 feet, 
gave for the former region, the subnival, 224 species, for the latter, 
the nival, 32 ; while Prof. O. Heer obtained from the same regions 
in Glarus in Switzerland 219 and 12. Many families, as for example 
Boraginece, Euphorbiacece, Geraniacece, Labiata, Liliacece, Stellatte, 
Umbellifera, &c, compared with the lower regions and with Germany, 
diminish evidently and sometimes very strikingly in species in rela- 
tion to the sum of Phanerogams. In some others no such regular 
differences are found in relation to height. A remarkable relative 
increase of species in connexion with increased elevation, is found in 
Saxifrages and Primulacece ; and may also be remarked in Cam- 
panulacea, Caryophyllece, Composite, Gentianece, and others. This 
depends, not on an absolute increase of species of these families, but 
on a diminution of the species of the other families. Monocotyledones 
generally diminish with height in relation to Dicotyledones ; except 
that in the nival region and in the highest localities this proportion 
appears to be somewhat undefined. The covering of snow also is 
not completely universal in the high regions. In spots free from 
snow and furnished with earth, phanerogamous plants, as well as 
Mosses and Lichens, are found far above the snow-line. Among 
the species which are found at the extremest limits in the Central 
and Southern Alps, at 10,000 to 11,000 Paris feet high, are Andro- 
sace glacialis and A. Helvetica, Cerastium lati/olium, Cherleria sedoides, 



Linna?an Society. 149 

Chrysanthemum alpinum, Gentiana Bavarica, Ranunculus glacialis, 
Saxifraga bryoides, S. oppositifolia, Silene acaulis, &c. &c. The 
extreme limit of Mosses is in general little above that of phaneroga- 
mous plants. The last Lichens are to be found on the highest summits 
of the Alps, attached to projecting rocks, without any limitation of 
height. The number of species and varieties, up to this time between 
40 and 45 species, which have been found in the Alps between 
10,000 and 14,780 Paris feet, is not inconsiderable, but this vege- 
tation is limited to very few spots, surrounded by extensive masse* 
of snow. Among the Lecidece, Parmelice and Umbilicaria, collected 
by Saussure, Agassiz, and themselves, on the highest localities, Dr. 
Schlagintweit enumerated Lecidea geographica, L. confluens, Par- 
melia elegans, P. varia, P. polytropa, Umbilicaria proboscidea (3. cy- 
lindrica, &c. 



December 17. — Robert Brown, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Benjamin Clarke's " Memoir on the 
Position of the Carpels when two and when single, including out- 
lines of a new Method of Arrangement of the Orders of Exogens, 
and observations on the structure of Ovaries consisting of a single 
Carpel." 

In this memoir Mr. Clarke details the results of his observations 
on the position of single and double carpella in reference to axis, 
with the view of ascertaining the mode in which the reduction of 
the carpella from a higher number takes place, and the value of the 
characters thus obtained in the formation of a natural arrangement 
of plants. He commences with dicarpous ovaries, in which he ob- 
serves three different positions in relation to axis : 1st, right and 
left, resulting generally (as he believes to be shown by an examina- 
tion of the genus Car ex and of certain Malpighiacece and Euphorbiacece) 
from the suppression of a third and usually posterior carpellum, but 
occasionally also (as for example in Lonicera, Fortunea, Diosma, and 
probably Cruciferce) from the abortion of the anterior and posterior 
carpella of an ovary originally consisting of four divisions ; 2ndly, an- 
terior and posterior, resulting in Houttuynia cordata from the disap- 
pearance of one of the lateral carpella and the displacement of the 
other so as to become opposed to the persistent posterior carpellum ; 
in Agrimonia and Spircea (when dicarpous) from a similar sup- 
pression ; as also in reduced fruits of Reseda luteola, &c. ; 3rdly, ob- 
lique, which he describes as of frequent occurrence both in plants in 
which the carpella are generally anterior and posterior, and in those 
in which they are as predominantly right and left, and which he sup- 
poses to arise from the remaining lateral carpellum of a tricarpous 
ovary retaining nearly its original position when the other lateral 
carpellum has disappeared, in consequence of which the posterior 
carpellum is somewhat displaced, becoming obliquely posterior. He 
regards the single carpellum as the result of the non- development 
of one of the carpella of a dicarpous ovarium, and its position may 
consequently vary in three different ways ; 1st, anterior, as occurs 



150 Linncean Society. 

in 1-carpellary ovaries of Myrtacece, Onagrarite, Poly galea, Legumi- 
nosce and Acanthacece, to which may probably be added Hippuridece, 
Bruniacece, &c. ; 2ndly, posterior, as in the 1-carpellary ovaries of 
Houttuynia cordata and Piperacece ; 3rdly, lateral or oblique, instances 
of which occur in Morece, in Elatostemma, and in Celtidece. The 
normal number of carpella in all ovaries he regards as three or a 
multiple of three ; the additional series being frequently reduced 
by abortion in the same manner as the first, and thus giving rise to 
the formation of ovaries with four and five carpella. Tricarpous 
ovaries generally have their component parts placed two laterally 
and one posteriorly ; but exceptions to this rule occur, as for exam- 
ple in Viola, where the third carpellum is anterior, and in Clethra, 
Pittosporum and Delphinium, in which the position of the carpella 
varies in the same plant. 

Mr. Clarke next proceeds to consider the value of the characters 
derived from the position of the carpella, for which purpose he has 
framed a large table containing the results of long- continued ob- 
servations on a multitude of exogenous plants with monocarpous or 
dicarpous ovaries. In this table he constitutes two primary divisions, 
viz. Proterocarpous , in which the carpella when single are anterior 
or lateral, never posterior ; and Heterocarpous, in which the single 
carpellum is for the most part a mixture of lateral, anterior and 
posterior, and is rarely wholly posterior. The position of the com- 
ponent parts of the dicarpous ovarium also appears to be more per- 
manent in the first than in the second division. From this table 
Mr. Clarke deduces various inferences in relation to the systematic 
arrangement of plants, and the importance of the characters derived 
from the position of the carpella, and more especially from that of 
the single carpellum, which is liable to fewer and less important 
exceptions. Thus for instance he considers the posterior position of 
the single carpellum of Ceratophylleae, corresponding as it does with 
that of Piperacece and their allies, and differing as far as known from 
that of any other order with which it could be associated, as a strong 
argument of affinity. He refers to the case of two-celled ovaries 
with unequal cells, and regards the superior development of the 
larger cell or of the corresponding stigma as indicative of what would 
be the position of the single carpellum, were the ovary to be so 
reduced. These remarks are followed by observations on the 
general character of his divisions and subdivisions, and by some 
notes on the position of carpella as regards endogenous plants and 
Rhizanthece, and on the relation of didynamous stamens and carpella 
as regards their order of suppression ; and the first part of the 
memoir concludes with some remarks on the difficulty of determining 
with precision the true axis of the inflorescence, and the means of 
obviating this difficulty in certain cases. 

The second part of the memoir is more especially devoted to the 
consideration of ovaries consisting of a single carpellum, to the rela- 
tions borne by this carpellum to the axis in various families referred 
by the author to each of his two principal divisions, and to the 
grounds from which this relation is deduced. This being entirely 



Linncean Society. 151 

matter of detail is scarcely susceptible of analysis, but some of the 
incidental observations connected with it may properly be noticed 
here. Mr. Clarke states that in Scleranthus annuus the funiculus is 
uniformly posterior to the seed and on the same side with the coty- 
ledons, in which character that plant differs from Chenopodece and 
Amaranthacece, and as far as he has been able to ascertain from Itle- 
cebrete, in which the funiculus is either anterior or lateral, and the 
cotyledons (in pendulous seeds) on the opposite side of the seed or 
less frequently lateral. Of thirty- two ovaries of Circcea alpina, thirteen 
had two cells with an ovule in each, but the posterior cell constantly 
smaller than the anterior, in twelve the posterior cell was empty, 
and in seven entirely absent ; and this analogy with some particu- 
larities in structure led him to regard the single cell of Hippuris as 
most probably resulting from a single anterior carpellum. He shows 
by a series of diagrams that the position of the fertile cell in Valeri- 
anece is always lateral and external ; and observes that in the genera 
with an irregular corolla it always bears the same relation to the 
irregularity of the flower. He infers from an inferiority of develop- 
ment of the posterior carpellum in Stylidium graminifolium, that if 
the ovary in that genus were reduced to a single carpellum, that 
carpellum would be anterior ; a case which he has since found to 
occur in St. adnatum, in which there is a single anterior carpellum, 
or if two carpella are present the anterior only is fertile, the ovula 
being always attached to the posterior angle of the cell. He de- 
scribes the carpellum of Isopogon and Leucospermum among Protectees 
as anterior ; and notes that in Grevillea the carpellum always alter- 
nates with the two larger sepala, but varies most extensively with 
reference to what he considers the axis. In Anadenia he states that 
the carpellum is always anterior in the lower half of the raceme, 
but varies in position towards the summit, and in rare instances is 
perhaps even posterior. In some species of Acacia also he believes 
that he has found instances of posterior carpella, but as the flowers 
were for the most part in threes, these carpella might belong to the 
lateral flowers. In Pedicularis palustris he has always found the 
anterior carpellum and the anterior division of the style larger than 
the posterior ; and the same is the case with Mendozia, resulting in 
the latter instance in the suppression of the posterior carpellum in 
the fruit. He gives at length his reasons for regarding the carpellum 
as anterior in Casuarina, Cannabis, Humulus, Parietaria, Urtica, Ela~ 
tostemma and Celtis; and he concludes his remarks on the Protero- 
carpous division by some observations on Cuphea and Lythrum ; on 
MagaUana ; and on Fumaria. 

Under the head of the Heterocarpous division he begins by recur- 
ring to the relations already mentioned as existing between Cerato- 
phyllum, Piperacece, Houttuynia and Chloranthus. He then proceeds 
to notice Gentianece, among which he states that the dichotomous 
Erythraa linarifolia is an example of the two carpella being anterior 
and posterior, and infers from thence and from other variations, 
taken in connexion with the general statement that in this family 
the carpella are right and left, that their position (as in Apocynece 



152 Royal Irish Academy. 

and Loganiacea, according to M. Alphonse DeCandolle) is variable. 
He next refers to Broussonetia and Morus and to Stilbe, which latter 
he is disposed to consider as related to Empetrea and Euphorbiacece, 
and then proceeds to the examination of Cupuliferce, among which 
he finds extensive variations. He refers to Coriaria as agreeing 
with Malpighiacece in having its raphe turned away from the 
placenta and consequently next to the dorsal rib of each carpellum, 
which he describes as corresponding with the general position of 
the funiculus in that family. He describes the carpella of Mirabilis 
as being all lateral and internal ; and again notices the peculiarities 
which he had before referred to in the position of the funiculus in 
Chenopodece, AmaranthacecB and Illecebrece, adding some remarks on 
the carpella of Polygonea and Alsinece. He indicates certain cha- 
racters in the flower of Casearia in which it approaches Monotropa, 
Drosera, and especially Francoa. In Thymelece he finds considerable 
variation in the position of the carpellum, and states that the rela- 
tive position of carpellum and segments of perianthium is the reverse 
of what takes place in Proteacece, the carpellum being always 
opposite to one of the segments of the perianthium. The tendency 
to the suppression of stamens in Thymelece is also the reverse of that 
of Proteacece, being on the side opposite to the carpellum. In 
Pimelea and Lachncea he states that the carpella are all posterior, 
while in Daphne the carpella of the two-flowered axillae stand with 
their backs to each other, or more or less turned towards the stem : 
Dais is a mixture of these. Lastly, he notices various peculiarities 
in the ovary of Sassafras officinale, in Sanguisorbece, in Combretum> 
in Aucuba Japonica and in Mar lea. 

ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 

April 28, 1851. — Rev. T. R. Robinson, President, in the Chair. 

Professor Allman read a notice of the emission of light by Anuro- 
phorus Jimetarius, Nicholi (Podura jimetaria, Linn.). During a 
walk over the Hill of Howth near Dublin, on a dark night in Fe- 
bruary last, he was struck with a luminous appearance in the earth 
when disturbed to the depth of three or four inches ; the light pro- 
ceeded from numerous distinct points and lasted for more than a 
minute after its first appearance. On carrying home some of the 
phosphorescent earth, Dr. Allman was enabled to trace the phseno- 
menon in question to the presence of numerous living individuals of 
Anurophorus jimetarius, from each of which there proceeded in the 
dark a faint but very evident emanation of light. Specimens of the 
insect preserved alive in a glass phial continued for many nights to 
exhibit this beautiful phsenomenon, which was also witnessed by Dr. 
Stokes and Mr. Haliday, as well as by numerous other friends whose 
attention was directed to it by Dr. Allman. The light could not be 
traced to any definite point in the insect. The Anurophorus was 
very abundant on the hill, and subsequent observation proved that the 
dark peaty soil which abounds in some places on Howth, was almost 
the only part of the district from which it could be affirmed to be 
absent. 



Miscellaneous. 153 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

On Wolves Suckling Children. By the Honourable F. Egerton. 
Communicated by Sir Roderick I. Murchison. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

16 Belgrave Square, July 19, 1851. 

Gentlemen, — The annexed extract from the journal of the Hon. 
Capt. Francis Egerton, R.N., who recently travelled in India with 
Lord Grosvenor, was sent to me by his father, the Earl of Ellesmere, 
with this remark : — " It is odd that the same tale, like that of Sinbad 
the sailor, should extend to the Highlands. I got a story identical 
in all its particulars of the wolf time of Sutherland from the old 
forester of the Reay ; in which district Gaelic tradition avers that 
wolves so abounded, that it was usual to bury in the Island of Handa 
to avoid desecration of the graves." 

On referring the case to Professor Owen at the late Meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science at Ipswich, the 
following was his reply : — 

" I have read with much interest the wolf story, and do not see 
very great improbability in it ; but it could not be accepted at the 
Zoological Section because the facts are related at second-hand, the rule 
being that an observation must be communicated by the observer." 

Under these circumstances, I think it right to give publicity to the 
little narrative of Capt. Egerton, which, although possibly printed in 
India, has not to my knowledge, nor to that of Professor Owen, been 
made known in England. 

If this story be substantiated, may we not, after all the scepticism of 
the day, go back to the belief of our childhood, that Romulus and 
Remus were really suckled by a wolf? 

Your very obedient servant, 

Roderick I. Murchison. 

The Wolf Story. 

February 14, 1851. 
Colonel Sleeman told me one of the strangest stories I ever heard 
relative to some children, natives of this country (Oude), carried away 
and brought up by wolves. He is acquainted with five instances of 
this, in two of which he has both seen the children and knows the 
circumstances connected with their recapture from the animals. It 
seems that wolves are very numerous about Caunpore and Lucknow, 
and that children are constantly being carried off by them. Most of 
these have of course served as dinners for their captors, but some 
have been brought up and educated after their own fashion by them. 
Some time ago, two of the king of Oude's sowars (mounted gens 
d'armes), riding along the banks of the Goomptje, saw three animals 
come down to drink. Two were evidently young wolves, but the 
third was as evidently some other animal. The sowars rushed in upon 
them and captured the three, and to their great surprise found that 
one was a small naked boy. He was on all-fours like his companions, 
had callosities on his knees and elbows, evidently caused by the atti- 
tude used in moving about, and bit and scratched violently in resist- 



154 Miscellaneous . 

ing the capture. The boy was brought up in Lucknow, where he 
lived some time, and may for aught I know be living still. He was 
quite unable to articulate words, but had a dog-like intellect, quick at 
understanding signs and so on. Another enfant trouvS under the 
same circumstances lived with two English people for some time. He 
learnt at last to pronounce the name of a lady who was kind to him 
and for whom he showed some affection, but his intellect was always 
clouded, and more like the instinct of a dog than the mind of a 
human being. There was another more wonderful but hardly so well- 
authenticated story of a boy who never could get rid of a strong 
wolfish smell, and who was seen not long after his capture to be 
visited by three wolves which came evidently with hostile intentions, 
but which after closely examining him, he seeming not the least 
alarmed, played with him, and some nights afterwards brought their 
relations, making the number of visitors amount to five ; the number 
of cubs the litter he had been taken from was composed of. I think 
Col. Sleeman believed this story to be perfectly true, though he could 
not vouch for it. There is no account of any grown-up person having 
been found among the wolves. Probably after a certain time they 
may have got into a set of less scrupulous wolves, not acquainted with 
the family ; the result is obvious. 

Col. Sleeman has, I think, published an account of one of these 
wolf-boys, but I forget where. 

CARCHARIAS VULPES. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Weymouth, July 12, 1851. 

Gentlemen, — The following are further particulars of the Fox 
Shark (Carcharias Fulpes), a notice of which appeared in the * An- 
nals ' for this present month of July. The extreme length from snout 
to tip of the tail 12 feet. Length of tail from base to tip 6 feet. 
Girth in the largest part 3 feet. 

This fish was caught on Saturday, the 21st of June, in a mackerel 
seine shot in the West Bay from the Chesil Beach. It was apparently 
in pursuit of a schull of mackerel. 

When inclosed in the seine it occasioned a great deal of damage by 
constant blows of the tail. 

This shark had evidently been on the coast for some days, as a man, 
Jonah Fowler (who by the bye is quite a naturalist in his way, and 
an excellent person with whom to go dredging), told me he was in 
Portland Roads a day or two before the shark was caught (in the 
Fairy Yacht) and saw the dorsal of some very large fish floating slowly 
towards him ; he got ready his boat-hook, and as the fish came along- 
side he attempted to hook it, but not penetrating it merely frightened 
the fish, which immediately dived almost perpendicularly, at the same 
time making a great splash with its tail. It was of a purplish colour 
in the water ; he has since seen the subject of this notice, and at once 
identified it as being of the same species, and probably it is the same 
individual. I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, 

William Thompson. 



Miscellaneous. 155 

PRESERVATION OF PREPARATIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

One of the greatest obstacles in the study of plants — in cases, at 
least, where the aid of the microscope is indispensable — is the diffi- 
culty of preserving the minute parts and sections which have formed 
the materials of observation, and which require to be compared again 
and again, before complete conviction as to the certainty of any par- 
ticular facts can be obtained. Every one who has attempted to dive 
into the intimate structure of vegetables, knows how hard it is to 
make useful sections, and that it is often practically impossible to 
obtain a second of equal excellence with one which a nappy direction 
of the knife has once achieved. An easy method, therefore, of pre- 
serving such preparations would be invaluable. It is true that the 
plan adopted by Mr. Thwaites and others with such success, is avail- 
able for a very large class of objects, but there is much difficulty in 
preparing both the cells and fluid in which they are to be preserved ; 
and after all, not only is the expense considerable, and the necessity 
of keeping a large quantity of very brittle objects in a separate cabinet, 
with a very strict system of labelling, if the collection is to be of any 
real value, an unavoidable waste of much time, but after all, even in 
the best hands, the varnish is apt, after some months, to get into the 
cells and destroy the delicate specimens. Besides which, objects so 
mounted are, in consequence of the thickness of the cells, of no use 
for the microscopes called doublets. 

A very easy and compendious method of preserving all such pre- 
parations as readily imbibe water has lately been proposed by C. 
Miiller, which bids fair to be of great value. Slices of the very best 
and most translucent talc are cut of any convenient size, and made so 
thin that they will admit of being easily divided with a fine pointed 
penknife. The lamina is then to be slit to the middle, and the object 
inserted in the fissure with a little water. It will be found convenient 
if possible to make the fissure nearer to one surface than the other, 
and to mark the divided end by cutting off the corners. With a little 
practice it will be found that the division will always be effected in 
such a way as to secure the cohesion of the two laminae, and the re- 
tention of the object. When the objects are wanted for the micro- 
scope it will be necessary merely to dip the marked end of the talc 
in water, with a pair of pincers ; and by means of capillary attraction, 
the object will at once be properly moistened. A slip of paper neatly 
gummed upon the undivided end, will at once answer the purpose of a 
label, and will point out the upper surface of the talc, a matter of 
some importance where deep doublets are used, supposing the lower 
division of the plate to be thicker than the upper. It is clear that 
objects so preserved may be kept between the same sheets as the spe- 
cimens from which they are taken, and will therefore be immediately 
accessible without any loss of time. In a collection of Mosses, for 
instance, and Jungermannise, especially where the specimens are small 
and unique, and where in consequence it is often impossible to examine 
the peristome more than once, unless the preparation can be preserved, 
we have an admirable method of making even the rarest individuals 
available for future observation. 

The same method will apply to the greater part of fungi and other 



156 Miscellaneous . 

Cryptogams, and to a host of minute analyses of higher vegetables. 
It is inapplicable only where, as in Algse, the tissues alter so much 
in drying as to retain few of their characters, and where the applica- 
tion of moisture does not make the tissues swell out to their original 
size. It is, however, possible that this method may be modified, so 
as to comprise even this important class of microscopic objects. — 
Gardeners' Chronicle, April 26, 1851. 

NOTICE OF A SEA-BEACH DURING THE SILURIAN EPOCH. 

One of the localities where fossils are obtained amongst the Silu- 
rians of the southern highlands of Scotland, is at the eastern side of 
the entrance into Kirkcudbright Bay. At this locality they occur in 
several spots, and the deposits which afford them vary considerably 
in appearance. Several beds of dark-coloured flags containing abun- 
dance of Graptolites of the species ludensis and Sagittarius, amongst 
which the Orthoceras annulatum occurs, are to be met with. A light 
grey shale is also found, having imbedded within it nodules, some of 
which abound in fossils named in the * Quarterly Journal of the Geo- 
logical Society,' vol. iv. p. 206, and which appear to have been trans- 
ported from other fossiliferous beds, rather than to be concretions of 
limestone gathered around organic bodies, inasmuch as the fossils 
themselves are generally either on the surface of the nodule or occur 
in a line slightly within its margin ; and the nodules often bear evi- 
dence of friction and rolling. Besides these beds, there are seen near 
Reaberry Head deposits consisting of fine-grained greywacke sand- 
stone with intercalated shales, or rather indurated clays, which ap- 
pear to be of considerable extent, and which, from the sandstones 
and clays being of nearly equal thickness, and also from their regu- 
larly alternating, offer characters which are uncommon amongst the 
Scotch Silurians. One of these clay beds has imbedded within it 
irregular lines of coarse sand, and amongst this sand fragments of 
shells occur. These fragments consist of portions of Terebratula 
lacunosa and T. semisulcata, Orthocerata, and minute pieces of other 
shells, together with crinoidal rings. In some of the cells of the 
Orthocerata the fragments of the other shells are seen mixed with 
sand ; and the broken shells themselves are of a white colour, very 
different from what Silurian fossils commonly present ; and on the 
whole their appearance is not far removed from that of the broken 
bleached and withered shells of our own shores. 

The greywacke sandstone also affords some information concerning 
the origin and circumstances attendant on the beds which are inter- 
calated with it. On the under surfaces of some of these sandstones 
lines of desiccation occur, indicating that the clayey deposits had been 
exposed to the influence of solar heat ; and the nature of the deposits 
themselves shows that the circumstances under which they originated 
were somewhat similar to those which prevail on some of our coasts 
at the present time. On the whole the appearance of these thin beds 
of greywacke sandstone and indurated clay is such as to show that in 
this locality, during a portion of the Silurian epoch, there existed a 
sea-shore, on the rippled surface of which grains of coarse sand and 
fragments of shells were strewed. And as we find at the present time, 



Miscellaneous. 157 

on many spots of our shores, the lower parts of the ripple-markings 
often affording coarse sand and broken pieces of shells, so likewise 
during the Silurian epoch we have circumstances prevailing, such as 
to show that the sun bleached the empty shells and cracked the dry 
mud on this ancient sea-beach as it does at the present time. 

The evidence of the occurrence of land in formations antecedent to 
the carboniferous is exceeding rare, the deposits being exclusively of 
a marine character ; and although this deposit at Reaberry Head 
only affords marine remains, yet the circumstances under which it 
occurs, and also the state of the fossils which are imbedded in it, 
leave no doubt that the sea, at the period when this littoral deposit 
was being formed, rolled over a shore which skirted some portion of 
land then above the surface of its waters. And it is probable that this 
land had its fauna and flora, which this withered shell-bed may pos- 
sibly at some time afford us some knowledge of. — Robert Hark- 

NESS. 

On the Cell-membrane of Diatomaceous Shells. By J. W. Bailey. 
If hydrofluoric acid is applied to recent Diatomaceae, the shell 
soon dissolves, leaving distinct, internal, flexible cell-membranes re- 
taining the general form of the shells. These may sometimes but not 
generally be detected even in the fossil specimens. When present, 
they materially interfere with the examination of the true nature of 
the markings of the siliceous shell, and should be destroyed by nitric 
acid and heat, before the hydrofluoric acid is employed, unless it is 
desired to study the cell-membrane itself. There is a curious differ- 
ence in the action of hydrofluoric acid of the same strength upon 
specimens of fossil Diatomace&e from different localities. Some dis- 
solve with even too great rapidity in an acid which is slow and tedious 
in its action on other specimens. The Bermuda and Richmond 
Tripoli, and some specimens of fluviatile origin resist the action much 
longer than is usual with most specimens, whether they are recent 
marine, or either recent or fossil fluviatile ones. This difference is 
probably due to different degrees of hydration. -^Frorn Sillimarfs 
American Journal of Science and Art, No. 33, May 1851. 

A Comparative Examination of the Objective Glasses of Microscopes 
from Mr. Ross of England ; Mr. Spencer of America ; and M. 
Nachez of Paris. By J. Lawrence Smith, M.D. 

Having had an opportunity, a short time since, while at Paris, to 
examine the comparative merit of the lenses of these makers, it might 
not be uninteresting to microscopists to know the result of my ex- 
amination, particularly as it was made under peculiar circumstances ; 
namely, by adapting alternately the objectives to the same mounting, 
and regarding the same object under the same illumination. 

The glasses used were considered by their makers as among their 
best. That made by Ross was in the possession of M. Rutherford of 
U. S. Spencer's was owned by Dr. Burnet of Boston, and had just 
been brought by him from Spencer. That of Nachez belongs to Dr. 
Bigelow of Boston, now in Europe engaged in microscopic research 



158 Miscellaneous. 

very creditable to himself. Their magnifying powers varied from 
thirteen hundred to fifteen hundred diameters, with an ocular mag- 
nifying ten times; Ross's was the feeblest, that of Spencer the 
strongest. 

The angular opening was first measured with great accuracy and 
found as follows : 

Ross 145° 

Spencer 135° 

Nachez 120° 

These measurements were all verified by the respective owners of 
these lenses. 

The objects examined were the most difficult test-objects among the 
siliceous infusoria, as the Navicula angulata, one of the species of 
Grammatophora, and a Navicula called the Amici test. The first two 
were in balsam. 

The lenses were first attached to one of Nachez' s mounting, and 
the best adjustment of oblique light used that this instrument affords. 
The difference in the effect of the three lenses was very slight, all 
failing to show the lines on the Grammatophora or on the Amici test. 
As notwithstanding the admirable arrangement of Nachez' s instrument 
for working purposes, we do not get the extreme obliquity of light 
which is required for examining their fine lines, I had them all ar- 
ranged on a mounting of Amici, which furnishes the necessary obli- 
quity of light. Thus arranged, the lines on the Grammatophora were 
distinctly and beautifully seen by all, with slight advantages in favour 
of Spencer and Ross, the former of which magnified them most. 

The Amici test was next tried, which resulted in Ross showing the 
lines with perfect satisfaction ; Spencer showing them, but not quite 
so well ; Nachez still less distinctly. 

I would remark that this difference between the lenses appears to be 
owing entirely to difference in the angle of opening, for where a very 
oblique light is necessary to show lines, the lenses must be so con- 
structed as to admit this light. I would also state that Nachez's 
system lacks an adjustment which the others have, by which the re- 
lative position of the lenses can be changed, so as to compensate for 
the thickness of the glass which covers the object, and which appears 
favourable to the examination of those delicate tests. For the ex- 
amination of globules we could not perceive any appreciable difference 
between the lenses. 

I would here remark in justice to M. Nachez that he deserves much 
praise for the manner in which he has improved the microscope in 
France, without augmenting the cost of the instrument, and out of 
England he is undoubtedly the best maker in Europe. To furnish an 
idea of what he has done to diminish the cost of a good instrument, I 
will compare the price of the objectives which have been the subject 
of the experiments. 

Ross 306 francs. 

Spencer 230 „ 

Nachez 60 „ 



Meteorological Observations. 159 

And what is still more, he is constantly improving his lenses without 
adding to their expense. 

The lower powers of these makers were examined without finding 
any sensible difference in the denning effects of them, and what little 
there was, was in favour of Spencer. The field of the three differed, 
Nachez's being the least, and Spencer's the greatest. We cannot 
bestow too much praise on our American maker, for the immense 
progress which he has made in the construction of objective lenses, 
and it is to be regretted that he has not chosen a better mounting for 
them than that of Chevalier, which is very defective and prevents good 
glasses from showing their best effects. 

I had intended making some remarks on oblique light, which has 
come very much in use lately in observing lines and points on certain 
objects, but it will be better for me to defer it. I would simply re- 
mark that much caution is necessary in using it, as it will not always 
give correct distances between lines. — lb. No. 32, March 1851. 

ANTIOPE CRISTATA. 

To the British localities mentioned by Mr. Hancock in last month's 
Number may be added Langland Bay near Swansea, where my friend, 
Mr. Moggridge, took a fine specimen in the summer of 1849. It is 
noticed and figured in that year's Report of the Swansea Literary and 
Scientific Society under the last recorded name of " Antiope splen- 
dida." — J. Gwyn Jeffreys, July 6th, 1851. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JUNE 1851*. 
Chiswick. — June 1, 2. Very fine. 3. Fine: cloudy. 4. Cloudy: fine : clear: 
cold at night. 5. Densely clouded : rain. 6. Boisterous : cloudy and fine. 
7. Densely overcast : slight rain. 8. Boisterous. 9. Drizzly. 10. Uniformly 
overcast: rain. 11. Very fine. 12. Densely clouded : showers. 13. Overcast: 
densely clouded : rain. 14. Fine : heavy clouds : slight rain. 15. Cloudy : rain. 
16. Boisterous. 17. Cloudy and fine. 18. Very fine : boisterous. 19 — 21. 
Very fine. 22. Cloudy : clear. 23. Fine : clear and cold at night. 24, 25. Very 
fine. 26, 27. Hot and very dry. 28, 29. Hot and dry. 30. Slightly clouded. 

Mean temperature of the month 59°*21 

Mean temperature of June 1850 59*26 

Mean temperature of June for the last twenty-five years . 60 *72 

Average amount of rain in June 1*80 inch. 

Boston.- — June 1, 2. Fine. 3. Fine : rain p.m. 4. Fine. 5 — 7. Cloudy 
rain a.m. and p.m. 8. Cloudy. 9, 10. Cloudy : rain p.m. 11. Fine. 12. Cloudy 
rain a.m. 13. Cloudy : rain p.m. 14. Fine. 15. Fine : rain p.m. 16. Cloudy 
stormy. 17. Fine: stormy. 18 — 20. Cloudy. 21. Fine: thunder and light- 
ning, with rain and hail p.m. 22 — 25. Cloudy. 26 — 30. Fine. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — June 1. Bright: showers. 2. Bright: rain. 3. 
Clear. 4. Showers : fine. 5. Fine : showers. 6. Fine : clear. 7. Bright : 
fine. 8. Rain : hazy. 9. Showers : clear. 10. Showers : damp. 11. Showers. 
12. Clear: fine. 13. Bright: fine. 14. Fine: hazy. 15. Rain. 16. Rain: 
drizzle. 17. Showers: clear. 18. Fine : drizzle. 19. Showers : hazy. 20. Fine : 
clear. 21. Bright: showers. 22. Cloudy. 23. Bright : drizzle. 24. Cloudy. 
25. Bright : damp. 26. Cloudy : clear. 27, 28. Clear : fine. 29, 30. Hot : 
fine. 

* The observations from the Rev. W. Dunbar of Applegarth Manse have 
not reached us. 



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63 






THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 45. SEPTEMBER 1851. 



XV. — Observations on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The family of the Olacacece, first proposed by Mirbel, in 1813, 
under the name of Olacinece, was placed by him near the Auran- 
tiacece : Jussieu stationed it in proximity with the Sapotacece, 
while DeCandolle following the views of Mirbel arranged it close 
to Aurantiacece, a conclusion adopted by most succeeding 
botanists, and among these Endlicher and Meisner, who dis- 
posed it with Aurantiacece, Meliacece, Humiriacece, &c, in a class 
called Hesperides. Brongniart however followed the original 
views of Mr. Brown, in regard to the affinity of Olax with the 
Santalacece ; but upon less satisfactory grounds, he associated with 
these the Loranthacece, excluding at the same time Ximenia from 
the family. Dr. Lindley in his ' Nixus Plantarum ' and ' Natural 
System ' offered a new view, by placing it, under the designation 
of the Olacacece, in the same alliance with the Pittosporacece and 
Vitacece, for which position few and not very satisfactory reasons 
could be offered. Mr. Bentham, in an excellent memoir on the 
Olacinece (Linn. Trans, xviii. 676), proposed a new arrangement 
of the order into three distinct tribes, adding several new genera, 
together with his ingenious views in regard to its affinities, when 
he justly denied its relation with the Aurantiacece, although he 
admitted its approach to the Humiriacece, considering both these 
families to be approximate with the Styracece ; and lastly he 
allowed, that through Opilia and Cansjera, the Olacinece evidently 
osculate with the Santalacece. Finally, Dr. Lindley (Veg. 
Kingd. p. 43) repeated his former views, with some modifica- 
tions, placing it in his alliance of the Berbei-ales, together with 
Broseracece, Berberidacece, Vitacece, Pittosporacece, &c, an alliance 
which, as Dr. Asa Gray very justly remarks (Gen. PI. Un. 
St. i. p. 78), " is there placed on peculiar grounds by no means 
compatible with ordinary views of botanical affinity." In 
Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 2. Vol. viii. 11 



162 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese, 

estimating the value of these conflicting opinions, I will endea- 
vour to show, that notwithstanding their extreme divergence, 
they will allow of a considerable degree of approximation. 

We have the strongest evidence of the approach of the Ola- 
cacece towards the Santalacece, in the singular and important 
consideration of the structure of the ovarium and the seed ; and 
if we consider the biserial floral envelopes of many of the genera 
of the latter order to be calyx and corolla, both of which are 
often most distinctly developed, as in Choretrum, Leptomeria, 
Leptonium and Mida, as also in Quinchamalium, Arjoona and 
Myoschilos, it is clear that its relationship towards the Olacacece 
is infinitely stronger than with the Thymeleacece, Proteacece and 
Lauracece, to which, in fact, they claim but a most distant affinity. 
This consideration did not escape the penetration of Mr. Brown, 
who more than forty years ago, and some time before the esta- 
blishment of the family of the Olacacece, suggested* that the floral 
envelope called perianthium in the Santalacece may be looked 
upon as analogous to the same organ called corolla in Olax, and 
the calycular appendages may be viewed as a distinct calyx, 
alike in both instances ; and hence, with equal reason in one 
case as in the other, we may consider the floral envelopes to be 
dichlamydeous rather than monochlamydeous : or we may 
imagine, that at a very early period in the development of the 
bud, the calyx and corolla have become connate, and hence 
grown into one common envelope, — an hypothesis rendered very 
probable from the constant thickness of its substance, and its 
divisibility into two distinct laminse. I was led to a similar 
conclusion many years since by the examination of the Chilean 
genera Quinchamalium, Myoschilos and Arjoona, which have all a 
very distinct calyx, while the more conspicuous envelope, hitherto 
called perigonium, is decidedly petaloid in texture. Under this 
point of view, a close relationship will be found to exist between 
the Olacacece, Santalacece and Styracece, to which perhaps may 
also be added the Myrsinacece (but not the Primulacece) , 
and it would then remain to be decided, in what part of the 
system such an alliance ought to find its place. I will not at 
present stop to offer proof of the alliance of the Santalacece with 
the orders above-mentioned, as I shall shortly have to revert to 
that consideration, but assume the fact for the present as one 
that admits of little doubt, and proceed to speak of the affinities 
of the Olacacece in other quarters, taking this family within the 
limits it has hitherto embraced. 

I have alluded to the relationship of the Olacacece with the 
Styracece, but in so doing it is requisite here to state, that I 
consider the Symplocacece as ordinally distinct from the Styracece, 
* Prodr. 352. 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 163 

as will be made apparent when I describe two new genera ap- 
pertaining to the former family. Don first suggested this 
separation, but he does not appear to have been aware of all the 
facts that prove their want of identity. In the Symplocacece we 
find a calyx of five imbricate sepals, a corolla with very imbricated 
aestivation, numerous stamens, placed in many series upon the 
corolla, having ovate 2-lobed anthers, without intervening con- 
nective, an inferior ovarium, showing a strict union of its carpels 
into five complete cells, and seeds of very different structure. In 
the Styracece, on the contrary, we have a tubular calyx with an 
almost entire border, petals with a distinctly valvate aestivation, 
stamens in a single series, generally double the number of the 
petals, and therefore by turns, opposite and alternate with them ; 
here the anthers are linear, dorsally affixed upon a very fleshy 
connective ; the ovarium is superior, wholly free from the calyx, 
with a remarkable pulvinate depressed epigynous gland; it is 
3-locular at base, the dissepiments separating from the axis about 
its middle, and gradually disappearing at the apex, where it is 
completely unilocular, the base of the style being hollow, and 
continuous with the cavity of the cell ; the cionosperm rises in 
the axis above the point of the separation of the dissepiments, 
and to the axile column are attached three fleshy placentae, each 
bearing several ovules (about nine) in three rows, the upper 
series being erect, the middle horizontal, the lowermost suspended, 
the summit of each ovule being borne upon a cupshaped stro- 
phiole, as in the Celastracece : of these only a single seed becomes 
matured, as in Olacacece ; it differs however in being erect, and 
showing at its base the remains of the abortive ovules : the radicle 
of the embryo, enclosed in fleshy albumen, is directed to the 
point of attachment, as in Olacacece, but owing to the different 
position of the seed, it of course assumes a contrary direction, 
and points to the base of the fruit; the cotyledons are much 
larger and more foliaceous than in Olacacece. These points of 
structure are evidently quite opposite to what we find in the 
Symplocacece, and it is surprising they could ever have been 
associated together. The characters of the Styracece are how- 
ever analogous to those of the Olacacece, and there exists a very 
close affinity between the two families. The corolla is in no 
degree more gamopetalous in Styracece than it is in Olacacece, 
for in both cases the petals are valvate in aestivation, at first 
cohere slightly by their margins, and finally separate nearly to 
the base, where a short portion always remains agglutinated, by 
the adhesion of a very thin annulus, from which the stamens 
originate; but upon removing this annulus the petals will be 
found to separate easily, and not to be really confluent into a 
gamopetalous tube. We also see in Liriosma the same tendency 

11* 



164 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

to the adhesion of its parts, carried even to a greater extent than 
in any instance I have found in Styracecs ; and in Schopfia, which 
is justly included by Mr. Bentham in the Olacacece, we see a 
still greater tendency to a confluence of its parts. If therefore 
the Olacacece have been placed by all botanists among the pleio- 
petalous orders, there can be no reason why the Styracea should 
be considered as a monopetalous family. The ovarium in Sty- 
racece is stated by most authors to be half inferior, but I have 
observed that at an early stage, and even after the fall of the 
flower, it is quite free, although partly surrounded by the tube 
of the calyx ; and if it become subsequently agglutinated to the 
latter, it is probably only at a late period, as we find to occur in 
Liriosma. 

The Ebenacea, by most botanists, have been held to be closely 
allied to the Styracece, but this does not appear to me quite 
evident. Though placed among Corollijiorae, it appears to me 
that they should rather be arranged among the polypetalous 
groups, for their petals are often quite distinct, or when united, 
cohere so slightly as to be separated by a little force. The sta- 
mens, although sometimes adnate to the corolla, are most gene- 
rally free, or at least originate in a fleshy disk, which sometimes 
assumes the form of a very short hypogynous tube. In one 
Brazilian species of Diospyros, I have found the albumen in the 
seed to be distinctly ruminated, as in the Anonacece, the embryo 
having a terete radicle and broad foliaceous cotyledons, much 
resembling in structure that of Monodora. Cargillia, according 
to Mr. Brown, a genus of this family, so nearly approaches the 
Anonacece, that the typical species was described by Jacquin as 
the Anona microcarpa (Fragm. xl. tab. 44. fig. 7), and by Dunal 
as the Monodora microcarpa. In the Brazilian species of Dios- 
pyros above alluded to, the seeds are imbedded in pulp, and 
covered by a mucilaginous arillus : they are also compressed, 
with a linear, basal, and somewhat lateral umbilicus, forming a 
deep marginal furrow, into the bottom of which cavity the ex- 
tremity of the radicle subtends, as in several genera of the Ano- 
nacece*. Monotheca and Reptonia, placed in Theophrastece, appear, 
from the descriptions given of them, to have little in common 
with that family, and to belong rather to Styracece, if we consider 
the basal placentations, which I have shown to exist in this last- 

* A precisely similar structure is found in Diospyros Candolleana, ac- 
cording to Wight's 'Icones,' plate 1222, fig. 8 to 11. In several other 
instances in this family, the albumen is depicted in the same work as being 
distinctly ruminated, so that this may probably be a general character of 
the order, although so remarkable a feature is not noticed in any botanical 
work. Gaertner however hints at the fact, but only in one instance out of 
the many species of Diospyros he describes ; D. tetrasperma, which has 
its " albumen radiato-striatum, quasi fibrosum." 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 1G5 

mentioned order, as in the Olacacece ; and the approximation of 
these genera to the Anonacece is again confirmed by the rumi- 
nated albumen of the seed of Reptonia. The relation of the 
Ebenacece with the Olacacece was, I believe, first pointed out by 
Jussieu, but few botanists have attended to the suggestion ; from 
the indications just mentioned, it will probably be found, that a 
more fitting position for the Ebenacece in the system exists among 
the hypogynous Polypetalese, not far from the Anonacece, rather 
than in the monopetalous group, where it is placed in the ' Pro- 
dromus ' of DeCandolle, and in the arrangements of other modern 
botanists. 

Mr. Bentham in his memoir before quoted gives his opinion, 
that among dichlamydeous plants, the family of the Humiriacece 
approaches most to that of the Olacacece ; but in this inference 
he had probably in view his tribe Icacinece, which J propose to 
remove altogether from the order : 1 cannot indeed perceive any 
such approximation between the two families. In the Humi- 
riacecB, the aestivation of the corolla is imbricated or contorsive, 
the stamens are many-seried, and numerous in respect to the 
petals, generally united into a monadelphous tube, or combined 
in phalanges, and they have a singular expansion of their fleshy 
connective; the ovarium is surrounded at its base by a thin, and 
somewhat membranaceous dentate ring ; it has four or five com- 
plete cells, which by the thickening of the axile placenta are 
often again divided by a transverse partition. The fruit is a 
berry, having a 5-celled osseous nut, the cells being often 2- 
locellate, and the seeds are provided with the usual integumental 
coverings. This is in no way analogous to what is seen in 
Olacacece-, but the Humiriacece present a more manifest affinity 
with the Symplocacece. 

A considerable degree of analogy between the Myrsinacece and 
Olacacece is shown in the position of its stamens opposite the 
petals, which present an aestivation so little imbricated as to be 
sometimes mistaken for being valvate ; they agree also much in 
habit and inflorescence. In Icacorea the ovarium is unilocular, 
with four ovules attached to a central free placenta, of which 
sometimes only one becomes matured, as in Olacacece', but here 
the analogy ceases, as the {estivation of the corolla is contorsively 
imbricate and the seed presents all the characters of the Myrsi- 
nacece. This family has been arranged by most authors among 
the Monopetalece, but for the reasons before urged in regard to 
the Ebenacece and Styracece, it should be transferred to the Pleio- 
petalece. In Mcesa, Samara (Choripetalum, A. DC), and Embelia, 
the corolla is decidedly pleiopetalous, and in the other genera of 
the order the petals are only slightly coherent at base, the 
ovarium being in all cases superior, except in Mcesa, where it is 



166 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

said to be partly inferior, but probably not so at an early period. 
The disposition to produce red dots in all parts of the plant in 
Liriosma, as in the Myrsinacece, is common to several families of 
the Thalamiflorce of DeCandohVs arrangement. Some degree 
of analogy may also be perceived between the Myrsinacece and 
the Anonacece, Lardizabalacece, and Menispermacece, in the de- 
velopment of the ovule, in the arilliform growth of the placentary 
indusia, as constantly witnessed in the two former families, and 
frequently in the latter, and in the deeply concave hilum, formed 
by the increment of the seed around the placenta, which is drawn 
into its cavity, and the consequently somewhat arcuate direction 
of the embryo within the albumen, seen more especially in the 
tribe Heteroclinece among the latter family. There are other 
considerations to be held in view, that the Primulacece, Myrsi- 
nacece, and Theophrastacece, offer a free central placenta within the 
ovarium, without any appearance of parietal septa, or any con- 
nexion of the placenta with the style : we see also in the Illici- 
bracece, Mesembryanthacece, and Portulacacece, a somewhat ana- 
logous development ; but in these cases we cannot imagine this 
to be the result of the rolling up of the placentary margins of one 
or more carpellary leaves, according to the hypothesis generally 
entertained ; but we may rather conceive, that the margins of the 
carpellary leaves constituting the ovarium have not the power of 
developing ovuliferous placentae, a power seemingly there con- 
fined to the rudimentary petiolar support or gynophorus, which 
throws out its placentary threads, that are free in Portulacacece, 
&c, but confluent in Primulacece, Myrsinacece, Theophrastacece, &c. 
This view is confirmed by the appearance of the lengthened 
thread that grows up from the torus with the elongation of its 
seed, and its placentary attachment, in the instance of JEgiceras. 
We may therefore look upon this mode of development as the 
opposite extreme of the case of the multilocular ovarium, where 
its intrafolded placentations unite in a central axis ; and we may 
look upon the Olacacece, Styracece, &c, as forming an interme- 
diate state of development. Under such an hypothesis, keeping 
in view the considerations before mentioned, it would tend to 
a more natural division of the system, to remove all the several 
orders, from the Lentibularice to the Styracece, from the position 
assigned to them in the arrangement of the ' Prodromus.' Yet 
because the development of the ovaria in these instances may be 
traced to somewhat similar causes, it does not necessarily follow 
that they must all be allied together, for other considerations of 
equal moment may tend to keep them far apart. Thus from 
circumstances before enumerated, the Styracece and Myrsinacece 
might be associated with the Olacacece and Santalacece, between 
Bei'beridacece and Rhceades, in a group that might be called Cio- 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 167 

nosperince, as I suggested on a former occasion (huj. op. vol. vii. 
p. 207), and in this group the anomalous genus Aptandra will 
niturally find its place. On the other hand, the Sapotacece with 
their truly axile placentation, the complete cells of their ovarium, 
and their corolla more pleiopetalous than monopetalous, appear 
more naturally allied to the Aquifoliacece, in which family the 
petals are also generally combined at the base into a tube. The 
Ebenacece, as before suggested, appear to belong to the neigh- 
bourhood of the Anonacece rather than of the Aquifoliacece, with 
which family they are strangely consociated by Dr. Lindley 
(Veg. Kingd. p. 594) in the same alliance with the Gentianacece, 
Apocynacece, &c. The affinity of the Symplocacece with the Hu- 
miriacece has been already indicated. The Primulacece, together 
with the Lentibulariacece, appear to have more relation with the 
Plantaginacece and Hydrophyllacece„&n alliance that differs little 
from that shown by Dr. Lindley (Veg. Kingd. p. 637). The 
farther prosecution of these considerations would be foreign to 
the present purpose, and they are now only indicated with the 
view of assisting us in the determination of the true affinities of 
the Olacacece. 

There is yet another family, to which the Olacacece, compre- 
hending all the genera included in it by Mr. Bentham, will 
be found to offer many points of approximation, — I mean the 
Aquifoliacece of DeCandolle, the Ilicinece of Brongniart, Endlicher 
and others ; but I am not aware that this affinity has been before 
noticed. Many species of Ilex bear much the habit of the Ola- 
cacece and differ little in the structure of the flower from the 
tribe Icacinece, except in the aestivation of the corolla and the 
unilocular apex of the ovarium. Leretia, indeed, bears a re- 
markable resemblance in its habit and inflorescence, and in the 
structure of its flowers, to a Brazilian species of Villaresia, dif- 
fering principally in the aestivation of the corolla, and in the 
want of an inner carinated midrib in the petals ; but in other 
points of arrangement there is very little variance, agreeing even 
in its unilocular ovarium, with two collateral ovules suspended 
almost parietally from near the apex of the cell. The structure 
of the fruit of Villaresia corresponds so far with that of the Ola- 
cacece, in having a single seed, with copious albumen, containing 
a small embryo* near its summit, with a superior radicle, and 
small cotyledons. It may be well here to mention a fact, ap- 
parently yet unknown, which may serve to throw some better 
light upon the real affinities of the Aquifoliacece. I have found 
that the suspension of the ovules in the ovarium of Villaresia 
is- not really parietal, as generally stated, for it is sometimes 
completely bilocular, with two ovules in each cell, collaterally 
suspended from each side of the dissepiment by a cupshaped 



168 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

strophiole, like that seen in the ovules of the Celastraceae ; but in 
ordinary cases the ovarium is unilocular, only by the suppres- 
sion of one of the cells, and the confluence of the dissepiment 
with the pericarpial covering, for it is then always somewhat 
gibbous, and its wall much thicker on the side of the abortive 
cell, towards which the style is then constantly somewhat lateral : 
this fact serves to bring the genus completely within the pale of 
the Aquifoliacea, as it is evident that its ovules are really 
suspended from the normal dissepiment, not parietally attached 
to the wall of an originally solitary carpel. It will also serve to 
guide us to the true position in the system of Leretia, Pogope- 
talum, and the rest of the somewhat extensive group of the leu- 
cines, which I shall be able to prove to be quite distinct, in 
many leading and essential characters, from the Olacacea. Rhap- 
tostylum, an anomalous genus of the Aquifoliacece, accords with 
Heisteria in many remarkable points ; they agree in habit and 
inflorescence, both having flowers in aggregated axillary clusters, 
growing out of imbricated buds ; they have also a small 5 -toothed 
calyx, a corolla of five petals partly cohering at base, but easily 
separable, with a valvate aestivation, ten stamens, five of which 
are opposite, and five alternate with the petals, and partly ad- 
hering to them, a trilocular depressed and somewhat stipitate 
ovarium, with a single ovule suspended in each cell, a short 
erect style, and a clavate stigma : this close approximation of 
characters is very apparent, but the subsequent development of 
the calyx is not recorded in Rhaptostylum, nor is the nature of 
its fruit known. The genus Ptychopetalum of Bentham also 
agrees with Rhaptostylum in its principal floral characters, but 
differs in its unilocular ovule with two suspended ovules, a nearly 
constant feature of the Icacinece, From the description of 
Kunth, the three cells of the ovarium are symmetrical, and not 
lateral, as in Pogopetalum ; and as the fact of the evanescence of 
the dissepiments at their summit probably escaped the observa- 
tion of that botanist, we may safely conclude that Rhaptostylum 
will be found to belong to Olacacece rather than to the tribe of 
the Icacinea, or to the family of the Aquifoliacece. Iodina again, 
which has always been referred to the last-mentioned family, 
really belongs, as I shall be able to show, to the Olacacece : this 
curious genus presents a minute cupshaped bractiform calyx, 
with an entirely free campanular fleshy corolla, half cleft into five 
acute lobes, with a valvate aestivation : a large fleshy cup-shaped 
disk, fixed on a distinct stipitate support within the corolla, sur- 
rounds the ovarium, and upon its margin the stamens are in- 
serted ; five of these are fertile, and placed opposite to the lobes 
of the corolla, the others are alternate, squamiform and petaloid, 
having been hitherto described as petals, but from their position 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaccae. 169 

they are evidently analogous to the sterile stamens of Agonandra, 
a new genus of Olacacece: the depressed ovarium, partly im- 
mersed in the disk, is unilocular, with two to five ovules 
suspended from a cionosperm, or free central placenta. Iodina 
from its habit, with its spinous leaves more resembling those of 
the Holly, might well be supposed to belong to Aquifoliacece, but 
the sestivation of its corolla, and the peculiar structure of its 
ovarium, refer it, without doubt, to Olacacece. The genus Iodina, 
at first sight, offers a close resemblance to Cervantesia, which 
has in like manner five large petaloid scales, alternating with as 
many fertile stamens, and all originating in one common whorl, 
from the margin of a cupuliform disk ; but in this genus the 
disk is not free, as in Iodina, but is entirely adnate with the tube 
of the floral envelope, so that when the fruit ripens, the drupe 
exhibits on its sides the persistent lobes of the corolla, and the 
petaloid stamens ; but as the principal floral envelope must be 
regarded as a perigonium, having no calyx at its base, and as 
the disk is adnate with this perigonium, this genus must be 
referred to Santalacece, while Iodina and Agonandra must belong 
to Olacacece. There is one very unusual point of structure in 
Cervantesia, which appears to me without example; the floral 
envelope, deeply cleft above into five equal segments, is adnate 
to the disk, a little below the level of its free margin, but at this 
point it descends again below the same line of attachment, in 
the form of five other reverse segments, equal in size and con- 
tinuous with the upper ones, and quite free from the disk and 
pedicel, which they enclose, so that it appears to consist of five 
elliptical segments, pointed and free, both above and below, and 
confluent only with each other and with the margin of the 
disk by a narrow transverse zone running across their middle : 
these inferior free processes must be spurlike extensions of the 
perigonium. 

We have still another striking instance of the consimilitude in 
the external characters of the Olacacece and Aquifoliacece, which 
has led to a confusion of reference, in an opposite direction : this 
occurs in the genus Bursinopetalum of Wight, who assigned it 
to the former family, but which appears to me clearly belonging 
to the latter, as it agrees with it in the imbricate aestivation of 
its corolla ; the petals, though distinct, and somewhat valvate at 
base, are decidedly imbricated for at least two-thirds* of their 
length, two alternate petals being exterior to the others, and 
their margins overlapping to a considerable extent; they have 
the same prominent internal keel, and the apex is deeply inflected 
by long processes, which are torsively complicated together, 
as in Villaresia-, the ovarium (probably from a similar cause) 
is unilocular, with an ovule (or two?) suspended on one side 



170 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

from near the summit of the cell ; so far all accords with the 
last-mentioned genus, but it differs in having its ovarium half 
immersed in the fleshy torus, which however occurs sometimes 
in Ilex. Although the ovarium is at first almost superior, it 
subsequently becomes inferior by the growth of the fleshy torus, 
or disk, and it is the lower portion only that acquires increment, 
for the fruit ultimately is invested by the enlarged calyx, now 
become adnate, and is crowned by its five persistent teeth, the 
originally superior portion of the ovarium, and the base of the 
style, forming an umbilical scar upon its summit. The most 
prominent feature, however, is in the development of the fruit, 
and its structural resemblance to that of Villaresia ; this is a 
drupe containing a very thick ligneous putamen of considerable 
size, which is one-celled ; but the longitudinal parietal placenta 
seen in the ovarium has now become so much thickened, and 
extended across the cavity of the cell, as to make it thus appear 
as if it were almost bilocular, and its single seed hence becomes 
inflected around the placenta, and made to assume the form of 
the cavity thus formed, which in its transverse section is hippo- 
crepiform: the seed, as in the Aquifoliacece, has a copious albumen, 
with a small embryo near its summit, having a superior radicle, 
pointed towards its apex. From the identity of this construction 
to that of Villaresia, we may reasonably conclude, that in Bur- 
sinopetalum the more normal condition of the ovarium is also 
bilocular, which indeed is evident from the hollow, or longitudinal 
slit, lined with a distinct membrane, seen to extend down the 
middle of the thickened incomplete dissepiment, and which is 
most probably the vestige of the abortive cell. These facts all 
tend to prove, that however structurally opposed the Aquifoliacece 
may be to the Olacacea, they possess so many external cha- 
racters in common, as to have led the most expert botanists of 
our time to confound the two orders, by placing several genera 
in one family that belong to the other, and vice versa. I will 
here mention that Pogopetalum, placed by Mr. Bentham in Ola- 
cacece, differs from that order, and especially from all the other 
genera of his tribe Icacinece, in which it is placed, by having its 
ovarium always completely 3-celled : from the lateral position of 
these cells, it is manifest that their normal number must be five, 
in correspondence with the other parts of the flower. This would 
bring the genus nearer in accordance with Ilex, but it differs 
from that genus and all others of the Aquifoliacece in the aestiva- 
tion of the corolla. 

In order to prevent the same confusion in future, it is very 
desirable to reduce the Olacacece within more uniform and cer- 
tain limits, and I therefore propose to confine this family to those 
genera that have a free calyx, more or less entire ; four to six 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 171 

distinct petals, always valvate in aestivation, and sometimes ad- 
hering by the margins at their base into a somewhat gamope- 
talous tube, but which by a little force may be separated from 
each other without any laceration ; stamens generally equal in 
number to the petals and opposite to them, sometimes double 
that number, in which case they are by turns opposite and alter- 
nate, or at times one half of them are sterile and appendiciform, 
or in shape of petaloid scales. Around the ovary are sometimes 
free hypogynous glands, alternate with the petals, but generally 
these are combined into a cup-shaped nectary, which in some 
instances, as in Liriosma, is free from the ovarium and partially 
adnate to the calyx ; but in others, as in Schopfia, Iodina, Arjoona, 
and Quinchamalium, it is wholly adnate to the ovarium and free 
from the calyx, while in Cathedra it is free both from the calyx 
and ovarium. This hypogynous disk, when developed, always 
bears on its margin the petals and stamens. The ovarium is 
always wholly superior with respect to the calyx, but often partly 
immersed in the cupuliform disk, and is frequently surmounted 
by a remarkable fleshy epigynous gland, which sometimes wholly 
covers its upper moiety ; it bears a simple style, and a more or 
less clavate stigma. The internal structure of the ovarium is 
always constant in its character ; unilocular at its summit, and 
more or less divided at base into incomplete cells, by spurious 
dissepiments, which separating from the axis, are often continued 
along the walls of the cell, in the form of so many narrow parietal 
keels. The placenta is axile, united at base with the short in- 
complete dissepiments, but quite free above, in the shape of an 
axile column, from which are suspended as many ovules as there 
are pseudo-dissepiments ; these are generally three in number, 
more seldom two or five, and rarely by abortion only one, as 
occurs sometimes, but not always, in Opilia : this axile placenta, 
very distinct from the ordinary trophosperm, and which I have 
elsewhere proposed to call a Cionosperm (from klcov, columella), 
sometimes does not extend beyond the point of insertion of the 
ovules, while at others it rises above, in the form of an apical 
point, as in Ximenia, where it is prolonged far into a cavity of 
the style that is continuous with the cell of the ovarium, but in 
such cases it is always free and unconnected with it. One ovule 
only (as in the Santalacea) becomes matured into a fleshy drupe, 
which is sometimes supported at its base upon its unchanged 
calyx, while in others, as in Olax, Heisteria, Cathedra, and Quin- 
chamalium, the calyx enlarges and encloses the fruit ; and in some 
cases, as in Liriosma, the calyx increases in size, and becoming 
adnate, forms the fleshy external covering of the drupe. The 
putamen is one-celled, containing a single suspended seed; this, 
at first sight, presents a naked albumen filling the cavity, as in 



172 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

Santalacea, but the membranaceous and pellicular integument 
will be found adhering to the inner face of the cell, and when 
separated, there will be seen on one side a funicular raphe-like 
thread, extending from the base to near the summit, which is 
merely the attenuated remains of the placentary column, with 
the abortive ovules, still visible, at the apical point of attachment 
to the integument. The embryo is small, terete, and seated in 
the axis of the upper portion of the albumen, the radicle being 
always superior, and the cotyledons very small and compressed, 
directed towards the centre of the nucleus. To such characters 
I have found the following genera correspond, viz. Ximenia, 
Heisteria, Olax, Schopfia, Strombosia, Cathedra, Iodina, Liriosma, 
Opilia, Arjoona, Quinchamalium, and two new genera, Agonandra 
and Endusa. The order thus restricted is marked by more 
distinct and coextensive characters than those proposed by Mr. 
Bentham, and will be seen to comprise only his tribes Olacece 
and Opiliece. The latter tribe however cannot be maintained, 
as I find that Cansjera does not belong to the family*, and that 

* The genus Cansjera, first placed in the Thymelece by Jussieu, was re- 
tained there by all subsequent botanists, till removed to the Olacacece by 
Mr. Bentham, who concluded it was allied to Opilia, because he considered 
it to have a small distinct adnate calyx, and an unilocular ovarium, with a 
single ovule suspended from the summit of a free central placenta. All 
the specimens I have examined of both known species, from various localities, 
and in different herbaria, present characters constantly at variance with 
these conclusions and more in accordance with the description given by 
Lamarck (Diet. hi. 433). Here I can observe no trace of any distinct calyx, 
but the floral envelope, which is a simple tubular perianthium, is supported 
at base upon a small and pointed navicular bract : the four stamens are 
adnate in the upper portion of the tube, equal to the number of the lobes 
of the border, and opposite to them ; four tridentated, free, hypogynous 
scales alternate with the stamens ; the long conical ovarium is seated upon 
a narrow glandular support, from which the scales originate, and the style 
is surmounted by a large 4-lobed capitate stigma. The ovarium I find to 
be constantly 4-locular at base, and one or more (generally two or three) of 
these minute cells extend irregularly like narrow and interrupted channels, 
to the upper portion, and the fecundating threads may be traced from all 
of them, most distinctly, to the style : a single ovule is seen, sometimes 
higher, sometimes lower, from a prominent line of placentation on one side 
of each ovuliferous channel which at the point of the development of the 
ovule becomes widened, and here the placenta is somewhat curved, by 
the ascending direction of the ovule. The seed is a drupe, apiculated by 
the base of the style, and supported below by the remains of the shrivelled 
perianthium ; it contains an oval coriaceous putamen, which encloses a 
single erect seed ; a short receptacle is seen at the base of the cell, which 
enters into a corresponding hollow in the seed, and from it extend, in a 
cruciform direction, four prominent keels or ridges, which penetrate as 
many furrows observable in the albumen : the testa and integument are 
membranaceous, the albumen solid and fleshy, and an embryo of half its 
length is placed in the axis of the upper moiety : this embryo is slender, 
cylindrical, and terete, its superior radicle is oval, clavate, six times shorter 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaccae. 173 

Opilia, although often with only a single suspended ovule, some- 
times exhibits two or three ovules, as I have distinctly seen in 
O. amentaeea. This fact was evidently more than suspected by 
Mr. Bentham, who says (loc. cit. p. 674) that it appeared to him 
there were two ovules in Opilia, three or four in Cansjera, a cir- 
cumstance rendered probable by the evidently compound nature 
of the stigma in both genera, but which on account of the ex- 
cessive minuteness of the parts he could not ascertain from dried 
specimens : after fecundation he never found traces of more than 
one ovule. The order however will admit of being divided into 
tribes, by some of the characters already indicated, but in a sub- 
sequent memoir I will offer my views on this subject. 

As I shall have shortly to treat of Leretia, and other correla- 
tive genera, I shall be able to detail at greater length the nume- 
rous observations that have induced me to propose the separation 
of Mr. Bentham's tribe Icacineae from the Olacacece ; it will at 
present be sufficient to state, that they constantly differ in having 
the stamens alternate with, not opposite to the petals ; they always 
want the hypogynous disk that forms so frequent and so remark- 
able a feature in that family, although they sometimes exhibit a 
similar epigynous gland upon a superior ovarium; they differ 
also most essentially in the structure of their somewhat gibbous 
ovarium, which normally will be seen to be 5- celled, but which 
with a single exception is by abortion always completely uni- 
locular, and without the smallest indication of any free central 
placenta, the ovules being generally two in number, attached 
somewhat laterally, from near the summit of the cell. The 
fruit differs most essentially in structure from that of the Ola- 
cacea, being a drupe, enclosing a single nut, with a solitary 
albuminous seed, that is covered with the usual testa and inner 
integumental envelopes, and distinguished by a well-marked 
chalaza and raphe, which, as in Euonymus, is averse or dorsal 
in respect to the axis of placentation. This is very manifest in 
Pennantia, a genus clearly belonging to this family. 

In a former page [ante p. 169), while speaking of Villaresia and 
Bursinopetalum, genera belonging to Aquifoliacece, I pointed out 
the existence of the identity of structure of the ovarium in those 
genera with that of the Icacinece, and I stated many other cir- 
cumstances, tending to prove how closely this tribe is related to 

than the linear cotyledons, of which there were three, equal in size, in the 
specimen I examined : from the extremity of the cotyledons a thread ex- 
tended to the umbilicus in the axis of the albumen, which was probably the 
remains of the embryonary sac. These characters cannot in any single 
respect be made to correspond with the Olacacece, and Cansjera must again 
be assigned to its former place, as an anomalous genus of the TJiymeleaceee, 
until a more fitting position can be given to it. 



174 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaceae. 

that family, and that its affinity with the Olacacece is in reality 
very distant. This very different structure of the ovarium did 
not escape the penetration of Mr. Bentham, but as he had not 
observed the constant, essential, and dissimilar points of floral 
structure, as above described, he states in the memoir before 
cited, that he did not consider the single fact noticed by him to 
be a sufficient reason for separating the Icacinece from the Ola- 
cacece. It is evident however, from the many circumstances 
enumerated, that this group must form a distinct family (the 
Icacinacece) , and it will consist of the genera Icacina, Mappea 
(Juss.), Apodytes, Rhaphiostyles, Stemonurus (identical with 
Gomphandra), Leretia, Phlebocalymna (Griff.), Sarcostigma, Po- 
raqueiba, Pennantia, Ptycopetalum, Pogopetalum, and Desmo- 
stachys. 

I am aware of the objections that will be raised by some 
botanists, who are averse to multiplying the present number of 
orders, but it appears to me most important to the advancement 
of science, to detect in the various natural groups of plants, a 
few decisive characters, by which they can be readily distin- 
guished, and this should be accomplished, even at the risk of 
increasing the number of families : this indeed is a far less evil 
than the opposite extreme, where, by reducing too much the 
divisions of the system, the most opposite characters often be- 
come blended in one group, and we thus lose sight of every use- 
ful and well-defined line of demarcation. This inconvenience 
was pointed out on a former occasion (Illustr. South Amer. 
Plants, vol. i. p. 167), when I proposed the family of the Atro- 
pacece, but I then suggested, that if this were felt to be an evil, 
it might be counterbalanced, by classing in one immense family 
the Scrophulariacece, Solanacece, Atropacece, &c, which all partake 
of many similar general characters. In like manner the Celas- 
tracece, Aquifoliacece, Icacinacece, and perhaps some others, might 
be considered as suborders, but I am not yet prepared to define 
the exact limits of such a group. The same observations will 
equally apply to what I have said farther on, relative to the 
Viscacece. 

We have now arrived at that point in this investigation, when 
we can better understand the exact relation existing between the 
Olacacece and the Santalacece, to which I have already alluded. 
The details given of the structure of Cathedra and Liriosma en- 
able us to comprehend more fully the true nature of the floral 
parts seen in Santalacece. In the Olacacece we have observed 
that the ovarium is always superior, and quite unconnected with 
the real calyx, and that the cupshaped disk, which supports on 
its margin the corolla and the stamens, is sometimes, though 
not always, adnate with the ovarium, growing with it in such 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 175 

case, and producing a pseudo-inferior fruit, but which, in truth, 
never ceases to be superior. This we perceive in Myoschilos, a 
genus placed hitherto in Santalacece, where the hypogynous disk 
is adnate with the ovarium, and quite free from its triphyllous 
calyx, the stamens and petals being inserted on the margin of a 
free portion of the disk ; thus it agrees with Schbpfia in all es- 
sential points of structure, except that its calyx consists of three 
distinct sepals, instead of being an urceolate 5-toothed tube. In 
Quinchamalium we meet with a still nearer approach to the last- 
mentioned genus, for its calyx is also quite free, and in the form 
of an urceolate tube with a 5-toothed border ; we have likewise 
a similar fleshy hypogynous disk, wholly adnate with the ova- 
rium, and bearing on its margin a gamopetalous corolla ; here 
also we perceive a similar development of the very prominent 
epigynous gland, that covers the somewhat depressed conical 
apex of the ovarium, but in this instance it rises in the form of 
a 5 -grooved cylindrical tube, with a border of five rounded pa- 
tent lobes, encircling the base of the style, and quite free from 
it. In Arjoona, as in Myoschilos, the calyx consists of three 
imbricate leaflets, but the outer one is considerably larger, and 
being 3-nerved, it consists probably of three confluent leaflets, 
so that the normal number of its sepals will hence be five, corre- 
sponding with that of the lobes of the border and stamens : the 
hypogynous disk is here less conspicuous, but it still exists, 
wholly adnate and continuous with the tube of the corolla : the 
epigynous gland is highly developed, being entirely free from 
the base of the corolla, by which it is concealed ; the style origi- 
nating on its umbilical and rounded apex. These three genera 
have hitherto been placed in Santalacece, but it is evident that 
to whatever order they belong they must be classed side by side 
with Schbpfia, a decidedly Olacaceous genus. In all the genera 
of the Santalacece, we meet with the presence of a large cupuli- 
form disk, supporting the stamens externally on its lobed margin, 
and forming a most prominent and constant feature, but with this 
difference, that while in Olacacece this disk is frequently adnate 
with the ovarium and free from the calyx, in Santalacece it never 
invests the ovarium, but is adnate with the tube of the perigo- 
nium or calyx, forming generally a deep cup about the superior 
moiety of the ovarium, which in most of its genera is only half 
inferior : the cupshaped disk, in these cases, is therefore conti- 
nuous with the fleshy epigynous gland. I am aware that it 
might be, as it has already been contended, that in Schbpfia its 
disk may be looked upon as an adnate calyx, its corolla as a pe- 
rigonium, and its calyx as a tubular involucre ; but such an ar- 
gument can no longer be tenable when confronted by the struc- 
ture seen in Liriosma and Cathedra, where we find a true solu- 



176 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacea?. 

tion of the nature of the cupuliform disk. There is however 
always this essential difference constantly existing between the 
two families : in the Olacacece the insertion of the corolla and 
stamens is on the margin of the disk ; in the Santalacem this in- 
sertion is always outside of it ; in the former these organs are 
articulated with it, and easily fall away ; in the latter family it is 
impossible to separate the free lobes of the perigonium and sta- 
mens without force, and a rupture of the parts. But notwith- 
standing these prominent marks of ordinal distinction, there 
exists a regular gradation from one family to the other, as will 
be seen from the analyses I propose to offer ; this proceeds from 
one extreme, Opilia (where the disk is developed in distinct free 
glands), through Agonandra, Olax, Liriosma, Cathedra, Schbpfia, 
Arjoona, Quinchamalium, Myoschilos, Iodina, Cervantesia, Mida, 
Exocarpus, Santalum, &c, rendering it difficult, through the 
osculant genera Iodina and Cervantesia, to draw a line through 
the strong limits of demarcation that exist between the two 
families. 

The word torus has been employed by Mr. Bentham (Linn. 
Trans, xviii. p. 676) to describe in Olacacece what I have termed 
a disk, and which I have shown to be the same organ, but dif- 
ferently situated, that forms a constant feature, both in that 
order and the Santalacece, where in both cases, with rare excep- 
tions, it is always deeply cupuliform and more or less lobed on 
its margin. I have adopted in preference the term " discus cu- 
puliformis " as that given by Dr. Lindley for such a structure 
in his ' Introduction to Botany/ p. 161. This may not differ in 
its nature from a stipitate torus, but the adaptation in such cases 
of this last term, which is generally used in another sense, will 
naturally lead to ambiguity in our definition of structural ar- 
rangement ; thus Mr. Bentham, in a subsequent work, appears 
to agree with Dr. Hooker's observation, after an original sug- 
gestion of Mr. Brown, in what appears to me an inconsequent 
conclusion, viz. that because in Olacacece the corolla is inserted 
into the disk, which is sometimes stipitate, or what he calls the 
apex of the pedicel, that the calyx in such case should be consi- 
dered in the light of an involucre (Flor. Nigrit. p. 261). I can 
perceive no reason why this should be a necessary consequence, 
for we see in the Capparidacece the development of the stipitate 
torus carried even to a much greater extent, supporting the sta- 
mens on its sides and the petals below them ; but no botanist in 
these instances has ever thought of considering the calyx to be 
of the nature of an involucre, which it ought to be if the above 
reasoning were valid : this incongruity is rendered still more evi- 
dent, when we remember that the argument was applied in the 
case of Rhaphiolepis, a genus of the Icacinece, which I have shown 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaccae. 177 

to differ little from the Aquifoliacece. The word torus is gene- 
rally confined to that fleshy termination of the peduncle in the 
bottom of the calyx seen in Ranunculacece, and more especially 
developed in such orders as the Anonacece, Magnoliacece, &c, but 
when it rises in more varied or determinate shapes, it takes the 
name of hypogynous glands, annular ring, flat, pulvinate or 
cupuliform disk, &c, according to the peculiar form it may 
assume, or the position in which it is engendered. 

The epigynous gland, so highly developed in Schopfia, Arjoona, 
Cathedra, and other genera of the Olacacece, is an equally con- 
stant feature of the Santalacece, where in Exocarpus aphyllus it 
is largely and prominently seen in the form of a 4-lobed cushion, 
broader than the summit of the ovarium, which is almost entirely 
superior ; this is quite independent of its hypogynous disk, which 
is also present as usual in the family. This organ, whose exist- 
ence I first pointed out in Hyoscyamus, I have since found to 
occur frequently upon the summit of a superior ovarium. 

This inquiry into the affinities of the Olacacece has led to an- 
other conclusion of some interest. In my memoir upon Cathedra 
(huj. op. vol. vii. p. 454), while describing its curious anthers, I 
pointed out a very analogous structure in Choretrum and other 
genera, mentioning at the same time a similar formation of the 
anthers in Myzodendron, so beautifully illustrated in the ' Flora 
Antarctica ' by Dr. Hooker, who has there also given the analysis 
of its ovarium and fruit, proving by indisputable evidence its 
relation to the Santalacece and Olacacece. I will now endeavour 
to show, that neither this genus, nor Viscum, bear any relation 
to the Loranthaceee, where they have been placed by almost every 
botanist. The genus Viscum has been a frequent subject of in- 
vestigation by many eminent physiological botanists, and Richard 
first described the very remarkable structure of the anthers of 
Viscum album, of which we find no parallel formation : these are 
well represented (Ann. Mus. torn. xii. tab. 27) as being com- 
posed of very numerous ceils, each containing distinct aggrega- 
tions of pollen -grains, and which burst open and discharge their 
contents by the rupture and contraction of the vesicular tissue 
that covers their surface ; in this respect it bears no resemblance 
to the structure of the anthers of Myzodendron. On the other 
hand, upon examining the anthers of the Brazilian species of 
Viscum, I find their structure quite opposed to that described in 
V. album, and somewhat analogous to those of Myzodendron; 
they are 2-lobed and subcordate, approaching much the form of 
those of Cathedra ; they are quite distinct and free from the lobes 
of the perianthium, are nearly sessile, and consist of two parallel 
cells, enclosed in thick crystalline walls, as described in that ge- 
nus, and appear to discharge their fertilizing power in the same 
ambiguous manner by two covered pores in the apex : the pollen 

Ann. $ May. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 12 



1 78 Mr. J . Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaceae. 

is globular, quite smooth, vesicular, bursting irregularly, and so 
thin is their texture, that the sporular granules can easily be 
distinguished in them by transmitted light. All such species 
will therefore constitute a group generically distinct from Vis- 
cum, to which the name of Allobium may be given, from aXko?, 
alius, /3l6co, vivo, in allusion to their deriving their support and 
nourishment from other trees. As far as my observation extends, 
many of the Asiatic species will be found to conform with the 
same genus. On some future occasion I will give more in detail 
the facts upon which I propose to separate from the Loranthacece, 
the genera Viscum, Myzodendron, and Lepidoceras : respecting 
Eubrachion and Ginalloa I cannot offer an opinion : Antidaphne 
from Poppig^s description is evidently related to Loranthacece, as 
well as Tupeia *, on account of the structure of the ovarium. 

It will be sufficient to remark at present, that in Loranthacece 
the flowers are generally hermaphrodite ; the calyx, with a free and 
entire margin, is adnate with the ovarium ; the petals are linear, 
frequently very long ; the opposite stamens with lengthened fila- 
ments are free or only partially adnate with the petals ; the an- 
thers often versatile, always 2-lobed and 4-celled, bursting by 
two longitudinal furrows ; the pollen is flattened, 3-lobed, and 
marked by three lines radiating from the centre ; the ovarium is 
unilocular with a single ovule suspended from the summit of its 
cell ; and the embryo, with large fleshy cotyledons, almost fills the 
cavity of the cell of the fruit, being covered with very thin albu- 
men : finally they often form distinct trees, are frequently more 
epiphytic than parasitic, and the inflorescence is generally pani- 
culate, with numerous pedicelled flowers, often of great size and 
brilliant colours. We perceive nothing like this in Viscum, My- 
zodendron, or Lepidoceras, where the flowers are always very mi- 
nute, either dioecious or monoecious, and generally imbedded in 
decussate pairs in a fleshy spikelet. In the group I have called 
Allobium, the structure of the flower corresponds with that of 
most of the genera of the Santalacece, the calyx is obsolete, the 
corolla or perigonium has three or four short and 3-angular 
lobes, the sessile anthers already described are opposite to these 
segments, and alternate with the lobes of an internal adnate disk ; 

* I have had an opportunity of examining the Tupeia Cunnmghamii, 
which scarcely differs from the typical species, Viscum antarcticum, Forst. ; 
it agrees with the characters assigned to it by Forster, Chamisso, and 
Schlechtendahl (Linn. iii. 203), Richard (Voy. Astrol. p. 269), and Miquel 
(Linn, xviii. 85). At the same time that it is in noway related to Viscum, 
it quite accords with the Loranthacece, and agrees in every respect with the 
Characters given in Endlicher's ' Gen. PI/ p. 802, of Spirostylis, a subgenus 
proposed by Presl and adopted by Blume (DC. Prodr. iv. 315). This spe- 
cies from Acapulco will therefore claim the name of Tupeia Ha'e'nckeana, 
Spirostylis Haenckeana, Presl, the former genus being proposed in 1828, 
the latter in 1829. 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 179 

in the female flowers, also 3- or 4-lobed, the ovarium is half im- 
mersed in a similar adnate fleshy cupshaped disk ; it is 1 -celled, 
with three ovules suspended from a free central placenta; the berry 
contains a single naked seed, enclosing a compressed heart-shaped 
albumen, with a minute embryo in its almost cordate summit ; 
the radicle is terete, the upper moiety of which is nearly exserted, 
having only a thin pellicular albuminous covering ; while its lower 
moiety, and two exceedingly diminutive cotyledons, are imbedded 
within the substance of the albumen, in the marginal sinus. 
These characters are so perfectly distinct from the Loranthacece, 
that it appears to me the genera above mentioned should form 
either a separate family (the Viscacece), or be considered as a sub- 
order of the Santalacece. The only points of resemblance between 
Viscum and the Loranthacece are, the position of the stamens 
opposite the lobes of the corolla or perianthium, the manner of 
development of their seeds, their glutinous properties, and their 
parasiticism, characters equally possessed by other families : they 
are certainly quite distinct in habit. Mr. Griffith states, that 
the Indian species of Viscum have three ovules suspended from a 
central column, thus agreeing with the Brazilian species, which 
I have called Allobium. The ovules of Viscum album are said by 
M. Decaisne to be erect, but I have elsewhere offered reasons 
why we may infer that they are in reality suspended, and only 
apparently erect, as in Champereia, &c. 

In first pointing out the affinity of the Loranthacece with the 
Santalacece, many years ago (Prodr. 352), Mr. Brown probably 
had Myzodendron and Viscum in view, as at a later period (Linn. 
Trans, xix. 232) he has alluded more distinctly to the similarity 
in the construction of the ovarium of the former genus with that 
which forms a pecular feature in the Santalacece. In indicating, 
on the other hand, the relation of the Loranthacece witlf the Pro- 
teacece (Flind. Voy. App. 549), the same distinguished botanist 
probably had only Loranthus in consideration. The evident 
affinity of Viscum, just mentioned, was also remarked by Prof. 
Decaisne, in his memoir on the pollen of that genus, before 
cited, on comparing the ovules of Viscum album with those of 
Thesium. Brongniart (1843), adopting this view, arranged the 
Loranthacece in a separate class, with the Santalacece and Ola- 
cacece. The same affinity between these three families (at least 
as far as regards Myzodendron and Viscum) has since been con- 
firmed by Dr. Hooker, in his very able investigation into the 
relations of the former genus (Flor. Antarct. 293) ; and the 
strongest evidence in proof of this affinity is given in the com- 
plete analysis of its ovarium, from its early development to the 
perfection of the fruit, the details of which are there exemplified 
in plate 104. fig. 10 to 20, and plate 105. fig. 12 to 21. 

12* 



180 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 

After reviewing all that is here advanced, in regard to the 
affinities of the Olacacem, it is satisfactory to know that the con- 
clusions to which my own observations have led me have been 
in great measure already anticipated by the inferences of such 
distinguished botanists : it is therefore with more confidence that 
I now repeat the suggestion proposed some time ago (huj. op. vii. 
p. 207), of uniting the several families distinguished by the cha- 
racters there indicated into a distinct class (Cionospermce) , the 
place which it should occupy in the system having been already 
made obvious. If we look to the development of the reproduc- 
tive organs in plants as a main element in the foundation upon 
which every natural method of classification should be based, 
then the arguments before adduced on this head ought to be 
considered with all the weight due to them (ante p. 166). I have 
there pointed out what appears to be the normal construction of 
the carpels in this group of families, and the sources from which 
the placenta? and ovules spring, and have again contrasted this 
with the normal structure of other classes of the system, the 
clear inference being, that the Cionospermce should range in the 
Thalamiflora, between Poly earpiece and Rhceades (ante p. 166). 
Whatever may be conceded on this point as regards Olacacece, 
it may perhaps be objected, that a position so high in the scale 
is not compatible with the Santalacecs, generally placed in a far 
lower grade ; but if we consider the usual floral parts to be there 
existing and perfect, as we must admit from analogy, although 
but sparingly developed, this cannot be urged as a sufficient 
reason against the admission of that family into such a position, 
especially when no objections have been urged against the station 
assigned to the Menispermacece, placed in the midst of other 
families possessed of an unusually high extent of development in 
its floral parts, merely because its petals are reduced to the size 
of minute scales and its flowers very diminutive and dioecious. 
Neither did DeCandolle hesitate to arrange the Myristicacece in 
a similar position, although they have small dioecious flowers, 
with a simple perigonium ; nor have any obstacles been raised 
against such a position by other botanists upon this score alone. 
Another objection may be urged, that in Santalacece the seed is 
often naked*, that is, deficient of any testa or integuments ; but 
this is perhaps not always so, and its occurrence here, as we 

* I do not use this term in the meaning employed by Linnaeus, for seeds 
developed upon a gynophorus, such as Labiatce, &c. ; nor as used by Mr. 
Brown, to denote the seeds of Conifera, Cycadece, &c., in which sense it is 
now generally understood ; but as no expression has been applied to the 
peculiar development under consideration, I would suggest that of Semina 
exutiva, as more peculiarly fitted to specify those, distinguished by the ab- 
sence of the usual seminal tunics, contrary to the ordinary development in 
Semina indutiva. 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacacese. 181 

know it to be in other cases, is probably due to adventitious 
causes. We have every reason to believe, that the development of 
the ovule and its embryo in the Olacacece is analogous to what 
has been observed in Santalacea : assuredly the early growth 
of the ovules is effected under the same peculiar circumstances, 
and in the seeds of Liriosma, Ximenia, &c, the albumen appears 
naked, or at least, their only covering is reduced to a thin mem- 
brane, which in the dried state remains more or less attached to 
the inner surface of the putamen. The phenomenon of the deve- 
lopment of these, which I have proposed to call exutive seeds (see 
last note), has been frequently observed by many eminent physio- 
logical botanists, more particularly by Mirbel, Schleiden, Meyen, 
Decaisne, and Griffith. The latter has shown, that among the 
changes that take place in these cases, is the constant prolonga- 
tion of the embryonary sac, outside of the "nucleus*," or body 
of the ovule, and that it is curious to witness the rapidity with 
which this exserted portion grows, and here becomes filled with 
albuminous tissue : another result being the incorporation of the 
remaining portion of the sac with that tissue. A similar pro- 
longation of the embryo-sac was also noticed by the same accu- 
rate observer in Avicenniaf, and he infers that this phenomenon 
has only been remarked in cases associated with a particular form 
of free central placental ; but this is not correct, for we have 
evidence, that its occurrence is not constant among the Ciono- 
spermcB. We know likewise, from the observations of Mr. Griffith 
himself, that the same occurs in Congea, Loranthus, &c. Dr. Plan- 
chon also has minutely described a similar phenomenon in the 
seeds of Veronica §, where the embryo is formed without the 
usual integuments, and remains covered merely by its embryo- 
sac, that protrudes outside the main body of the ovule, improperly 
called the " nucleus," and which afterwards shrivels into the form 
of a secondary funicular cord : in these instances the embryonary 
sac becomes thickened, and assumes the appearance of a peri- 
spermal covering around the albumen of the seed, very different 
in its origin from the true testa of indutive seeds. 

* This term, though generally used in this case by botanists, is manifestly 
incorrect, and has been employed only because it is applied to the identical 
body which is enclosed within its several tunics in ordinary seeds ; it leads 
to misconception, because it is difficult to imagine the " nucleus " can mean 
the external covering of the ovule, while the protruding real nucleary body 
becomes the entire seed. It would be more conformable to fact, and render 
the details of the phenomena more intelligible, to denominate the former, 
what it really is, the external body of the ovule, and not a " nucleus." 

t Linn. Trans, vol. xx. p. 2. 

% Ibid. p. 3. 

§ Memoire sur les developpemens et les caracteres des vrais et faux arilles. 
Montpelier, 1844. 



182 Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaceae. 

We may infer that nearly the same changes take place in the 
development of the seed in Olacaceae that Mr. Griffith has so 
minutely observed in Santalum and Osyris ; for in the ripe fruit 
of Liriosma, examined in the dried state, independently of the 
thickened and lengthened cionosperm, which is pressed into a 
deep longitudinal groove, formed by its pressure, in one side of 
the albumen, I find constantly, midway between the axis and 
this groove, and imbedded in the substance of the albumen, a 
very distinct, long, cylindrical, membranous tube, which proceed- 
ing from the base terminates abruptly, by an almost truncated 
closed apex, at about half the length of the seed; the lower 
portion, at its exit, is reflected upwards round the base, for a 
short distance, in a small groove, and is soon gradually lost in 
the substance of the enveloping integument. We cannot imagine 
this tube to be anything else than the posterior end of the em- 
bryonary sac, which in Osyris Mr. Griffith describes as becoming 
incorporated with the nascent albuminous tissue, but which here 
appears to remain entire, and its existence in the position above 
described can only be accounted for by supposing its reduplica- 
tion during the development of the albuminous tissue. On 
dividing the putamen, the albumen will be found quite bare of 
any integumental covering, except at the lacerated margin of 
the cionosperm, around the hollow space at the base, and about 
the summit, where it has broken away from the abortive ovules, 
which as well as the cionosperm become entirely pressed into 
the substance of the albumen : the rest of the extremely thin 
integumental covering remains adhering to the inner surface of 
the putamen ; but whether the external body of the ovule becomes 
withered and contracted into the substance of the cionosperm, or 
whether its induvial remains are to be referred to the quantity 
of colourless, dislocated tissue found between the adherent mem- 
branes that form the lining of the putamen and the seminal in- 
tegument, it is impossible to determine from an examination of 
dried specimens. 

Besides the knowledge of the singular fact of the exsertion of 
the embryonary sac, and the development of the embryo outside 
of the body of the ovule, common to the Santalacea, and by 
analogy to the Olacacece and other Cionospermce, that of the 
confluence of the albumina of several sacs into one albumen is 
stated to occur in Viscum album : this however is not quite a 
manifest explanation of the phenomenon, for if these were con- 
fluent, the embryos would not unite at base, but would remain 
distinct, by the intervention of the confluent sacs, unless we 
imagine these membranes to become absorbed into the substance 
of the nascent albumen. Dr. Meyen, on the contrary, denies 
the fact so minutely described by M. Deeaisne, in the memoir 



Mr. J. Miers on the Affinities of the Olacaceae. 183 

before quoted, of the growing together of several embryos ; for 
he asserts, that several embryonary sacs are contained in a single 
ovule, and are fertilized, but it rarely happens that more than 
one of these arrives at perfect development*, and he therefore 
concludes, that the doubling or trebling of the radicular end of 
the embryo of Viscum cannot be owing to the cohesion of several 
embryos. It appears to me that many of the changes that 
really take place in such cases have not yet been observed, and 
that we have still much to learn concerning the true nature of 
such developments : this is a subject of deep interest, worthy of 
the most attentive examination. I have mentioned that in the 
Olacacece, as well as the Santalacece, although the cionosperm 
sometimes exceeds the limits of the ovules, the free apices of the 
three ovular bodies are more frequently seen to extend above 
the top of the column. M. Decaisne describes the ovules in 
Viscum album to be several and erect, that one of these becomes 
fertile, while the two others are abortive and appear like filaments 
at its base. It is probable that the cionosperm is here very short, 
and that the free apices of the ovules have been mistaken for the 
ovules themselves; it may be also that the free apices of the 
probably yet un impregnated ovules, distinguishable in the ova- 
rium of the Olacacece, Santalacece, &c, may be nothing more than 
the exserted portions of the embryonary sacs, so ably described 
by Mr. Griffith : these are points very difficult of determination 
in dried plants especially, where the parts are so extremely minute 
and delicate. In Opilia, and again in Champereia, the three 
suspended ovules, at the period of the fall of the flower, appear 
closely aggregated upon their columnar support, and from their 
extreme minuteness, they are easily mistaken for a single erect, 
stipitate ovule ; but I have found, by alternately moistening and 
allowing them to dry, that air intervenes between the delicate 
membranes, and renders them clearly distinct. I have already 
alluded to the fact, but as yet we know nothing of the cause, of 
the non-production in all the Cionospermce, as well as in Viscum, 
of the usual coverings that in ordinary cases are generated over 
the pristine ovule. We must not lose sight of the important 
circumstance, observed by M. Decaisne, that in Viscum album 
the embryo is not developed till a long period after the fall of 
the anthers f, nor of those of Mr. Griffith J, equally showing, 
that both in the Indian species of Viscum and Loranthus, the 
ovulum is a formation, subsequent to the act of impregnation ; 
" a remarkable and unparalleled fact, that tends to increase the 
difficulty of understanding, or even conjecturing, the nature of 

* Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 1. vii. p. 171. 

t Sur le developpement du Pollen du Guy, &c, Mem. Acad. Roy. 
Bruxelles, vol. xii. 
% Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 77> 



184 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 

the first steps in the formation of an embryo." These con- 
siderations become analogically of importance in leading ns to 
the discovery of the real history of the Olacacea. Something 
in relation to this subject might be learned, if we could better 
understand the origin and development cf the embryo under 
ordinary circumstances, for the facts are still undetermined that 
can prove which of the two theories of the nature of vegetable 
reproduction is founded on truth ; the one maintaining that the 
pollen-grain penetrates the embryo-sac, and hence comes into 
immediate contact with the body of the nucleary vesicle, in order 
to effect its fertilization ; the other denying this assertion, and 
declaring that it does not penetrate the sac, but merely discharges 
its function of impregnation, by external impression. Similar 
theories have long been disputed among zoologists, some con- 
tending that the spermatozoon does not penetrate the ovum in 
order to effect its impregnation, as mere external impact is suf- 
ficient to accomplish this function, while others declare the 
necessity of immediate contact, and that in proof of this they 
have seen the spermatozoa within the shell of the ovum. This 
point has just been determined by Mr. Newport, in a very in- 
teresting paper read before the Linnsean Society, in which he 
proves satisfactorily that the former view is conformable to 
truth. He has ascertained the important facts, that the presence 
of active spermatozoa are absolutely necessary to impregnate the 
ovum ; that this is effected by simple impact ; he has noted the 
time necessary to complete the operation, and has observed the 
internal change that immediately takes place in the body of the 
nucleus ; and moreover he has found that the spermatozoa, after 
producing this effect by simple external impact, become inert 
and lose all power of motion. Mr. Newport has suggested that 
these circumstances, by analogy, may assist in determining the 
theories in dispute among vegetable physiologists ; and he has 
pointed to the curious fact recorded by Mr. Griffith (Linn. Trans, 
vol. xx. p. 393) of the irritability or oscillatory motion seen within 
the boyaux of the pollen-grains of Dischidia at the period of 
impregnation of the ovules, which may perhaps be in some degree 
analogous to the vivacity of spermatozoa under parallel circum- 
stances. 



XVI. — Geographical Notices, and Characters of fourteen neiv spe- 
cies of Cyclostoma, from the East Indies. By W. H. Benson, 



The following new species of an interesting genus of operculated 
Land-snails belong chiefly to the mainland of India, and were 
collected in the Sikkim Himalaya; among the hills to the north- 
east of Bengal, and in the Peninsula of Southern India, from the 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 185 

east near Bombay to its western shore. For the specimens 
from Southern India I am indebted to Dr. T. Jerdon, the illus- 
trator of the ornithology of that quarter ; a single species forms 
part of Dr. Cantor's acquisitions in Pulo Penang. I shall con- 
clude with some remarks on the geographical distribution of 
ascertained Indian species, and on others which have been attri- 
tributed, erroneously in my opinion, to the same country. 

1. C. Pearsoni, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, depresso-turbinata, laevigata, obsolete spiraliter 
striata, supra castaneo marmorata et late fasciata, subtus spiraliter 
castaneo-lineata, fascia alba ad periphaeriam, subtus altera nigro- 
castaneo concurrente ornata ; spira depresso-conoidea, apice acuto ; 
anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo lato, subtus convexo ; apertura 
vix obliqua, ampla, circulari, intus caerulescente ; peristomate ex- 
panso, undique reflexo, laete aurantio, marginibus callo brevi junctis ; 
umbilico subangusto, pervio, intus angustiori. 

Diam. major 42, minor 33, axis 25 mill. 

Hah. in montibus Khasya dictis, ultra fines Provinciae Bengalise, ad 
orientem spectantes. 

Named after the late Dr. J. T. Pearson, of the Bengal Medical 
Service, a successful investigator of the natural history of Bengal, 
and formerly Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society of 
Calcutta. To him we owe the establishment of two interesting 
species of Pterocyclos, P. parvus and P. hispidus, in the Journal 
of that Society, and from him I received the species now de- 
scribed. 

In form, sculpture, and markings C. Pearsoni much resembles, 
in the back view, the shell figured by Sowerby, no. 128. pi. 27. 
of the ' Thesaurus/ as C. Perdix, but the spire is less acute. It 
differs otherwise in the narrower umbilicus, in the orange colour 
and rounded edge of the peristome (which is destitute of the 
flatness observable in C. Perdix), as well as in the amplitude of the 
aperture, convexity and want of keel in the whorls, and in the 
absence of the articulated band at the suture. Can this be the 
shell alluded to by Sowerby in the following words ? " Another 
variety has ventricose volutions and an orange-coloured aper- 
ture." It is probable that two or more distinct species were 
referred by Sowerby to C. Perdix, and that he has also figured 
two different species. 

2. C. Jerdoni, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, depresso-turbinata, supra lineis elevatis spiralibus 
confertissimis corrugatis, strias obliquas decussantibus, subtus striis 
decussatis levioribus munita, albida, flammis fulguratis castaneis 
superne, ct usque ad dimidium basis picta, fascia pallida mediana, 



186 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 

fiammulis attenuatis articulata, cincta ; spira depressa, apice pro- 
minula, sutura distincta ; anfractibus 5 convexis, ultimo prope su- 
turam depresso-planulato, periphaeria subangulata ; apertura vix 
obliqua, subcirculari, ad apicem angulata, peristomate expansius- 
culo, incrassato, albido, ad umbilicum subreflexo ; marginibus callo 
crasso junctis, umbilico mediocri, profundo, pervio, anfractus 2 
exhibente. 

Diam. maj. 35, rain. 28, axis 20 mill. 

Hab. ad latus montium " Nilgherries." Teste Jerdon. 

Distinguished by its peculiar sculpture, more depressed form, 
rather wider umbilicus, and less expanded and less reflected 
peristome, from the white-lipped shell figured by Sowerby, PI. 
Supp. no. 31 B. f. 321, as C. Indicum, Deshayes, and by Pfeiffer 
as C. Ceylanicum, Sowerby, who subsequently suppressed his 
MS. name. It is also less darkly coloured than that species, 
and the whitish ground forms a greater proportion in the mark- 
ings. The red-mouthed var. of C. Indicum, figured by Sowerby, 
was sent to me by Dr. Jerdon as found on the opposite face of 
the Nilgherries. 

3. C. Aurora, nobis, n. s. 7 6**ty 'K* 

Testa anguste umbilicata, globoso-subturbinata, spiraliter 5-6 obso- 
lete carinata, ferruginea, versus apicem rubente, oblique rugulosa ; 
spira conoidea, apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus A\ convexiusculis, 
ultimi periphaeria obsolete angulata ; apertura ampla, vix obliqua, 
circulari, superne angulata ; peristomate continuo, expansiusculo, 
subincrassato, reflexiusculo, aurantio ; fauce rubente. 

Diam. maj. 28, min. 23, axis 19 mill. 

Hab. ad Darjiling Regionis Sikkiraensis ad montes Himalayanos. 

This species is decorticate, but from the colouring apparent 
on the body-whorl within the aperture, where it is protected by 
a transparent enamel, it would appear that the fresh shell is sur- 
rounded, in the portion above the umbilicus, by narrow chestnut 
bands closely set. It is nearly related to a gigantic species from 
the same locality which is undescribed; but, having reason to 
believe, from a written communication made to me by Dr. Pfeiffer, 
that it is identical with an unedited species to which he has as- 
signed the name C. Himalayanum, I refrain at present from de- 
scribing it. The species in question is more depressed in pro- 
portion than C. Aurora, and being similarly decorticate, is white, 
with the exception of the peristome which is bright orange, and 
the apex which in my specimen is reddish. C. Aurora has also 
a narrower umbilicus. 

4. C. Cantori, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subanguste umbilicata, subgloboso-conoidea, spiraliter leviter 
striatissima, fulvida, sub epidermide albido-csesia, rufo-fusco marmo- 



Mr. "W. II . Benson on new svecies of Cyclostoma. 187 

rata punctata et lineata, plerumque fascia unica nigrescente con- 
spicua ad periphseriam cincta ; spira conoidea, acuta ; anfractibus 
5 convexiusculis, primis oblique striatis, ultimi peripheeria obsolete 
angulata ; apertura ampla, circulari, subverticali, marginibus callo 
tenui junctis ; peristomate expanso, sub-planato-reflexo ; umbilico 
pervio. Operculo tenui, corneo, multispirato. 

Diam. maj. 30, minor 23, axis 19 mill. ; sp. major. 

Diam. maj. 24, minor 19, axis 14^ mill. ; sp. minor. 

Hab. ad Insulam Penang. Teste Cantor. 

I have thought it advisable to introduce this species here, in 
order that it may accompany the three preceding species and that 
immediately following, which, equally with it, belong to the same 
division of Pfeiffer's subgenus Cyclophorus. The shell forms part 
of a collection of Penang and Malay species, of which "Dr. Cantor 
entrusted the publication to me, together with some interesting 
drawings of the inhabiting mollusks, which, I hope, will now 
shortly see the light. 

5. C. porphyriticum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa mediocriter umbilicata, depresso-conoidea, tenui, striis confer- 
tissimis distinctis, elevatis, subundulatis, spiraliter munita, albida, 
superne saturate castaneo, subtus pallidiore ornata, maculis angu- 
latis, circa suturam majoribus, conspersa, fasciis saturatis duabus 
albo-articulatis, altera ad periphseriam, altera inferiori cincta ; spira 
brevi, apice acuto, sutura vix distincta ; anfractibus 4£ planulatis, 
ultimo angulato, subtus planiusculo ; apertura ampla, ovato-circu- 
lari, livide albida, peristomate tenui, expanso, reflexo, marginibus 
callo tenui junctis, conniventibus, columellari angustato, leviter 
emarginato. 

Diam. major 31, minor 24y, axis 18 mill. 

Hab. in India Orientali. 

Allied to C. aquilum, Sow., but differing in tenuity, depressed 
form, keel, and sculpture. I received this shell from Sowerby, 
in 1834, as one of the varieties of C. Perdioc ; however, the com- 
pressed form of the shell, its sharply sculptured stria?, and the 
characters of the aperture sufficiently justify its separation. In 
Sowerby's fig. 127, and in Krister's fig. 7. pi. 8, the columellar 
lip is expanded above the umbilicus, instead of being narrow and 
connivent with the superior margin. Sowerby omits any notice 
of the sculpture, and that which is ascribed to it by Pfeiffer is of 
a very different character. In form C. porphyriticum somewhat 
approaches C. zebrinum, mihi, but differs in sculpture, markings, 
less produced spire, less flattened underside, much wider umbi- 
licus, and in the absence of the peculiar hispid epidermis which 
clothes that rare species. Sowerby, in his description of C. ze- 
brinum, notes the umbilicus as moderate. In my original de- 
scription (Journ. Asiat. Soc. Calcutta for 1836), I described it as 



188 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 

small ; and, on comparison, it proves to be even narrower than 
that of C. stenomphalum, Pfeiffer. C. porphyriticum is also allied 
to, but quite distinct from, Mousson's C. Zollingeri. 

6. C. constrictum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa perforata, ovato-conica, glabra, costis angustis obliquis distan- 
tibus munita, translucente, albida vel rufula ; spira elongato-conica, 
apice obtuso, sutura valde impressa ; anfractibus 4 rotundatis, su- 
perioribus glabris, sequentibus remote costulatis, ultimo mox con- 
fertissime costulato-striata, pone aperturam strangulato, anticeque 
late constricto ; apertura circulari, verticali, f longitudinis sequante, 
peristomate undique reflexo ; operculo testaceo, multispirato, su- 
tura inconspicua. 

Diam. 2, alt. 3£ mill. 

Hab. ad Darjiling Himalayee Sikkimensis. 

This shell has apparently an affinity with the Philippine C. 
minus of Sowerby, but differs in its more tapering form, smaller 
size, perforation, diverse sculpture, and in the strangulation of 
the last whorl behind the aperture, in which feature it exhibits 
an approach to the more shortened C. gibbum, Fer., from Turon 
in Cochin China, and to the depressed C. strangulatum, Hutton, 
so abundant in the more western portion of the Himalaya. 

7. C. filocinctum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subaperte umbilicata, turbinato-globosa, infra spatium hume- 
rale glabrum lineis frequentibus elevatis cingulata, albida, epider- 
mide fusca induta ; spira elevata, subconica, sutura impressa, apice 
papillari ; anfractibus A\ rotundatis, ultimo cylindraceo ; apertura 
circulari, superne vix angulata, prope umbilicum leviter sinuata, 
|- longitudinis sequante ; peristomate duplici, interiori simplici acuto, 
exteriori breviter reflexo ; umbilico profundo, perspectivo. 

Diam. maj. 3, minor 2|, alt. 2\ mill. 

Hab. ad apices montium Nilgherries. Teste Jerdon. 

This little species is distinguished by the spiral ridges, which 
are numerous between the shoulder of the whorl and the umbi- 
licus, but are deficient near the suture, as well as by its double 
peristome. The epidermis is deciduous. 

8. C. sarritum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subimperforata, ovato-conica, liris spiralibus crebris, sulcis an- 
gustis divisis, munita, ferrugineo-albida, apice rubente, sutura bene 
impressa, apice obtuso ; anfractibus 4 valde convexis ; apertura 
vix obliqua, ovata, f longitudinis sequante, peristomate acuto, ex- 
pansiusculo, marginibus disjunctis, columellari superne angulato, 
pariete calloso. 

Long. 2, diam. 1^ mill. 

Hab. in muscis arborum vallis profunda, prope Cherra Poonjee, in 
montibusGaro dictis, prseter fines Orientales Provincise Bengaliee. 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 189 

I got specimens of this minute species, with other minute 
land shells as yet undescribed, in long tree moss, in which spe- 
cimens of jasper, from the deep valley of Musmai, below Cherra 
Poonjee, had been packed on the spot. 

9. C. cceloconus*, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subaperte umbilicata, turbinata, tenui, scabre confertim radiato- 
striata, olivaceo-lutescente, fascia unica submediana, strigisque un- 
datis, radiatis, rufo-fuscis, ornata; spira conoidea, apice acutius- 
culo ; sutura bene impressa ; anfractibus 4i valde convexis, ultimo 
cylindrico ; apertura obliqua, ovato-circulari, peristomate tenui, 
acuto, umbilico prof undo omnes anfractus exhibente. 

Diam. major 13, minor 11, axis 9 mill. 

Hab. ad radices montium Nilgherries Indise Orientalis. Teste Jerdon. 
This shells holds an intermediate place between the planorbi- 

form Cyclostomata and the turbinate Cyclophori with a moderate 

or narrow umbilicus. 

10. C. cuspidatum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, acuminato-conoidea, oblique striata, lineis spira- 
libus circumdata, epidermide olivaceo-fusca ; spira elongata, atte- 
nuata, apice mamillari ; anfractibus 5, primis convexis, ultimo et 
penultimo superne convexiusculis, lira unica praeditis, ultimo subtus 
convexo, periphseria carinata, carina lamellato-flmbriata ; basi 3- 
lirata, lira subumbilicari fimbriata ; apertura perobliqua, subcir- 
culari, superne subangulata, dimidium longitudinis aequante, peri- 
stomate tenui, acuto, margine columellari expansiusculo ; umbilico 
mediocri profundo, anfractus plures exhibente. 

Diam. major 6, minor 5, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. ad apices montium Nilgherries. Teste Jerdon. 

This species is singular on account of its attenuated spire, and 

the hirsute lamellar appendages to the keels, at the periphery 

and umbilicus ; but the latter character is apt to be obliterated. 

11. C. Trochlea, nobis, n. s. 

Testa anguste umbilicata, pyramidato-turrita, glabra, albida, apice 
obtusiusculo, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 5, angulato- convexis, 
superne 1 carinatis, ultimo tricarinato, carina 1 superiori, 1 sub- 
mediana, 1 circumumbilicari ; apertura obliqua, circulari, ^ longi- 
tudinis aequante ; peristomate acuta, ad finem carinae inferioris vix 
angulato ; umbilico pervio. 

Diam. 2, long. 3 mill. 

Hab. rarum in montibus Nilgherries. Teste Jerdon. 

This minute shell is singular in its turrited form, and in the 
arrangement of its keels, which gives a flat cylindrical appearance 
to the periphery of the lower whorl. I do not know any species 
which can be compared with it. 

* koTXos, cavus ; kS>vos, conus. 



190 Mr. W. II. Benson on new species of Cyclostoina. 

12. C. aratum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa aperte umbilicata, orbiculato-depressa, ferrugineo-albida, uni- 
colori, vel ferrugineo-marmorata et fasciata, spiraliter sulcata, sulcis 
radiato-striatis ; spira elevatiuscula, apice acutiuscula ; anfractibus 
4± convexis, ultimo cylindraceo, antice descendente, dilatato ; aper- 
tura ovato-circulari, valde obliqua, margine parietali angulato, cal- 
loso, superiori expanso, arcuato, obsolete crenulato, inferiori bre- 
viter reflexo ; umbilico infundibuliformi omnes anfractus exhibente. 

Operculo calcareo multispirato, intus membrana induto, concavius- 
culo, extus carina elevata spirali subborizontali munito. 

Diam. major 18, minor 15, axis 9£ mill. 

Hal. in Indise Orientalis Provincia " Northern Circars." Teste 
Jerdon. 

Nearly allied to subdiscoideum, Sow., and modestum, Petit de 
la Saussaye, Journ. de Conchyl. 1850. It belongs to Apero- 
stoma, Troschel, as well as the more conical semistr -latum, Sow., 
which is a denizen of the opposite or western side of the Indian 
Peninsula. 

In one specimen there is a broad interrupted band above, and 
a narrow darker band below the periphery. 

13. C. rav idum> nobis, n. s. 

Testa aperte umbilicata, subdiscoidea, nitidiuscula, confertim scabre 
tenuiter radiato-striata, olivaceo-lutea, sub epidermide alba; spira 
vix elevata, apice planato, obtuso, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4 
convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo cylindraceo, antice vix 
descendente, superne prope suturam sub lente obsolete spiraliter 
striato ; apertura obliqua, circulari, peristomate tenui, recto, mar- 
ginibus callo tenui junctis ; umbilico lato, perspectivo ; operculo 
tenui, corneo, multispirato, extus concaviusculo. 

Diam. major 15, minor 13, axis 7 mill. 

Hab. ad apices montium Nilgherries Indise Meridionalis. Teste 
Jerdon. 

The peristome is not quite perfect in the only specimen re- 
ceived by me from Dr. Jerdon, and some modification of its cha- 
racters may be eventually necessary. The species differs from 
C. annulatum, Troschel, which has a similar operculum, in the 
more closely wound whorls, in the narrower umbilicus, more 
delicate sculpture, and absence of any pattern on the upper side. 

14. C. Phanotopicum*, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subaperte umbilicata, depressa, subdiscoidea, tenui, non nitente, 
striis scabris, acutis, radiatis, elevatis, aliis impressis spiralibus, 
sub lente vix percipiendis, prope suturam decussatis, rufo-fusca, 
strigis angulatis, interruptis picta ; spira depressa, apice prominula, 

* The name " Darjiling " Hellenized. 



Mr. W..H. Benson on new sj)ecies of Cyclostoma. 191 

sutura impressa ; anfractibus A\ convexis, sensim accrescentibus ; 

apertura circulari, peristomate tenui, recto, marginibus approxi- 

matis ; umbilico profundo, perspectivo. 
Operculo corneo, tenui, concaviusculo, arctispirali ; anfractibus 7-8. 
Diam. major 12, minor 10, alt. 4 mill. 
Hab. ad Darjiling, Himalaya: Sikkimensis. 

With reference to its operculum and aperture it belongs to the 
third division of Pfeiffer' s Cyclophorus. Although the larger 
of my two specimens does not bear the signs of age, yet, even 
if the peristome should be found to acquire a further develop- 
ment, the peculiar dull and sharp scabrous sculpture, as well as 
the narrower umbilicus, will serve to prevent the species from 
being confounded with any allied form, such as C. annulatum 
and C. stenostoma, which possess a similar operculum. The im- 
pressed spiral strise are confined to the inner slope of the whorl, 
towards the suture, and are only visible under a lens. C. pla- 
norbulum, Sow., has a very different operculum, and belongs to 
Aperostoma, Troschel. 

C. stenomphalum, Pfr., Zeitschr. 1846, and Conch. Cab. 2nd 
edition, p. 59. t. 8. f. 5, 6. — Pfeiffer notes that the habitat of 
this species is unknown, but that a smaller bleached specimen 
occurs in Dr. V. d. Busch's collection, marked "from Bengal." 
I have recognised this species in a shell sent to me by Dr. Jerdon 
from the island of Elephanta, near Bombay, where it was found 
by Brigadier Watson. Petit de la Saussaye, Journal de Con- 
chyliologie, 1850, marks C. stenomphalum with doubt as a va- 
riety of C. Indicum, Desh., a species which has been productive of 
much disagreement among conchologists, e. g. Pfeiffer, Philippi, 
Sowerby, Mousson, and Petit. Philippi figured a shell for it 
which Pfeiffer, Mousson, and Petit agree in considering to be 
C. oculus Capri, Pfeiffer, however, refers Deshayes' original 
shell to the same, but Mousson and Petit agree in considering it 
distinct. Sowerby figured an orange-mouthed shell from the 
Nilgherries, which I received from Dr. Jerdon, as C. Indicum, 
and united it with a white-mouthed shell from Ceylon which 
he had named, in MSS., C. Ceylanicum. Under this name the 
latter variety is described by Pfeiffer, and figured by Kiister. It 
is worthy of remark, that Belanger's specimen, described as C. 
Indicum by Deshayes, is from the same locality as my large 
specimen of C. stenomphalum. 

With reference to Dr. Von dem Busch's small bleached variety, 
if the specimen should appear to have been received from Capt. 
W. J. Boys, I should have little hesitation in assigning to it 
the locality of Bhamoury, at the foot of the Western Himalaya, 
on the road leading to Almorah, where a very similar shell was 



192 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 

discovered by that officer in 1843, on the day following that on 
which I had bespoken his attention to terrestrial and fluviatile 
conchology at the neighbouring mountain-lake "Bhimtal." I 
have not access, at present, to a specimen, so as to be able, at 
once, to confirm or reject the supposition. 

C. funiculatunij nobis. — Sowerby in his Supplement to his 
Monograph has figured this species, and cited the Khasya Hills 
as the habitat. I have never heard of its existence in that quarter. 
My first specimen was obtained from Darjiling in the Sikkim 
Himalaya, as stated in the Journ. Asiat. Soc. Calcutta, 1838, 
as were also those which I subsequently sent to Mr. Cuming, 
and furnished to Sowerby for the purpose of being figured. Even 
in the adjoining country of Bhotan the species appears to give 
place to C. pauperculum, Sowerby, and direct evidence is necessary 
to establish its habitat in the mountain -group to the south and 
east of the river Burhampooter. 

C. stenostoma, Sow. — Sowerby gives Arabia, without any definite 
locality in that extensive tract, for this species, on the authority 
of Mr. Powis. The Paris Museum, according to Pfeiffer, gives 
the habitat as Pondicherry, and the large variety figured in 
Kuster, pi. 20. f. 18, 19, is stated to have been received by Dr. 
Pfeiffer from Delessert as from Cochin China. Dr. Jerdon sent 
it to me from woods at the top of the Nilgherries, where the 
small variety occurs as well as specimens equalling in size that 
above referred to. It can hardly inhabit such various elevations, 
or exist under such different hygrometric conditions as are 
necessarily involved in all these assigned localities. 

C. Menkeanum, Philippi. — Pfeiffer has no information regard- 
ing the locality of this species. It proves to be the shell which 
I found abundantly near Point de Galle, and which I regarded 
as a variety of C. Involvulus. Unfortunately nearly all my spe- 
cimens, including beautifully marked varieties, were abstracted, 
with other shells, from my baggage, on a railway, soon after my 
arrival in England. Petit cites Ceylon, with a note of interro- 
gation; I am glad to be able to confirm his conjecture. I have 
also a specimen from a collection of shells made at Trincomalee. 

I now proceed to give a geographical view of the species in- 
habiting Hindustan, the neighbouring mainland, and the islands 
in view from their shores, as far as our information extends at 
present. 

We know of no species from Affghanistan, and the Punjab has 
not as yet contributed anything to the genus. Beginning at 
the north-west, C. strangulatum, Hutton, ranges along the 
secondary heights of the Himalaya from the Sutlej as far as the 
western border of Nipal, where the observations of conchological 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 193 

inquirers have hitherto abruptly terminated. At one spot, near 
this border, a goodly-sized Cyclophorus, possibly the small variety 
of C. stenomphalum, Pfr., appears at Bhamoury, a few feet above 
the point where the Lower Himalaya springs from the forest of 
the Terai. Proceeding along the Himalaya, to the east of Nipal, 
Darjiling, in Sikkim, furnishes C. Himalayanumt Pfr. MSS., 
Aurora, constriction, Phcenotopicum, and funiculatum, nobis, and 
the country of Bhotan C. pauper culum, Sow., a species nearly 
allied to the last. Crossing the Burhampooter river, the hills 
to the south of Assam present us with C. zebrinum, Pearsoni, and 
sarritum, nobis, also with Pterocyclos hispidus, and parvus, 
Pearson. 

Singular as it may appear, the whole of the extensive tract of 
Gangetic plains stretching from the Desert west of the Jumna to 
the seaboard of the Delta, in Bengal, fails to furnish a single 
species, except where the rocks of the mountain-ranges south of 
the Ganges impinge on the stream below Patna in Bahar. At 
these places C. Involvulus, Mull., and Pterocyclos rupestris, nobis, 
make their appearance, but they seem to be interrupted towards 
the west by the sandstone formation of the Vindhyan chain. 
Still further west, and north of the Nerbudda river, C. semi- 
striatum, Sow., appears at Neemuch, in lat. 25° N., and extends 
to the south as far as Poonah, which lies south-east of Bombay. 
On the eastern side its place is taken, in the Northern Circars 
of Madras, by C. aratum, nobis, where according to Jerdon this 
species is accompanied by Pterocyclos rupestris. 

Near Bombay again, at Elephanta, C. Indicum, Desh., and 
C. stenomphalum, Pfr. (the large var.) are found, the former ex- 
tending to the Nilgherries, where C. Jerdoni and cceloconus, 
nobis, stenostoma, Sow., Trochlea, ravidum, cuspidatum and^z/o- 
cinctum, nobis, also C. nitidum, Sow. (on the authority of Pfeiffer 
and Mr. Cuming's collection), add materially to the list, while at 
their eastern base the singular Pterocyclos bilabiatus, Sowerby, 
occurs. 

Descending southward to the rich island of Ceylon, we find 
C. Menheanum, Phil., Ceylanicum, Pfr. (if distinct from the true 
Indicum), C. annulatum, Trosch., halophilum, nobis, helicinum, Ch., 
Itieri, Guerin (cornu venatorium, Ch.?), and Ho ffmeisteri, Trosch., 
of which the specimens found by myself at Galle, and agreeing 
apparently with TroschePs short description, cannot be con- 
founded with Kuster's figure of the species previously named. 
To the same island belong also the magnificent Pterocyclos Cu- 
mingi, Pfr., recently published*, and a fine species captured by 
Dr. Bland at Trincomalee. 

* In the 1st No. of the ' Zeitschrift ' for 1851, Pfeiffer publishes a review 
of Pterocyclos as at present known, following the synonymy given in my 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 13 



194 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Cyclostoma. 

Taking up the thread dropped east of the Burhampooter river, 
and descending through the Burmese territories and the Malayan 
peninsula, we find at Tavoy and Tenasserim, Pulo Penang and 
Malacca, C. aurantiacum, Schura. {pernobile, Gould), sectilabrum, 
Gould, Perdioc, Sow., Cantori, nobis, semidecussatum and Tuba, 
Sow. ; and at Singapore, near the extremity of the peninsula, C. 
aquilum, Sow., and rostellatum, Pfr., Zeitschr. No. 1, 1851; in 
the Siamese territory, C. Siamense, Sow. ; in Cochin China, C. 
gibbum, and stenostoma, with Pterocyclos anguliferus, Souleyet ; 
and in Southern China, C. punctatum, Grateloup (irroratum, 
Sow.), rightly attributed by Sowerby to that country, whence I 
have received it through Dr. Cantor, but assigned by Grateloup 
to Ceylon. At Pulo Susson, near Penang, a very distinct species 
of Pterocyclos was taken by Dr. Bland ; and on the same island 
Dr. Cantor procured the small pale variety of C. nitidum, Sowerby, 
a species which is very widely spread, appearing in the Nilgher- 
ries as well as in Java and the Philippine islands. Pterocyclos 
biciliatus, Mousson, of which only an imperfect specimen has 
been observed, belongs to Burmah. 

Sowerby has referred C. undulatum to Bengal. I have never 
heard of its existence there, and I obtained a specimen at the 
Mauritius from Sir David Barclay, from the shore to the south 
of the harbour of Port Louis. C. cinctum, Sowerby, is also cited 
by that author as an East Indian shell. It has all the characters 
of a group from the islands of East Africa, and Petit gives Ma- 
dagascar as the habitat. Sowerby and Petit are equally at vari- 
ance regarding the habitat of another insular African form, C. 
filosum, Sow., who calls it a rare East Indian shell. Sir D. Barclay 
presented me with a specimen taken in the island of Rodriguez. 
C. Belangeri, Pfr. {aurantiacum, Desh.), is noted as found only 
in the environs of Pondicherry. The type is oceanic, and I have 
lately found two undoubted specimens among shells sent from 
the Mauritius as C. Rangii. May it not have been imported 
into the French Indian settlement, with plants, from that island ? 

Great diversity of opinion exists regarding the true C. planor- 
bulum of Lamarck. A gigantic species which I observed last 
year, in the Senkenberg Museum, at Frankfurt am Main, ap- 
pears to me to agree better with the figure copied in pi. 29. f. 18 
of Kuster, than any other form attributed to it. It is labelled 

paper in the 'Annals ' for 1848, except in recognising correctly Pt. angu- 
liferum, Souleyet, from Cochin China as a separate species, and adding some 
forms since described. Nine true Pterocycli are admitted, only one (C. 
spiracellum, Ad. and Reeve) being doubtful, and two species of. the trad- 
itionary form Myxostoma of Troschel., Dr. Bland's two undoubtedly 
distinct species would, if accessible for description, increase the number of 
true Pterocycli to eleven. 



dnn,.Jk Ah0.Xat.Hist.S.Z. Tol.8. H . V . 






£terocyclos Blandv 




£ orMyxo stoma, Trosr>heli 





Spirulina, te/uussima 



I 



yd- 



vJ7 



Iloio.itorrrimi Cu/zcoUt, 



Dkkieiit piwiata/ 



JTPe C.Sctrerty 



Mr. W. H. Benson on two species of Pterocyclos. 195 

"from Sumatra" on the authority of Lafargue. A gigantic 
Cyclostoma appears as C. oculus Capri, from the same island, on 
the like authority, in the collection. Having pointed out these 
shells to Dr. Pfeiffer's notice, further information respecting 
them may eventually be obtained in the Supplement to his 
1 Monograph/ 
Dublin, 3rd July, 1851. 

P.S. — Two other species have been assigned to India, C. Turbo, 
Ch.,andC tricarinatum, Mull. ; the former by Chemnitz, who cites 
Tranquebar and Coromandel as the habitat. Later observers 
have not confirmed this reference. Sowerby mentions Sumatra, 
but quotes no authority. C. tricarinatum is attributed by the 
last-named author to India. The form at once suggests an East 
African insular origin, and Petit de la Saussaye refers it to the 
Mauritius, citing however no authority in the f Journal de Con- 
chyliologie/ I am able to corroborate this statement. Sir David 
Barclay presented me with a worn and bleached specimen which 
he had himself picked up in the island at the Caverns of M. du 
Plessis, near the Petite Riviere; and he showed me another 
specimen, recently dead, which had just been brought to him from 
the woods. 

Cyclostoma Michaudi, Grat. (carinatum, Sowerby), for which 
no locality is given in the ' Thesaurus/ and which Petit ascribes 
to Madagascar, was procured by Sir D. Barclay from the Piton 
de la Riviere Noire in the Mauritius. They occurred with both 
a white and an orange peristome. In the former variety the 
carina? were more distant, as shown in Sowerby' s figures ; it may 
perhaps be found to constitute a distinct species. 

Dublin, July 5, 1851. 



XVII. — Descriptive characters of two species of the Genus Ptero- 
cyclos, discovered by Dr. Bland. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

[With a Plate.] • 

In the 5th volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Cal- 
cutta, Dr. William Bland, of H.M.S. Wolf, published, in 1836, a 
note on two unnamed species of Pterocyclos, to which, on inspec- 
tion of the coloured drawings forwarded to me by the Secretary, 
but unfortunately not engraved, I added a note on their affinities. 
Previously to returning them to Mr. James Prinsep, I took a 
pencil outline of the figures, for the purpose of reference, and 
from these outlines, with the assistance of Dr. Bland's note, I 
now endeavour, at Dr. PfeifFer's suggestion, to affix specific cha- 
racters (necessarily imperfect) to two novel forms of a rare and 

13* 



196 Mr. W. H. Benson on two species of Pterocyclos. 

interesting genus, of which eleven distinct Asiatic species may 
now be enumerated, viz. : — 

1. Pterocyclos rupestris, Benson, 1832, Bahar. 

2. hispidus, Pearson, 1833, Khasya Hills. 

3. parvus, Pearson, 1833, Khasya Hills. 

4. anguliferus, Soul. 1841, Cochin China. 

5. bilabiatus, Sow. 1843, South India. 

6. Albersi, Pfeiffer, 1847. 

7. biciliatus, Mousson, 1849, Burma. 

8. spiracellum, Ad. & Reeve, 1850, Borneo. 

9. Cumingi, Pfr. 1851, Ceylon. 

10. Blandly nobis, Straits of Malacca. 

11. Troscheli, nobis, Ceylon. 

Full descriptions of the species, and the specimens themselves, 
having been so long withheld from the public eye, I have over- 
come my objection to publish characters, founded on the only 
materials available, in the hope that more particular attention 
may be directed to these shells by travellers who may have oppor- 
tunities for exploring the localities whence they were obtained. 

Pterocyclos Blandi, nobis. 

Testa latissime umbilicata, orbiculato-depressa, albida, strigis undatis 
radiatis fusco-aurantiis, fasciaque unica saturatiore ad periphseriam 
ornata ; anfractibus A\ rapide accrescentibus, ultimo antice subito 
valde alatim dilatato ; apertura obliqua, peristomate subduplici, 
interno incrassato, superne libero sinuato, externo superne valde 
expanso, ala soluta antice angulata, descendente, supra anfractum 
penultimum projecta, postice sinum exhibente munito ; umbilico 
latissimo. 

Diam. 1 inch. Bland. 

Diam. major 29, minor 23 mill, ex icone. 

Hah. ad Pulo Susson insulam prope Pulo Penang jacentem. Teste 
Bland. 

Pterocyclos Troscheli, nobis. 

Testa latissime umbilicata, orbiculato-depressa ; anfractibus 4 lente 
accrescentibus, ultimo antice subdilatato ; apertura circulari peri- 
stomate incrassato, reflexo, superne antice obsolete sinuato, ala cu- 
cullata, antice angulata, deflexa, anfractui penultimo adhaerente ; 
umbilico latissimo. 

Operculo convexo, corneo. 

Diam. t 7 q inch. Bland. 

Diam. major 20, minor 18 mill, ex icone. 

Hab. ad Trincomalee Insulse Ceylon. Teste Bland. 

In character it approaches the group Myxostoma of Troschel, 
to whom I have the pleasure of dedicating this species of a genus, 



Mr. P. H. Gosse on the British Rotifera. 197 

which, unaware of its publication five years previously, he recog- 
nised and defined under another appellation. 

In order to illustrate this memoir more perfectly, I forward 
outline figures of the two species, a step which will doubtless 
meet with the approbation of the discoverer (now resident in a 
distant colony), who evidently intended the publication of his 
own original and beautiful drawings. 

Dublin, July 1851. 

P.S. — Dr. Pfeiffer writes, from London, that a perfect speci- 
men of Pterocyclos biciliatus is to be seen in a collection there, 
and that the true Cyclostoma planorbulum of Lamarck (Encycl. 
Meth.) must be referred to Pterocyclos, as well as C. tenuilabia- 
tum 3 lately described by Mr. Metcalfe, from Borneo. Dr. Pfeiffer 
has failed, equally with myself, in procuring an examination of C. 
spiracellum, Adams and Reeve, which is not to be found in any 
London collection. 

15th August, 1851. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Pterocyclos Blandi. 
Fig. 2. Troscheli*. 



XVIII. — A Catalogue of Hotifera, found in Britain ; with descrip- 
tions of five new Genera and thirty-two new Species. By 
Philip Henry Gosse, A.L.S. 

The following catalogue contains the species of the class Roti- 
fera that have occurred to my observations within the last three 
years, for the most part in the immediate vicinity of London, 
and all in fresh water where not otherwise stated. I have ar- 
ranged them on the system of Professor Ehrenberg ; not that I 
think his classification natural, but because none more conve- 
nient has been published. I hope soon to be able to give to the 
world an arrangement of this interesting group constructed more 
according to the organization and the natural affinities of its 
members. This list of species, however, needs not be delayed 
until that system be perfected. 

Of the species here enumerated, one hundred and eight in 
number, seventy-one are found in Prof. Ehrenberg's ' Die Infu- 

* Figures of the following species will be found in the Nuremberg 
2nd edition of Chemnitz, vol. Cyclostomacea : — 

P. rupestris, pi. 24. f. 21-5. P. anguliferus, pi. 24. f. 3-6. 

— var. minor, pi. 31. f. 9-11. — bilabiatus, pi. 24. f. 11-14. 

— hispidus, pi. 24. f. 7-10. — Albersi, pi. 28. f. 1-5. 

— parvus, pi. 31. f. 12-14. — Cumingi, pi. 31. f. 6-8. 



198 Mr. P. II. Gosse on the British Rotifera, 

sionsthierchen ' ; five have been described since, and thirty-two 
are new. 

Family Ichthydina. 

Chmtonotus maximus. 
C. squamatus (Dujardih). 

C. larus. 

Gen. Dasydytes. (Baovsy hairy, and Svttjs, a diver.) Eyes 
absent ; body furnished with bristle-like hair ; tail simple, trun- 
cate. 

D. goniathrix. Hairs long, each hair bent with an abrupt 
angle : neck constricted. Length yy^th inch. Leamington. 

D. antenniger. Hair short, downy ; a pencil of long hairs at 
each angle of the posterior extremity of the body : head fur- 
nished with two club-shaped organs resembling antennae. Length 
T | n th inch. 

Gen. Sacculus. One eye, frontal; body destitute of hair, 
and without a foot : rotatory organ a simple wreath ; alimentary 
canal very large : jaws set far forward, apparently consisting of 
two delicate, unequal mallei, and a slender incus ; very evanes- 
cent : eggs attached behind, after deposition. 

S. viridis. Body pear-shaped ; flattened ventrally ; the ante- 
rior end the narrower : head conical, pointed, surrounded by a 
wreath of long cilia : digestive canal occupying nearly the whole 
body, and always filled with a substance of a rich green hue, in 
masses. Length yjoth inch. This curious animal, found in 
considerable number in a little pool on Hampstead Heath, must 
be placed in this family according to Prof. Ehrenberg's system, 
but the mode of carrying its eggs indicates an affinity with the 
Brachionaa. 

Family (Ecistina. 

QZcistes crystallinus. 

Conochilus volvox (?) . 

Family Mesalotroch^ea. 

Megalotrocha velata. Animals separate : disk partially enve- 
loped in a cleft granular integument : eggs not attached to the 
parent after deposition. Length 3-3-th inch. 

Family Floscularia. 
Stephanoceros Eichhornii. 
Limnias ceratophylli. 
Melicerta ringens. 

Floscularia complanata (Dobie, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1849). 
F. ornata (?). The 5-lobed variety; or species ? 
F. cornuta (Dobie). 



with descriptions of new Genera and Species. 199 

Family HydatinjEA. 

Gen. Taphrocampa. (rd(f)po<i, a ditch, and /cd/uTTT], a cater- 
pillar.) Rotatory organs wanting, body fusiform, annulose ; tail 
forked : gizzard oval; mallei incurved, shorter than incus, which 
is also incurved *. 

T. annulosa. Occipital mass opake, white ; alimentary canal 
simple, wide, cylindrical : points of tail short, conical. Length 
yy<jth inch. This species is evidently allied to M. Dujardin's 
Lindia torulosa (Hist. Nat. des Infusoires, p. 653), but differs 
from it in the structure of the dental apparatus, and of the 
digestive canal. It seems to connect the genus Chatonotus with 
the Hydatinseous genera Notommata and Furcularia, for it has the 
jaws of these larviform Rotifera, and the glandular occipital mass 
found in some of them, with the form, simple digestive canal, 
and manners of Chatonotus. It was found at Leamington. 

Hydatina senta (?). 

Pleurotrocha gibba. 

P. truncata. Body subcylindrical ; truncate behind, above 
the foot : toes short, straight, slender. Length T |jth inch. 

Furcularia gibba. 

F. ca>ca. Body cylindrical : eye wanting, or not discernible : 
toes slender, obtuse. Length, including toes, y^jth inch. Lea- 
mington. 

F. forficula. 

F. gracilis. 

Monocerca rattus. 

M. brachyura. Form that of M. rattus, but the foot short 
(one-fourth of total length), slightly curved, and horizontally 
flattened : a large eye in the occiput, and another small one in 
the breast. Length, including foot, y^jth inch. 

M. porcellus. Body thick and plump ; foot short, much 
curved and bent under the body, dilated, flattened horizontally, 
and carrying a smaller spine beneath it as in a sheath : front and 
chin each armed with a short sharp spine. Length, including 

foot, yfo^ n mcn « 

M. bicornis. 

M. stylata. Body soft, irregularly oval ; foot a nearly straight 
spine, less than one-third of total length : eye large, red, set like 
a wart on the back of the occipital sac : forehead conical, pointed. 
Length, including foot, y|(jtn inch. 

Asplanchna Brightwellii. 

A. priodonta. This genus was established by me in a paper 
published in the ' Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist/ for July 1850. 

* For the use of these terms the reader is referred to a paper " On the 
Anatomy of Notommata aurita,"' in the Trans. Micros. Soc. vol. iii. pt. 2. 



200 Mr. P. H. Gosse on the British Rotifera, 

The species named A. Bowesii in that paper must be cancelled, 
as it is identical with A. Brightwellii. 

Notommata parasita. 

N. petromyzon. 

N. lacinulata. 

N. collaris (?) . 

N. aurita. 

N. gibba (?). 

N. decipiens. 

N. centrura. 

Synchata pectinata (?). 

S. Baltica. Sea-water : mouth of the Neeze, coast of Essex. 

S. tremula. Leamington. 

S. oblonga (?) . 

S. mordax. Body conical, subventricose : toes minute : auri- 
cles large, pendent : principal styles four, the larger (or lateral) 
pair sometimes branched : eye rather small, brilliant : two pairs 
of protrusile, snapping jaws. Length ygnd inch. 

Polyarthra platyptera. 

Diglena forcipata. 

D. aurita (?). 

D. (?) biraphis. Body oblong, the head and abdomen gently 
swelling : toes long, slender, straight, and perfectly even in thick- 
ness : eyes placed close together, frontally : jaws protrusile : ali- 
mentary canal very large, projecting behind and above the giz- 
zard, always filled with green matter. Length, including toes, 
yy^th inch. 

Triarthra longiseta. 

T. breviseta. Body cylindrical : pectoral and caudal spines 
each about one-fifth of total length and very slender. Length, 
including foot, T Jjth inch. Leamington. 

Family Euchlanidota. 

Mono sty la cor nut a. 

M. quadridentata. 

M. bulla. Body ovate, inflated, the back very gibbous : lorica 
plicated along each side with a deep furrow ; the occipital and 
mental extremities deeply incised. Colour yellowish brown. 
Length of lorica yyjth inch. 

Mastigocerca carinata. 

Euchlanis luna. 

E. triquetra (?). 

E. deflexa. Body semi-oval : ventral surface of the lorica di- 
vided longitudinally, and the edges of the fissure bent out at 
right angles : foot furnished with two pairs of bristles ; toes 
spindle-shaped. Lorica ^th inch. 



with descriptions of new Genera and Species. 201 

E. pyriformis. Outline of body (viewed dorsally) nearly oval 
with a slight constriction in the middle : lorica divided longitu- 
dinally along the ventral surface, the gape widening anteriorly : 
toes parallel-edged : eye minute. Lorica ^nd inch. 

E. hipposideros. Body nearly oval in outline ; the ventral side 
flat ; the dorsal greatly arched, and ridged down the middle : 
lorica formed of two distinct plates ; the dorsal plate enveloping 
the back and reaching half down the sides ; the ventral separated 
from it by a wide space, and hollowed in the middle so as to 
present the figure of a narrow horse-shoe, whose points are for- 
wards : foot armed with one pair of bristles. Lorica yy^th inch. 

Salpina spinigera. 

S. mucronata. 

S. brevispina. 

Gen. Diplax. Resembles Salpina, but the eye is wanting; 
and the lorica (which, as in that genus, is cleft down the back) 
is destitute of spines both in front and rear : foot and toes long 
and slender. It forms a connecting link between Salpina and 
Dinocharis. The name {BlirXa^, double) alludes to the gaping 
lorica, which forms two parallel plates. 

D. compressa. Form of lorica (viewed laterally) nearly a 
parallelogram, greatly compressed. Lorica y-f^th inch. Lea- 
mington. 

D. trigona. Lorica three-sided, a section forming a nearly 
equilateral triangle ; surface delicately punctured or stippled : 
toes long and slender. Lorica y^th inch. Leamington. 

Dinocharis tetractis. 

D. pocillum. 

Colurus bicuspidatus. 

C. defleocus. 

C. caudatus. 

Metopidia lepadella. 

M. solidus. Much resembles M. lepadella, but is considerably 
larger : lorica nearly circular, brilliantly transparent : a slight 
puncturing runs round near the edge, like the legend on a coin. 
Lorica yjoth inch. 

M. acuminata. 

M. triptera. 

M. oxysternon. Resembles M. triptera, but the dorsal keel is 
much higher and thinner ; the anterior two-thirds of the ventral 
surface form a prominent ridge terminating abruptly like the 
breast-bone of a bird ; and the posterior portion is hollowed out 
remarkably. Viewed laterally the outline of the back is very 
gibbous behind. Lorica yjjth inch. 

Stephanops lamel/aris. 

S. muticus. 



202 Mr. P. H. Gosse on the British Rotifera, 

Family Philodin^ea. 

Callidina bidens. Body spindle-shaped : jaws furnished with 
two distinct teeth. Length ^jth inch. Perhaps this is no other 
than Prof. Ehrenberg's C. elegans, of which he describes the jaws 
as having many delicate teeth. I have, however, examined nu- 
merous specimens, and have always found them distinctly two- 
toothed. 

Rotifer vulgaris. 

R. citrinus. 

R. macrurus. 

R. macroceros. Wheels large ; antennal process (the " respi- 
ratory tube " of Prof. Ehrenberg) very long and mobile. Length 

TUo th incn - 

Philodina roseola. 

P. citrina. 

P. aculeata. 

P. megalotrocha. 

Family BrachionjEa. 

Noteus quadricornis. 

Anuraea curvicornis, 

A. fissa. Lorica smooth, hyaline, swollen at the sides and at 
the back ; nattish on the belly ; truncate in front, without any 
spines, attenuated and truncate posteriorly. There is a deep fold 
running down each side, or else the ventral plate is distinct from 
the dorsal ; the ventral is also cleft through its medial line. Eye 
very large, pale. Length gio tn mcn - 

A. tecta. Nearly agrees in form with A. curvicornis, but the 
posterior extremity is rather more pointed, and the tessellations 
are different; being larger and arranged on each side of a 
mesial dorsal ridge, which gives to the back the form of a vaulted 
roof. Length 2no tn mcn - 

A. acuminata. 

A, aculeata. 

A. brevispina. Nearly agrees with A. aculeata, but the posterior 
spines are very short ; the frontal spines are much less curved 
forwards; the surface is not punctated; and it is colourless. 
Length y^gth inch. 

A, cochlearis. Lorica spoon-shaped ; with six spines in front ; 
the medial pair curving strongly forwards : posterior extremity 
attenuated into a long slender spine, inclined forwards : back 
ridged and tessellated as in A. tecta. 

A. serrulata. 
Brachionus pala. 

B. oon. Lorica ovate, the back swelling with an uniform curve, 
by which it is distinguished from B. pala, which is truncate or 



with descriptions of new Genera and Species. 203 

slightly cavate posteriorly : anterior spines four, straight, wide 
at the base and pointed; the occipital pair taller than the lateral. 
Lorica yjyth inch. 

B. dorcas. Lorica ovate, or subconical ; occipital edge with 
four long slender spines, the middle pair curving forwards, and 
bent first from, and then towards, each other, like the horns of 
an antelope ; mental edge undulated, with a notch in the centre. 
Lorica ^th inch. 

B. amphiceros. 

B. urceolaris (?). 

B. rubens. 

B. Millleri. Kenilworth Castle. 

B. hepatotomus. Lorica ovate ; occipital edge cut into six saw- 
like teeth much shallower than in B. Mulleri, with the central 
notch deeper and rounder than the rest ; mental edge with four 
rounded lobes separated by notches : posterior extremity with two 
nipple-like points : biliary (or pancreatic) glands very large and 
cleft into two 'lobes almost to their base. Hence the name, 
r}7rap, the liver, and refjuvco, to cut. Lorica yj^rd inch. Sea- 
water ; mouth of the Neeze, Essex. 

B. Bakeri. 

B. annularis. Lorica hexagonal-oval in a dorsal aspect ; occi- 
pital edge with two small teeth divided by a rounded notch (in 
some specimens there are obsolescent traces of a lateral pair) ; 
mental edge slightly undulated, sometimes with two low points 
divided by a notch, like the occiput, but still more faintly : pos- 
terior extremity with two short, blunt, well-marked processes. 
The general surface is roughened with angular ridges, and is 
sometimes subopake and brown. Lorica g^th inch. This 
curious species has relations with Noteus and with Pterodina. 

Pterodina patina. 

P. elliptica. 

P. clypeata. Sea-water ; mouth of the Neeze, Essex. 

Gen. Pompholyx. Two frontal eyes : foot wanting : rotatory 
organ double in the rear, entire in front : eggs attached behind, 
after deposition. The name alludes to the resemblance of the 
lorica to a round flat smelling-bottle. 

P. complanata. Lorica much depressed, nearly circular, with 
the lateral edges rounded; anteriorly truncate; occipital edge 
gradually rising to a central blunt point ; mental edge with two 
rounded lobes, divided by a central notch. Lorica 7 ^th inch. 

De Beauvoir Square, July 28th, 1851. 



204 Mr. J. Ralfs on Dickieia and Spirulina. 

XIX. — Remarks on Dickieia. By John Ralfs, Esq.* 

Dickieia, Berk. $ Ralfs. 

Frond subgelatinous, tender, plane, containing oblong scattered 
frustules. 

In this genus the frond is so extremely tender that dried spe- 
cimens are destroyed in the act of removing them from the paper, 
their gelatinous matrix being apparently dissolved by the appli- 
cation of moisture. The frond tapers at the base and expands 
upwards into a lanceolate or obovate form. I could detect 
neither stria? nor puncta in the frustules, which in the front view 
are nearly quadrate, and are rarely twice as long as broad ; in 
the lateral view they are narrow-linear with rounded ends; as 
they do not appear to be siliceous, it is probable that dried speci- 
mens (the only ones I have examined) become, in that view, 
somewhat narrower than they are when recent, — a fact which I 
have noticed in some genera of this order, whose frustules can- 
not without injury be submitted to the action of nitric acid. 

Dickieia differs from Schizonema by its flat fronds and scat- 
tered frustules. 

Dickieia Dansii (Thwaites) does not belong to this genus, 
since its gelatinous matrix forms an irregular mass and not a 
plane frond. Its frustules also differ, being decidedly siliceous, 
striated, and having a longitudinal pellucid line and central 
punctum (aperture, Kutzing) in the lateral view. 

1. D. ulvoides (Berk, and Ralfs). Frond undivided, obtuse at the 
apex, Dickieia ulvoides, Berk and Ralfs, Annals of Nat. Hist, 
vol. xiv. p. 328. t. 9 ; Kutzing, Die Kieselschaligen Bacillarien, 
p. 119; Species Algarum, p. 109. 

Rocky shore, Aberdeen, April, Professor Dickie. 

2. D. pinnata ( ). Frond sparingly pinnate, all the divisions 

lanceolate. 

Small shallow marine pools, especially on detached masses of rock ; 
Torquay, September, J. R. 

Fronds olive-brown, becoming greener when dried, 1 to 2 
inches high, lanceolate, irregularly pinnated ; the pinnae lanceo- 
late and alternate. The margins, both of the primary portion 
and of the divisions, are uneven and minutely laciniated. The 
frustules are like those of the preceding species. 

In 1836 I observed this plant growing plentifully near Tor- 
quay, since which time I have had no opportunity of searching 
for it. In the recent state it has, to the naked eye, much the 
appearance of a minute species of Dictyota ; but it is so exceed- 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, May 16", 1850. 



Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 205 

ingly tender, that it is difficult to carry it home in a condition fit 
for preservation. It differs from Dickieia ulvoides in its darker 
colour, divided frond, and more tapering extremities ; besides, it 
is an autumnal and the other a vernal species. 

Plate V. fig. 6. Frond of Dickieia pinnata, natural size. 

Note on Spirulina. 

Professor Kiitzing has described and figured eleven species of 
this genus, but the specific differences which he relies on do not 
seem to me satisfactory. They are chiefly the colour of the 
stratum and comparative closeness and diameters of the spires or 
coils. But the colours I have found to vary much, according to 
the age of the stratum, its greater or less exposure to light, and 
the state of the weather. In all the specimens whose growth I 
have watched, the spires were at first very dense, but became 
laxer after a short time ; and in a specimen of Spirulina tenuissima 
sent me from Bristol by Mr. Thwaites, the spires were relaxed 
at the extremities of many of the filaments, though at the middle 
they remained compact. In Spirulina the diameters of the fila- 
ments increase considerably as they advance towards maturity, 
but this increase has its limits, and an acquaintance with all the 
species is necessary to enable the observer to determine what 
value he should assign to this character as a specific distinction. 

Plate V. fig. 5. Filament of Spirulina tenuissima, having laxer spires 
at its extremities. 



XX. — A few Remarks upon the Crag of Suffolk. 
By W. B. Clarke, M.D., of Ipswich. 

In the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for August 1835 Mr. Edward 
Charlesworth published some papers upon the Crag of Suffolk and 
Norfolk, in which he divided the formation into three successive 
deposits. The oldest, from the abundance of zoophytes con- 
tained within it, he termed the Coralline Crag. The second, 
from the peculiar red or ochreous colour which pervades it, pro- 
duced by the presence of hydrous oxide of iron, he termed the 
Red Crag, which is characterized by the dying-out or absence of 
a great proportion of zoophytes and the introduction of new 
groups of testacea. The third, from its containing many fossil 
remains of mammalian animals, he termed the Mammaliferous 
Crag. 
The representatives of these groups may be seen as follows : — 

Miocene Group. 
Coralline Crag of England : Loire and Gironde in France ; con- 
taining 17 per cent, of recent species. 



206 Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 

Pliocene Group. 

Red Crag of England : Subapennine Hills ; containing from 35 
to 50 per cent, of recent species. 

Pleistocene Group. 

Mammaliferous Crag of England : Sicilian deposits ; containing 
from 90 to 95 per cent, of recent species. 

Since the*publication of these characteristics of the Crag, ex- 
tensive excavations have been made within it in several localities 
between the rivers Orwell and Deben, and on the banks of the 
latter, in which many interesting discoveries have been made in 
the organic remains of the deposit. 

The above-mentioned excavations have shown that above the 
London clay and beneath the Red Crag, extending over certain 
spaces, a bed is found varying in thickness from 3 or 4 inches 
to about a foot and a half, consisting of fragments of bone, 
usually of flattened form, with their ends and edges rounded by 
attrition, interspersed amongst numerous irregularly-formed, 
more or less rounded nodules, which appear to be indurated 
clay : some of these latter exhibit an irregular cleavage in angu- 
lar fragments, the inner surfaces of which show the presence and 
infiltration of phosphates and carbonates of iron. Amongst these 
are found others exhibiting a concentric structure, exposing and 
disintegrating the contiguous layers of which the nodule con- 
sists. Some of these appear to owe their origin to a nucleus of 
organic matter, as a vertebra, a tooth, a shell, a small branch of 
wood, or some other substance around which the argillaceous 
layers have accumulated. Others exhibit a minute structure 
corresponding in character with the usual appearance of septaria 
from the London clay, having the interstices of the clay filled 
with carbonate of lime frequently tinged by phosphate of iron. 
These nodules not only abound in the stratum beneath the Red 
Crag, but are also dispersed in various directions throughout the 
general mass without any disposition to stratification, showing 
they have been deposited promiscuously during the whole of the 
Red Crag period, or whilst that deposit was being formed. 

Again, we find arenaceous clay nodules that have been rounded 
by attrition into forms more or less spherical, upon breaking 
which a shell, frequently a bivalve, is found in the interior, 
having served as a nucleus around which the argillaceous sub- 
stance has consolidated : in some instances the shell itself is 
found ; in others nothing but the cast of it remains. It is not 
unlikely that the presence of the shell and its molluscous inha- 
bitant involving certain chemical changes within the mass of clay 



Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 207 

may have given rise to the consolidation of the surrounding mass, 
so as to have prevented disintegration at the time of its removal 
from its former bed and the act of rolling previous to its sub- 
sequent deposit in the Crag. 

Many of the nodules found in the Crag appear to have origi- 
nated in causes similar to those in operation at the present day, 
where masses of cliff have fallen and broken into fragments of 
various sizes ; these subsequently, having been rolled along the 
beach and amongst each other by the action of the waves, have 
been rounded into the forms they now assume. Clay nodules of 
similar shape, but in a soft state, are frequent upon the Suffolk 
and Essex beaches, where the clay cliffs are disintegrating at the 
present day by the inroads of the sea. 

Fragments of clay bored by Pholades, and wood by Teredines, 
are found in this Crag deposit. 

Within this formation have been discovered an interesting 
collection of remains of several species of mammalian and other 
animals, consisting of flat portions of bones, apparently ribs of 
large quadrupeds, which subsequently to their fracture have been 
rounded by attrition at their ends and edges ; with these are 
found various other bones and teeth of Elephants, Mastodon and 
Rhinoceros, teeth of Bears, and fragments of the extremities of 
small quadrupeds, but which are often so much disfigured by 
fracture and subsequent rolling that it is difficult to identify and 
associate them with living forms. The antlers of several species 
of Deer, some of large size, nearly allied to, if not identical with, 
the Megaceros or " Giant Elk of Ireland :" the tympanic or 
auditory bones, teeth, and other parts of several species of Whale 
and Cachalot, amongst which may be mentioned a fragment of 
considerable interest of the anterior part of the head or nose of 
a long-nosed Cetacean allied to Macrorhinus, which has been 
examined by Prof. Owen with much interest. The accompanying 
figure is a representation of it. 



A. Transverse section of nose of a 
long-nosed Cetacean from the Red Crag 
of Suffolk. 

The figure is of the nat. size : a, a, a, is 
matrix, an arenaceous mass which has 
been washed into the interior. 




208 Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 




B. Longitudinal view of the same fossil, half the natural size. 

All these fossils are in a highly mineralized state, apparently- 
produced by the ferruginous particles contained within the Crag, 
in conjunction with certain peculiar conditions of the fossil 
itself. 

With the above are also found teeth and vertebras of several 
species of fish allied to Sharks, some extremely large, as the Car- 
charodon megalodon : the spines, tubercles, and teeth of Rays, 
some of which are completely mineralized, and others not, but 
partaking of the condition of the generality of fossils of the Crag 
epoch : amongst these are found specimens of fish derived from 
the London clay, surrounded more or less by their argillaceous 
matrix. In the same condition are found short- and long-tailed 
(Brachyurous and Macrurous) crustaceans all highly mineralized, 
the greatest amount of which occur beneath the general Crag- 
deposit ; but in various parts throughout the Bed Crag formation 
are found the claws of Crabs in the usual condition of the Crag 
fossils, without any appearance of mineralization, but in an ex- 
tremely friable state from their having lost their animal matter : 
with these are associated spines of Echini and flints from the 
Chalk. 

As the mammalian remains contain a large proportion of 
phosphate of lime, considerable interest has been attached to 
them of late : the Crag has been laid open, carefully overlooked, 
and these remains collected and preserved for agricultural pur- 
poses after having been ground to powder and converted into 
superphosphates by digestion in sulphuric acid. The argilla- 
ceous nodules when thus ground are said to be used in large 
quantities in the adulteration of guano and bone-dust, and thus 
applied by the agriculturist. 

At intervals are found beds of ferruginous clay nodules, which 
upon being broken present a highly mineralized crust or exte- 
rior, containing a pulverulent ochreous substance; these are 
usually of a flattened form, and lie parallel with the plane of 
stratification. The mineralization of these nodules probably con- 
tinues to the present time through the agency of ferruginous 
matter involved in the Crag. 



Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 



209 



This appears evident in the process now in operation, result- 
ing in the formation of columnar concretions upon the face of 
the Crag, through the chemical and mechanical agency of water 
as it trickles down the vertical surface, carrying with it small 
portions of sand and comminuted shells, which it deposits gene- 
rally in a stalactitic form, the ferruginous particles held in solu- 
tion in the water cementing the mass firmly together : these 
abound in some localities in which the Crag is exposed, and have 
been regarded by the uninitiated as fossil antlers, and have been 
gravely collected and treasured as such. These substances vary 
in diameter from 2 inches to the eighth of an inch, and are 
variously contorted or branched. 

Within a short time a fragment of a jaw, apparently of a large 
Cetacean nearly equal in size to the Greenland Whale, has been 
discovered in the Coralline Crag, and the remains of other spe- 
cies of the same tribe of creatures have been found in the same 
deposit. The accompanying xylographs represent two of these 
fossils. 




A. lateral view, and B. posterior view of a dorsal vertebra of a Cetacean 
from the Coralline Crag of Suffolk. 

A and B are two figures of a dorsal vertebra of a Cetacean, 
allied to the Grampus, discovered in the Coralline Crag at Orford 
in Suffolk : the specimen is in fine condition, but a portion of the 
spinous process and part of one of the transverse processes were 

Ann. §• Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 14 



210 Dr. W. B. Clarke on the Crag of Suffolk. 

injured in the act of removing it from the deposit in which it 
was found. 




C. 

Caudal vertebra of a Cetacean from the Coralline Crag of Suffolk. 

C represents the body and transverse processes of a caudal 
vertebra of a Cetacean, also found in the Coralline Crag of 
Suffolk. 

In addition to the above-mentioned organic remains are the 
numerous interesting and beautiful species of Testacea which 
abound in the several divisions of the Crag deposit, and which are 
now so much sought after as objects of great interest to geologists 
and the " general collectors " of the neighbourhood, and which 
are so ably described and figured by Messrs. S. V. Wood and 
Sowerby in the works recently published by the Palaeontogra- 
phical Society. 

In reference to the various fossils discovered in the Crag, and 
which are derived from other formations, it will be remembered 
that by the action of the sea and other causes, deposits pre- 
viously formed are broken up and large quantities of such 
material are transported, in some instances to very great di- 
stances, examples of which are observed everywhere around us in 
the ' gravel • or f till ' : and there are accumulations forming in 
the German Ocean at the present time, from the ' debris ' of va- 
rious parts of the shores of England, Scotland and the continent, 
which are being driven together by the continuous agency of 
currents, and thus, for instance, are carried into the same de- 
posit, the chalk of Kent ; the London clay, crag and upper 
tertiary of Essex ; clay, crag and chalk of the Suffolk and Nor- 
folk coasts ; chalk, oolite and lias of Yorkshire ; magnesian 
limestone of Durham ; sandstone and coal of Northumberland ; 
together with the trap and plutonic rocks of Scotland ; all of 
which are associated with the tertiary and other deposits from 



Zoological Society. 211 

the continent, and with the remains of recent species that in- 
habit these coasts, in conjunction with parts of recent land and 
freshwater animals and plants which are carried amongst them 
by the currents of various rivers that are discharging their con- 
tents into these seas : disintegration is continually occurring, and 
masses of ' rocks/ with or without their organic contents, are 
annually being swept into the sea and deposited at various depths 
beneath its surface, frequently burying hosts of living forms 
amongst them. 

Berners Street, Ipswich, August 16, 1851. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

June 11, 1850.— W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
Synopsis of the species of Antelopes and Strepsiceres, 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES. By J. E. 

Gray, Esq., F.R.S., P.B.S. etc. 

[Concluded from p. 146.] 

2. The Cervine Antelopes have an elongated tail, cylindrical at 
the base, and with long hair at the end, often forming a compressed 
ridge ; the body heavy and the limbs strong. They are of a large 
size. 

a. Neck not maned. 

18. Adenota. 

Muffle cordate, moderate, cervine ; nose hairy between the back of 
the nostrils ; horns sublyrate, ringed, when young rather recurved ; 
place of tear-bag covered with a tuft of hair ; hair of the back whorled, 
of dorsal line and back of head reversed ; tail elongate, hairy. 

This genus is very like Eleotragus, but has a smaller, more cervine 
muzzle and lyrated horns ; it differs from Cobus in the form of the 
tail, and wanting the mane, and from both in having a tuft of hair 
in the front of the orbit. 

* Horns sublyrate ; tail hairy, 

1. Adenota Kob. The ^Equitoon. 

Pale brown ; end of nose, inside of ears, chest, belly, inside of legs 
and thighs, tip of tail, and band above hoofs white ; front of fore and 
hind legs, and end of ears and tail black ; hair of the dorsal line re- 
versed, with a whorl on the shoulders and loins. 

Antilope Kob, Erxl. from Kob, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 32. f. 1 ? 
— Kobus Adansonii, A. Smith, from Buffon. — Gambian Antelope, 
Penn. Syn. 39, from Buffon. — A. adenota, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 
224. t. 184. and t. 183. f. 3, 4. horns? 

A. Kob, Ogilby, P.Z.S. 1836. — A. annulipes, Gray, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1843. — Adenota Kob, Gray, Knows. Menag. 14. 1. 14, 15. 

Far. Female, hair longer, sides of face whitish. 

14* 



212 Zoological Society. 

A. sing-sing, Gray, Cat. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 159, not Bennett. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Gambia. Called JEquitoon by the Joliffs, 
and Kob by the Mandingoes. 

A fine pair has been at Knowsley some years. Thinking them 
new, I described them as A. annulipes. Mr. Ogilby has called it the 
Nag or, but it is scarcely the Nagor of Buffon. An adult male no- 
ticed by Mr. Ogilby as the Kob is now in the Museum of the Zoological 
Society ; its horns, like the male at Knowsley, are much worn down. 
They whistle like a stag. 

Buffon (H. N. xii. 219. 267. t. 32. f. 1) figures a skull with horns, 
brought from Senegal by Adanson, under the name of Kob, which is 
also called the Petit vache brune. Erxleben gave this figure the name 
of A. kob, and Pennant called it the Gambian Antelope, Syn. i. 39. 
The figures somewhat resemble the head of a half-grown male of this 
species, but the horns are longer, and have more rings than the spe- 
cimen in the British Museum ; but I am inclined to agree with Mr. 
Ogilby in believing that it was intended for this species. In the Jar- 
din des Plantes they called the Sing-Sing the Kob of Senegal ; this 
may be a mistake for the Koba. I may remark that the horns of 
the Koba in the same plate of Buffon are represented with more rings 
than are mentioned in the description. 

Colonel Hamilton Smith describes and figures a male and female 
specimen which were alive in Exeter Change, and figures the male 
and its skull and horns under the name of A. adenota, which well 
agrees with this species, and has the peculiar distribution of its hair ; 
hence its name : but he says, it has " a long open suborbital slit, 
and small black brushes on the knees ;" this I suspect must be a 
mistake, as he himself observes no lachrymal cavity was found in the 
skull. He might have mistaken the tuft of hair for the gland at the 
distance at which he saw the specimens. He also (G. A. K. iv. 221) 
described a specimen which was in Exeter Change, which he regarded 
as the Gambian Antelope of Pennant, and calls A. forfex. His cha- 
racters agree in most particulars with this species, but he says it had 
"a long lachrymal sinus, and had small brushes on the knees." If 
there was not some mistake in transcribing these descriptions, both 
these animals should be Gazellas, but I have never seen any which 
agreed with them. 

The young male in the British Museum shows the development of 
the horns of these animals. The upper rings of the growing horn fall 
off in large thick flakes as the horn increases in size beneath : this 
explains how the extent of the smooth tapering part of the horns in- 
creases in length as the horn grows, and how the number of rings are 
found to be nearly the same in the various ages, and different indi- 
viduals of the various species. Mr. Whitfield informs me that the 
scrotum is rarely developed or dependent externally in different kinds 
of Antelopes before they have completed their first year. 

** Horns elongate, recurved at the tip ; tail slender, end tufted. 
2. Adenota Leche. The Leche. 
Pale brown ; orbits, chest and beneath white ; front of legs dark 



Zoological Society. 213 

brown ; fur short, adpressed, upper part of nape and withers with a 
small whorl of hair ; tail slender at the base. 

Le'chee, Oswell, Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. xx. 150, 1850. — Kobus 
Leche, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 23. 

Inhabits*S. Africa; "bank of river Zouga, lat. 22° S. (Capt. Frank 
Vardon). Oswell, 1. c. 150, Brit. Mus. 

This animal is nearly as large as the Water Buck. The horns are 
very like those of that animal ; the neck is covered with short ad- 
pressed hair, and has no appearance of a mane. 

b. Neck maned on the sides. 

19. Kobus, H. Smith; Cervicapra, § Sundev. ; JEgocerus, Harris; 
Kolus, Gesner, Gray. 

Horns elongate, sublyrate, bent back and then forward at the top ; 
muzzle cervine ; tear-bag none ; inguinal pores none ; hair rough, 
elongate ; neck covered with longer, diverging and drooping hair ; 
tail rather elongated, depressed, hairy on the sides and below : females 
hornless ; teats four ; animal very large. 

1 . Kobus Ellipsiprymnus. The Photomok or Waterbuck. 
Rump with a whitish elliptical ring near the base of the tail, 

brownish ; horns converging at the tip. 

Antilope Ellipsiprymna, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1833, 47 ; Harris, W. A. 
Africa, t. 14. — Kobus Ellipsiprymnus, A. Smith, Illus. Z. S. A. t. 28, 
29. — Gray, Knows. Menag. 15. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

The horns figured as A. Kemasl (H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 181. f. 6) 
appear to belong to this species. 

2. Kobus Sing-Sing. The Sing-Sing. 

Anal ring none. Reddish or yellowish grey brown, rather greyer 
on the shoulders ; nose, lips and hinder part of the thighs, under the 
neck, from the ears to the gullet, a streak over each eye, and ring 
above the hoofs and false hoofs white ; belly and legs blacker ; end 
of tail, and legs from shoulder to hough black. Female greyer ; belly 
and upper part of legs paler. 

Antilope Sing-Sing, Bennett, Waterhouse, Cat. Zool. Soc. Mus. 
41. n. 378. — A. defassa, Riippell, Abyss, t. 3. — A. unctuosa, Laur., 
D'Orbig. Diet. Univ. H. N. i. t. 622. <?. good. — A. Koba, Ogilby, 
Penny Cyclop, ii. 79. fig. ? ; P. Z. S. 1836, not Erxleben.— Koba, 
BufFon, H. N. xii. 210, 267. t. 32. f. 2, horns?— Senegal Antelope, 
Pennant, Syn. 38 (part from BufFon only). — Kobus Sing-Sing, Gray, 
Knows. Menag. 15. 

Inhabits N. and W. Africa; Senegal; Gambia, where it is called 
Kassimause and Kob ( Whitfield) . Brit. Mus. Abyssinia (Riippell) . 
Mus. Frankfort. 

This species varies much in the tint of the colouring, and in the 
length of the hair in the different seasons. In summer they are 
covered with very short, closely pressed fur, letting the skin be seen 
between the hairs. In the cofd weather, and in England, the fur is 



214 Zoological Society. 

longer and more abundant. The hair of the chin and neck is long 
and rigid in all seasons, and even in the young animals. The tail of 
the adult specimen is cylindrical and nearly bald, ending in a tuft of 
black hair ; in the young specimens, especially in the winter fur, the 
base of the tail is fringed with hair on each side. The male is much 
brighter coloured, and the chest and belly are nearly black like the 
legs. The hinder parts of the rump of the young animals are greyish 
white ; in the older specimens it becomes pure white and broader in 
extent. 

This animal is called Sing -Sing by all the negroes. They do not 
think their flocks of cattle will be healthy or fruitful unless they have 
one of the Sing-Sings accompanying them, as some persons think a 
Goat necessary to be in a stable in England. The English on the 
Gambia call it the Jackass Beer from its appearance, and it is called 
Koba and Kassimause by the negroes at Macarthy's Island. Its flesh 
is very strong, unpleasant, and scarcely palatable. 

As far as I could judge by my recollection and description, the 
adult specimen at Knowsley, the young male and adult female in the 
British Museum, the male and female at Frankfort, and the adult 
male in the Paris menageries, are the same species. 

BufFon figured (Hist. Nat. 210, 267. xii. t. 32. f. 2) under the 
name of Koba a pair of horns which were in the library of St. Victor 
at Paris. He described them as larger and more curved above than 
those of the Kob, eighteen inches long and five inches in circumfer- 
ence at the base, and he refers them to an animal which Adanson 
says is called Koba in Senegal, and the Great Brown Cow by the 
French colonists. Pallas refers these horns to A. Pygargus, and the 
figures and description agree in many particulars with the horns of 
that species ; but they are rather longer, and have more rings. Pen- 
nant (Syn. Mam. 38) has given the name of Senegal Antelope to 
BufFon' s short account and figure, but has added to it the description 
and the figure of the head of a skin which came from Amsterdam, 
and appears to be A. Caama of South Africa. Cuvier (Diet. Sci. 
Nat. ii. 235) has translated Pennant's name to A. Senegalensis. 
Erxleben (Syn. 293) and Zimmerman (Zool. 345) have translated 
Pennant's description of his skin of A. Caama, and called it A. Koba y 
referring to BufFon' s description and Daubenton's figure. Fischer, 
Hamilton Smith and M. Sundevall regard the Koba of BufFon the 
same as the Korrigum of Denham and Clapperton, but the horns of 
that species are considerably longer and much thicker at the base than 
those described by Daubenton, and the annulations of the horns are 
higher and more regular : it may however be remarked that BufFon 
describes his horns as having eleven or twelve rings, but figures them 
as having seventeen or eighteen. Mr. Ogilby (Penny Cyclopaedia 
and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society) considers BufFon' s 
Koba to be the Sing-Sing ; and in the length of the horns, and in the 
number, disposition and form of the rings, his figure more nearly 
agrees with the horns of that species than of that of the A. Pygarga, 
to which Pallas first referred it ; but the horns are represented much 
more ly rated than any horns of the Sing- Sing I have seen ; indeed, 



Zoological Society. 215 

not one of the specimens which have come under my observation have 
had any inclination to assume that form : but as this is the only 
Western- African species which in any way agrees with Buffon' s figure, 
perhaps it is best to adopt Mr. Ogilby's suggestion. The name of 
Koba or Kob appears to be common to many species. Schinz errone- 
ously considers Damalis Senegalensis, Antilope adenota and A. for- 
fex (H. Smith) as synonyms of this species. 

c. Nape with a linear, central, compressed, recurved mane. 

20. Aigocerus, H. Smith ; Egocerus, Desm. ; 
Hippotragus, Sundev. 

Horns conical, elongate, rather compressed, ringed, recurved ; back 
of the neck with a linear reversed mane ; tear-gland covered with a 
tuft of hair ; teats two. 

1. Aigocerus Equinus. The Etaak or Equine Antelope. 

Spot above the eyes and pencil before the eyes fulvous grey ; nose 
whitish ; face black ; nuchal mane distinct. 

Aigoceros Equina, H. Smith ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 21. — A. glauca, 
Forster. — A. Osanne, Geoff. — A. barbata, H. Smith. — A. Truteri, 
Fischer. — A. aurita, Burch. MSS. — Capra JEthiopica, Schinz. — 
Tzeiran, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 31. f. 6, horn. — Aigocerus Equinus and 
A. leucophceus, Gray, Knows. Men. 16. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. W. Africa ; Gambia {Whitfield). 
Horns. Brit. Mus. 

Var.1 Smaller. "Fur glaucous grey; tuft before the eye short, 
brown; nuchal crest none ; hoofs small." — Sundevall. 

Antilope leucophceus, Pallas; H. Smith, G. A. K. v. t. 179. — 
Aigocerus leucophceus, Gray, Knows. Menag. 16. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope ; now extinct. Mus. Stockholm, 
Mus. Upsal and Mus. Paris. 

The head of the female covered with the skin from Macarthy's 
Island, on the coast of Gambia, which Mr. Whitfield brought home, 
did not appear to differ from the specimen from the Cape in the 
British Museum. The species does not appear to be uncommon in 
the locality, for Mr. Whitfield brought over several pairs of horns. 
He states the flesh is very good venison. " It is called Bacoi or 
White Mouth by the Mandingoes, Kob and Koba by the Joliffs, 
and Vache brune by the French at Senegal." This is certainly not 
the Kob of Buffon (xii. t. 32. f. 1, 2). The negroes at the Gambia 
declare that this animal never bears more than one fawn ; for after 
that period, the horns increase in length, and enter the loins and 
destroy the animals ! 

Buffon (xii. 2/1. t. 31. f. 6) figures the horn of this species, which 
had been made into a powder-flask, under the name of Tzeiran. 

A. barbata of Daniels appears to be only a bad drawing of this 
species. 

The variety is the size of the Common Stag, Cervus Elaphus. 
M. Sundevall observes that it is as different from A. Equina, as the 



216 Zoological Society. 

species of Eleotragi and Tragelaphi are from one another ; and he 
observes, in a letter I have just received, " I must tell you, that after 
the inspection of a whole series of A. Equina, which Wahlberg brought 
home, I am convinced that the A. leucopkcea of Pallas is a very distinct 
race. Our stuffed specimen, that must have been adult, has much 
smaller hoofs than the very young A. Equina, male as well as female, 
amongst Wahlberg' s, and in the tuft over the lachrymal sinus, as I 
have shortly expressed in the printed survey." 

When I examined the specimen at Paris I regarded it as a young 
or rather dwarf specimen of A. Equina, and the absence of the nuchal 
crest led to this belief; and I am not satisfied that the number of 
rings on the horns are a sufficient proof of its being adult. 

2. Aigocerus niger. The Black Bok. 
Black ; female and young brown ; face white, with a dark streak. 
Antilope niger and A.Harrisii, Harris, Wild African Anim. t. 23. — 
Aigocerus niger, Gray, Knows. Menag. 1 7. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. Males and female and young. 

21. Oryx, Blainv., H. Smith. 

Horns elongate, subulate, ringed at the base, straight, or slightly 
arched, placed in a line with the face ; neck maned above and below ; 
tear-bag none ; nose subcervine, with a marginal muffle ; hoofs nar- 
rowed in front, false hoofs large ; teats four (two, Harris) . In the 
skull there is a slight suborbital fissure, but no pit, and the grinders 
have supplementary lobes. 

* Horns straight. 

1. Oryx Gazella. The Kookaam or Gemsboc. 

Horns straight, shelving backwards ; throat with a bunch of black 
hairs ; black streak on the face, conjoined under the chin ; rump, 
face, spinal line, lateral streak, and very broad band on the thigh and 
cubitus black in summer. Young pale brown ; hairs blackish at the 
base. 

Capra Gazella, Linn. — Antilope Oryx, Pallas ; H. Smith. — A. be- 
zoartica, Pallas. — A. recticornis, Erxl. ; Pallas, Nov. Comm. Petrop. 
xiii. t. 10. f. 6. — Oryx Capensis, Ogilby ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 9. — 
O. Gazella, Gray, Knows. Menag. 17. t. 16. f. 2, young. 

Inhabits S. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope. Brit. Mus. Adult and 
young. 

2. Oryx Beisa. The Beisa. 

Horns straight ; throat without any bunch of hairs ; black face- 
streaks separate. " Pale ; face, belly and limbs white ; front of face, 
two streaks on cheek, narrow line along throat, dorsal streak, streak 
on each side of abdomen, band round upper part, and streak in front 
of lower part of fore-leg and end of tail black." 

Antilope Beisa, Riippell, Atlas, t. 5.— Oryx Beisa, Sundevall. — 
A. Dammah, Riippell. 

Inhabits Abyssinia. Mus. Frankfort. 



Zoological Society. 217 

There is a male and female in the Frankfort Museum ; they are 
smaller than A. Gazella of the Cape, and both have the face-streaks 
separate : there is a black streak on the throat, as in A. Gazella, but 
no bunch, nor is there any in the Frankfort specimen of A. Gazella : 
the mane of the nape of the male is small, indistinct, continued behind 
in a broader dark streak to the middle of the loins. In the male the 
mane is blackish, in the female like the back. They have no dark 
mark on the rump, found in A. Gazella. 

** Horns arched, recurved. 

3. Oryx leucoryx. The Oryx. 

Horns slender, slightly arched : white, reddish varied ; in winter 
greyish. 

Antilope leucoryx, Pallas ; Ehrenb. S. P. t. 3 ; Licht. Saugth. t. 1. 
— A. ensicornis, Ehrenb. — A. Algazella, Riipp. t. . — A. Gazella, 
Pallas. — A. bezoartica, Erxl. ; H. Smith. — Algazelle, F. Cuv. Mam. 
Lith. t. . — A. Eleotragus, Schreb. t. . (not descrip.) — Oryx 
leucoryx, Gray, Knows. Menag. 17. t. 16. f. 1, young ; t. 17, adult. 

Inhabits N. and W.Africa; Nubia; Sennaar; Senegal. Brit. Mus. 

I have compared the Nubian and Senegal specimens, and cannot 
discover any difference between them. 

d. Throat slightly maned, neck simple. 
22. Addax ; Oryx, part Blainv. and others ; Gazella, part H. Smith. 
Horns slender, elongate, ringed, slightly spirally twisted, nearly on 
a line with the face ; neck with a slight gular, but no nuchal mane ; 
nose ovine, hairy ; hoofs semicircular, edged ; tear-bag marked by a 
tuft of hair ; forehead longly hairy. 

1. Addax nasomaculatus. The Addax. 

White ; forehead and front of face darker ; grey in winter. 

Antilope nasomaculatus, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 78; H. 
Smith. — A. Addax, Licht. Saugth. t. 2 ; Riipp. Atlas, t. 7 ; Mam. 
Lith. t. . — A. suturosa, Otto, N. A. Nat. Cur. xii. t. 48 ; Griffith, 
A. K. t. 180. —A. yibbosa, Savi.— A. Tao, H. Smith.-— A. Mytilopes, 
H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 182, 183. f. 6.—Strepsiceros, Cajus.— Addax, 
F. Cuvier, Mam. Lith. t. . (winter and summer) ; Ehrenberg, S. 
Phys. t. 4, male and female. — Capra Cervicapra, Linn. S. N. ed. 10. 
— Ant. Cervicapra, Children, Denham Trav. — Addax nasomaculatus, 
Gray, Knows. Men. 17. t. 18. 

Inhabits N. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

3. The Goat-like Antelopes have a very short flat tail, hairy 
above. They have heavy bodies, covered with rough, rigid or woolly 
fur, strong legs, large hoofs and false hoofs. The horns are conical 
and recurved. 

* Nose cervine, muffle moderate ; horns short, inclined, recurved. 
23. Capricornis, Ogilby ; Nemorhedus, part H. Smith. 
Horns short, strong, conical, ringed, inclined and recurved, arising 
behind the orbits ; nose cervine, muffle moderate, bald ; tear-bag and 



218 Zoological Society. 

interdigital pores large ; skull with a more or less deep rounded pit, 
and no suborbital fissure ; grinders without supplemental lobes. Asia. 

1. Capricornis Sumatrensis. The Cambing Outan. 
Black ; chin and linear nuchal mane yellowish, especially near the 

withers ; inside of the ears white. Young like the adult. 

Antilope Sumatrensis, Shaw ; H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 189 (cop. 
from) ; F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. . — A. interscapulars, Licht. — 
Capricornis Sumatrensis, Gray, Knows. Menag. 18. 

Inhabits Sumatra. Mus. Ley den. 

2. Capricornis Bubalina. The Thaar or Thar. 

Grey brown, blackish washed ; crown and dorsal line black ; thighs 
and outside of legs rufous ; nose, chin, inside of ear, lower part of 
mane and legs below the hocks whitish. 

Antilope Bubalina, Hodgson, P. Z. S. 1832, 12. — A. Thar, Hodg- 
son. — Nemorhedus proclivis, Hodgson. — Capricornis Bubalina, Gray, 
Knows. Menag. 18. 

Inhabits India ; Nepal. Mus. Brit. 

A head was sent to the United Service Museum by Lieut. -Colonel 
Childers, of the 1 1th Dragoons, in 1820, under the name of Serow or 
Imo. " It is not speedy, as might be inferred from its make. Its 
flesh is very coarse and bad. It is usually killed with poisoned 
arrows." — Hodgson, 1. c. 14. 

3. Capricornis? crispa. The Japanese Goat Antelope. 

Fur very fine, elongate, rather woolly, crisp ; brown or brownish ; 
feet and ears darker ; throat whitish : female paler ; tear-bag a naked 
spot? 

Antilope crispa, Temm. Faun. Japan, t. 18, 19. — Capricornis 
crispa, Gray, Knows. Menag. 18. 

Inhabits Japan. Mus. Leyden. 

** Nose ovine, hairy, without any muffle ; horns short, conical, re- 
curved, ringed. 

24. Nemorhedus, part H. Smith ; Kemas, Hodgson. 

Horns short, conical, inclined and recurved, arising from behind 
the orbits ; nose ovine, hairy ; muffle none ; tear-bag none ; inter- 
digital pores large ; fur short. 

1. Nemorhedus Goral. The Goral. 

Grey brown, black punctulated ; streak on lower part of back of 
neck blackish ; cheeks, chin and upper" part of throat white ; front 
of fore-legs blackish ; feet rufous. Young paler ; dorsal line rather 
darker. 

Antilope Goral, Hardw. Linn. Trans, xiv. t. 14 ; Calcutta J. N. H. 
i. 1. 12. f. 2, 3. — A. Goural, Hodgson. — Bouquetin du Nepaul, F. Cuv. 
Mam. Lith. t. . (copy from Hardw.) — A. Duvaucellii, H. Smith. 
— Nemorhedus Goral, H. Smith; Gray, Knows. Menag. 18. 

Inhabits Nepal. Brit. Mus. 



Zoological Society. 219 

A. Buvaucellii (H. Smith) was described from a drawing traced 
from one of General Hardwicke's figures of this species, and badly 
coloured, which Duvaucel sent to Paris without any notes. It has 
no connection with C. Sumatrensis, to which many naturalists have 
referred it. In the Bengal Journal two Antelopes, said to resemble 
the Goral, are mentioned as found in Afghanistan, one called Suja 
and the other Goomast. 

25. Mazama, Rafinesque ; Aplocerus, H. Smith. 

Horns small, conical, nearly erect, slightly inclined and recurved 
at the tip, ringed at the base ; nose ovine, hairy ; muffle none ; tear- 
bag none : fur short, under fur woolly, outer very long, hairy and 
dependent. 

1. Mazama Americana. The Mazama or Springbuck. 

White ; horns, hoof and edge of nostrils black. 

Rupicapra Americana, Blainv. — Antilope Americana, Desm. — 
Capra Americana, Rich. F. B. A. 268. t. 22. — Ovis montana, Ord. — 
Capra montana, Harlan. — A. lanigera, H. Smith. — Mazama dorsata 
and M. sericea, Rafin. — A. Mazama and Apt. Femmamazama, H. 
Smith. — Capra ? Columbiana, Desmoul. — Rock Mountain Sheep, 
Jameson, Mem. "Wern. Soc. iii. 306. — Mazama Americana, Gray, 
K. M. 19. 

Inhabits N. America ; Rocky Mountains. Mus. Linn, Soc. and 
Zool. Soc. 

26. Rupicapra, H. Smith ; Capella, Keys. &Blas. ; Kemas, Ogilby. 

Horns elongate, slender, erect, recurved at the tip ; nose ovine, 
hairy ; muffle none ; fur soft ; skull without any pit, and with a 
minute suborbital fissure ; grinders without supplemental lobes, 
cutting-teeth equal-sized, erect. 

1. Rupicapra Tragus. The Chamoise or Gerus. 

Brown yellowish, with a dark dorsal streak in summer, blackish in 
winter. 

Capra Rupicapra, Linn. — A. Rupicapra,T?al\as; H. Smith, G. A. K. 
t. 90. — Rupicapra Tragus, Gray, K. M. 19. — R. Capella, Bonap. — 
R. pyrenaica, Bonap. — Tragus Dorcas, Klein. — Chamoise, Buffon, 
H. N. xii. t. 16 ; F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. . 

Inhabits S. Europe ; Switzerland, Pyrenees, and Pindarus. Brit. 
Mus. 

I have compared the Swiss, Pyrenean and Greek specimens, and 
cannot find any character to separate them. 

27. Antilocapra, Ord ; Bicranocerus, H. Smith ; 
Oreammos, Rafin. ; Cervus, Blainv. 

Horns erect, the base compressed with a flattened process in 
front, the end conical, recurved ; nose ovine, hairy ; muffle none ; 
fur very close ; hair stiff, coarse, flattened, wavy ; tail very short ; 
false hoofs none ; tear-bag none ; inguinal pores none ; legs rather 



220 Zoological Society. 

slenderer than the other Goat Antelopes; skull without any sub- 
orbital depression, but with a lengthened fissure ; grinders without 
supplemental lobes, cutting-teeth equal-sized and shelving. 

I. Antilocapra Americana. The Cabrit or Pronghorn. 
Pale fulvous ; upper part of rump white. 

Antilope Americana, Ord, 1815. — A. furcifer, A. palmata, H. 
Smith, Linn. Trans, xiv. t. 2, 3 ; G. A. K. t. 178. t. 199. f. 1-5 ; 
Richards. Z. B. A. t. 21. — Cervus hamatus, Blainv. — C. bifurcatus, 
Rafin. — Antilocapra Americana, Ord; Gray, K. M. 19. 

Inhabits N. America; in the plains in summer and in the moun- 
tains in winter. Called the Goat. Mexico {Coulter). Brit. Mus. 

Dr. Coulter brought a head from Mexico which had the face dark 
brown, and the horns large, wide-spreading and much hooked at the 
tip, like the A. palmata of H. Smith (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1826, 121). 
This is probably only a larger variety in the summer fur. 

II. The Antelopes of the Desert. Nostrils bearded within 
beneath, operculated, far apart ; horns on the frontal ridge ; nose sub- 
cervine, with a small muffle ; legs rather stout ; tail elongate ; hoofs 
rather large. 

4. The Equine Antelopes have a very depressed, spongy and 
bristly muzzle. 

28. Catoblepas, Gray ; Connochcetes, Licht. ; Bos, Forster. 

Horns bent down on the sides, recurved at the tip ; nose very 
broad, dilated, spongy, bristly ; nostrils operculated ; tail elongate, 
bushy, hairy from the base ; hoofs compressed in front ; teats 
four. 

This genus has been placed with the Oxen by Forster, and in the 
Bovine group of genera by Sundevall, but it has all the characters of 
the true Antelopes in the proportion of its leg-bone. 

* Nose with a crest of reversed hair ; chest maned. Catoblepas. 
1. Catoblepas Gnu. The Gnu or Kokoon. 

Nose with a tuft of reversed hair; chest maned. Brown or 
blackish ; the lower part of the mane and tail often paler or white. 
Young : pale fulvous ; nasal, gular, and nuchal mane black. 

Antilope Gnu, Sparm. ; Zimmerm. — Bos Connochcetes, Forster. — 
Antilope taurina, Burchell. — C. Gnu, H. Smith. — C. taurina, H. 
Smith, not A. Smith. — Gnu, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lith. t. ; Harris, 
W. A. A. t. 1. — Catoblepas Gnu, Gray, Knows. Menag. 19. t. 19. 
f. 1, young. 

Far. Mane and tail black. 

A. taurina, Burchell ; A. Smith. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

The A. Gnu of Burchell, H. Smith, F. Cuvier and Harris, " and 
the Kokong of Lichtenstein," has a white tail and mane. Burchell 
and H. Smith have given the name of A. taurina to the specimens, 
which have those parts black. When young they are fulvous, and 



Zoological Society. 221 

become black as they reach maturity. The specimen of the Kokoon 
in the Museum of the London Missionary Society (Blomfield Street, 
Moorfields), named by Colonel H. Smith Kokoon (Cat. taurina, 
Griff. A. K. iv. 369, v. 368), is an adult common Gnu, C. Gnu 
(Far. mane and tail white ; Kokong, Licht. Trav. Cape), and his 
description of Dr. Burchell's specimen in the British Museum agrees 
with the Gnu, in having the ridge of hair on the face. Indeed Dr. 
Burchell (Travels, ii. 278) appears to consider the difference between 
the Gnu and A. taurina, that the former has a white and the latter 
a black tail. Dr. Andrew Smith (Illust. Zool. S. A.) has regarded 
the C. taurina and C. Gorgon as the same species. Dr. Sundevall, 
in his Synopsis, has, by mistake, given the name of C. taurina to the 
Gorgon, or Brindled Gnu (C. Gorgon, H. Smith). 

** Nose with smooth hair ; chest not maned. Gorgon. 

2. Catoblepas Gorgon. The Gorgon. 

Face convex, smooth, covered with hair, lying towards the nose ; 
chest not maned ; black grey, varied and striped. Young : dark 
grey ; face, gular and nuchal mane and end of tail black. Half- 
grown : blackish ; crown grey. 

Antilope Gorgon, H. Smith ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 4. — Cat. taurina, 
Sundev., not Burch. or Smith. — Catoblepas Gorgon or Gorgon fas- 
ciatus, Gray, Knows. Menag. 20. t. 19. f. 2, young. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

Colonel H. Smith has figured a pair of horns which were in Mr. 
Brookes' s Museum under the name of C. Brookesii (t. 201. f. 1). 
He thinks it is also probable that Bos Pegaseus (II. Smith, G. A. K. 
t. 204, from a drawing of Prince Maurice's) is a species of this genus 
(H. Smith, Jard. Nat. Lib.). 

5. The Bovine Antelopes have the nose moderately broad, with 
a moderate or small, bald, moist muffle ; the grinders are rather small, 
without supplemental lobes, the central cutting-teeth enlarged at the 
end. 

29. Boselaphus; Bubalis, Licht., Ogilby; Acronotus, H. Smith; 
Bubalus, A. Smith ; Alcelaphus, Blainv. ; Buselaphus, Ray. 

Horns lyrate, end suddenly curved at a nearly right angle, thick 
at base, on the upper edge of the frontal bones ; nose moderately 
broad, cervine ; muffle moderate, bald, moist ; tear-bag covered with 
a tuft of hair. Females : teats two. 

1. Boselaphus Bubalis. The Bubale. 

Pale brown in early uniform ; rump like back. 

Antilope Bubalis, Pallas. — Capra Boreas, Houttayn, t. 24. f. 3. — 
Buselaphus Caji, Ray. — Bubalis Mauretanica, Ogilby ; Sundevall. 
— Acronotus Bubalis, H. Smith. — Bubale, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. 
— Cervine Antelope, Penn. — Boselaphus Bubalis, Gray, K. M. 20. 
t. 20. f. 1, young. 

Inhabits N. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

Far. 1 . Uniform pale brown ; with a dark brown streak down the 



222 Zoological Society. 

outer side of the front of the fore-legs, like the streak on the leg of 
the Lecama or Harte beest from South Africa, which is not generally 
found in this species. This skin, without a head or hoofs, was brought 
by Mr. Frazer to the British Museum, from Tunis ; it probably indi- 
cates a third species, or perhaps this streak is only marked in the 
very adult or fully-coloured specimens. 

2. Boselaphus Caama. The Lecama or Harte beest. 

Grey brown ; dorsal line, streak on face, outer side of limbs black ; 
large triangular spot on the haunches whitish. 

Antilope Caama, Cuv. D. S. N. ii. 242 (1816) ; Harris, W. A. A. 
t. 7 ; A. Smith, Illust. Z. S. A. t. 31.— A. Bubalis, Licht. ; Erxleb. 
291. — Acronotus Caama, H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 197. — A. Dorcas, 
Thunb. ; Sparm. K. V. Hand. 1779, t. h.—Bubale, Buffon, H. N. 
xii. t. 38. f. 2; Supp. iv. t. 15. — Caama, Cuvier, Menag. t. . — 
Senegal Antelope, Penn. Synn. 38. — A. Senegalensis, Cuvier, Diet. 
Sci. Nat., from Pennant. — A. Koba, Erxleb. Syn. 293, from Pennant. 
— Boselaphus Caama, Gray, Knows. Menag. 20. t. 20. f. 2, young. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

Pennant figures the head and horns of this species under the name 
of Senegal Antelope, and erroneously refers to Buffon' s figures of the 
horns of the Koba as representing the species, which lead to some 
confusion ; for the A. Senegalensis (Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. ii. 235) 
is an abbreviation, and A. Koba (Erxleben, Syn. 293) is a translation, 
of Pennant's description of this species. Pennant's specimen is said 
to come from Senegal, but he describes the nuchal line and the knees 
as black, and the figure indicates the dark colour on the face of the 
Cape species. 
30. Damalis; Damalis acronotus, sp. H.Smith; Bubalis,sp. Sundev. 

Horns lyrate, diverging, subcylindrical ; nose moderately broad, 
cervine, with a small, bald, moist muffle between and below the 
nostrils ; tear-bag exposed : females, teats two. 

* Horns recurved above, diverging from the base ; face dark in 

front. 

1. Damalis lunatus. The Sassayby. 
Rufous glaucous, outer sides of the limbs dark. 

Antilope lunata, Burchell, Trav. ii. 334, 335. fig. . — Damalis 
{acronotus) lunatus, H. Smith, G. A. K. t. 198; A. Smith, Zool. 
S. Afr. t. 31 ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 8. — Bubalis lunata, Sundev. — 
Sassaybi, Daniel, Afr. Scenery, t. . — Damalis lunatus, Gray, 
Knows. Menag. 21. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

** Horns regularly lyrate, nearly parallel at the base, then diver- 
ging, and approaching at the tips ; face black marked ; tear-bag 
moderate. 

2. Damalis Senegalensis. The Korrigum. 

Reddish grey ; front of face from nose to occiput, a small spot be- 
hind the eyes, a small streak above the angle of the mouth, and streak 



Zoological Society. 223 

on outside of the limbs above the knees, and tuft of the tail, black. 
Very young : uniform pale brown, without any dark marks. 

Antilope and Damalis (acronotus) Senegalensis, H. Smith, G.A.K. 
v. t. 199. f. 3. — Antilope Koba, Children, in Denham and Clapper- 
ton's Travels, not Erxleben. — Bubalis Koba, Sundevall. — B. lunata, 
Sundev. Act. Stockh. 1842, 201, 243, not Burchell.— A. Corrigum, 
Ogilby. — Damalis Senegalensis, Gray, Knows. Menag. 21. t. 21. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Gambia River, Macarthy's Island ; called 
Tonga or Yongah by the Joliffs, and Tan Rong by the Mandingoes, 
Mr. Whitfield. Brit. Mus. Senegal? Sennaar. Mus. Stockholm. 

In Denham and Clapperton's Travels I regarded this species as the 
Koba of Buffon, and H. Smith and Dr. Sundevall are of the same 
opinion : but on comparing the six pairs of horns of this species 
which I have been able to examine with Buffon* s figure and descrip- 
tions, I find them all longer and much thicker at the base than Buf- 
fon describes them ; the thinner (a female ?) being 7 and the others 
9 or 9i inches in circumference, while that which Buffon described is 
only 5 inches. The rings are also more elevated, and reach nearer to 
the top than in Buffon' s figure. All the characters lead me to believe 
that the horns figured as those of the Koba by Buffon belong to Da- 
malis Pygarga. They afford very good venison. 

Colonel Hamilton Smith, in ' Griffith's Animal Kingdom,' de- 
scribed and figured the heads brought home by Messrs. Denham and 
Clapperton as A. Senegalensis, but they are different from the one 
so called by Cuvier. Mr. Ogilby, in the * Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society ' (1826, 103), proposed to call these heads, A. Corrigum. 

Under the name of Antilope Koba, Schinz (Syn. Mam. ii. 407) 
combines the A. defassa, Ruppell, Damalis Senegalensis and Antilope 
adenota, H. Smith, the Koba of Buffon, and the Antilope Koba or 
Caarna of Erxleben. 

*** Horns regularly lyrate, parallel at the base,' face of adult 

white. 

3. Damalis Pygarga. The Bonte Boc. 

Purple red, outside of limb dark ; rump and face white : fawn pale 
yellowish brown. 

Antilope Pygarga, Pallas. — Bonte Boc or Pied Antelope, Gazella 
Pygarga, Harris, W. A. A. t. 17. — Bubalis Pygarga, Sundev. — 
A. Dorcas, Pallas. — Antilope (Gazella) Pygarga, H. Smith. — Da- 
malis Pygarga, Gray, Knows. Menag. 21. t. 20. f. 3, young; t. 22. 
f. 2 & 3, adult. 

Half-grown, face whitish. 

A. personata, "Wood, Zool. Journ. ii. t. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Brit. Mus. 

Male : bright purple red, face whitish, dark-edged, with a dark- 
edged white streak to between the horns ; legs whitish, upper and 
lower part brown varied ; temple and upper part of the throat 
whitish ; rump to above the tail pure white ; tear-bag round, distinct, 
moist. The female is similar, but the throat and under part of the 



224 Zoological Society. 

body are white. These animals are often brought to the Cape market 
for food. 

4. Damalis albifrons. The Bless Bock. 

Purplish red ; face and back of thighs white ; rump like back. 

Bless bok or Antilope albifrons, Burchell, Trav. ii. 335 ? ; Harris, 
W. A. A. t. 21. — Bubalis albifrons, Sundev. — Damalis albifrons, 
Gray, Knows. Menag. 22. t. 22. f. 1, half-grown. 

Inhabits S. Africa. 

A half-grown specimen was darker, with a pale spot between the 
horns, separated by a dark spot from the white on the face ; the 
temple was white, with a white spot ; the legs had a brown stripe 
down the outer side of the front ; and the throat and rump brown, 
the latter without any white spot. 

Dr. Burchell, when speaking of the Bless bock, proposed to call it 
A. albifrons, as the name Pygarga has been used for both the 
Springer and the Bless bock ; but it is not certain if he intended by 
Bless bock this or the preceding species. Captain Harris's figure 
shows the distinction of the species. 

**** Horn unknown. 

5. Damalis? Zebra. The Doria. 

Bright golden brown, with numerous black cross bands narrowing 
at the sides ; outer sides of fore and hind legs dark. 

Antilope Zebra, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1836. — A. Doria, Ogilby, 
P. Z. S. 1836, 121 ; Frazer, Z. T. t. .— A. Zebrata, Robert.— 
Viverra Zebra, Whitfield's MSS. — Cephalophusl zebra, Gray, Cat. 
Mam. B. M. — Damalis% zebra, Gray, Knows. Menag. 22. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Gambia. Brit. Mus. 

Skins without head and feet are alone known ; they are brought 
down by the negroes. In the Catalogue of the Mammalia in the 
British Museum I have referred this species with doubt to Cephalo- 
phus. Mr. Ogilby (P. Z. S. 1836, 121) thinks it should be referred 
with the Harness Antelopes to Calliope. I am inclined, on account 
of the dark mark on the outside of the limb, to think it belongs to 
the genus Damalis. Mr. Whitfield believes it to be a species of 
Viverra. 

THE STREPSICERES. 

The animals of this family are peculiar as being the only hollow- 
horned or Bovine Ruminants which are marked with white stripes 
and spots. The bands are not very distinct in the Impoofo or Eland, 
but they are easily to be observed in the female, if it is looked at ob- 
liquely, which was brought home by Burke, and presented to the 
British Museum by the Earl of Derby. Their nostrils are near to- 
gether in front. They have four teats in a small udder. The horns 
generally incline backwards from their base ; the skull, which some- 
what resembles that of the Deer, has a rather small nasal opening, 
no suborbital pit, and only a small suborbital fissure. 

Colonel H. Smith forms of the larger species three of his four sub- 



Zoological Society. 225 

genera of Bamalis : he places the smaller kinds as a subgenus (Trag- 
elaphus) of Antelopes. 

Prof. Sundevall placed the genera I have here brought together in 
two different families ; the genus Portax with the Bovina, and the 
others in the Sylvicaprina, or True Antelopes. 

The African genera have large heavy horns, only the rudiments 
of a tear-bag, and their limbs are nearly equal ; they have no sup- 
plementary lobes to the grinders, and the eentral cutting-teeth are 
enlarged above. 

a. The nose hairy, cervine, with only a small moist naked space be- 
tween the edges of the nostrils, and a narrow streak on the 
upper Up ; the body is large, heavy ; the neck is maned. 

I. Strepsiceros, H. Smith; Calliope, Ogilby; Tragelaphus, sp. 

Blainv. 
Horns large, heavy, spirally twisted, keeled in front ; tear-bag a 
naked space ; throat with a central, linear mane : female hornless. 

1. Strepsiceros Kudu. The Eechlongole or Koodoo. 
The horns diverge from the line of the forehead, and have two 

twists ; the calf is marked like the adult. 

Antilope Strepsiceros, Pallas. — Bamalis (Strepsiceros) Strepsice- 
ros, H. Smith, G. A. K. — A. Tendal, Riippell, Abyss. 22 ; Fischer, 
Syn. 475. — Strepsiceros Kudu, Gray, Cat. B. M.; Knowsley Menag. 
26. t. 24. f. 2, young.— S. Capensis, Harris, W. A, A. t. 20.— S. ex- 
celsus, Sundev. — Striped Antelope, Penn. — Comdoma, Buffon, H. N. 
xii. t. 39; Supp. vi. t. 13. 

Inhabits S. Africa. Mus. Brit. 

Far. Smaller. 

Inhab. Abyssinia. Mus. E. India Company, adult. Mus. Frank- 
fort, adult and young. 

2. Oreas, Desm.; Boselaphus, sp. Blainv., Gray; Bamalis 

{Boselaphus), sp. H. Smith; Bamalis, Sundev. 

Horns large, erect, slightly curved, with a spiral keel ; throat with 
a longitudinal, crested dewlap ; hoofs narrowed in front. Female 
with smaller, thinner horns. 

I formerly adopted the name of Boselaphus, which Blainville had 
used for the genus, but Ray had previously applied this name to the 
Bubale, and Desmarest has formed a subgenus specially for it under 
the name of Oreas. 

1. Oreas Canna. The Impoofo or Eland, 

Pale brown ; throat and beneath whitish. 

Antilope Oreas, Pallas. — Bamalis (Boselaphus) Oreas, H. Smith, 
G. A. K. t. 2dO.—A. Oryx, Pallas, Misc. 9.— D. Boselaphus Canna, 
H. Smith, G. A. K. 1. 181 . f. 5, horn <$ . — Oreas Canna, Gray, Knows. 
Menag. 27. t. 26, 27.—Coudou, Buifon, H. N. xii. t. 46 b.— Canna, 
Buifon, Supp. iii. t. 12. —Eland, Kolbe, Sparmann, K. Vet. Handl. 
1 779, t. 8 ; Harris, W. A. A. t. 6 ; Daniel, Afr. Seen. t. . 

Inhabits S. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope (Sparmann). Brit. Mus. 

This Antelope has much the character of the Oxen, and Dr. Bur- 
Ann $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 15 



226 Zoological Society. 

chell informs me that it is the hest food of any of the genus at the 
Cape, being the only one which is moist and has any fat intermixed 
with the muscle ; the flesh of the others is dry and hard. At Knows- 
ley it breeds with the facility of domestic cattle, but they are ravenous 
feeders, and appear liable to an epidemic. 

It should be remarked that the skin of the specimen shot by Burke 
at the Cape (the female especially) shows several pale whitish cross- 
bands on the hinder half of the body, similar to the streaks on the 
Koodoo, showing the affinity of this animal to that species ; but I 
could not observe these bands in the living specimens at Knowsley 
Park. 

2. Oreas Derbianus. The Ging-e-Jonga. 

Pale reddish brown ; front of the face, the neck, the front part of 
the under side, a spot on the front and hinder side of the upper part 
of the fore- leg, the dorsal streak, dark black ; the belly, the front and 
back edge of the upper part of the legs and under side of tail whitish ; 
a broad half-collar in front of the shoulder, narrowed above ; fourteen 
or fifteen narrow, waved, perpendicular streaks on each side of the 
body white ; withers with intermixed black hairs : female, throat dark 
brown ; crown reddish brown. 

Boselaphus Derbianus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. Hist. xx. 286 ; 
Silliman's Amer. Journ. v. 279. — Oreas Derbianus, Gray, Knowsley 
Menag. 27. t. 25. 

Inhabits W. Africa ; river Casaman. Called Ging-e-jonga. Mr. 
Whitfield. Brit. Mus. Imperfect skin of male and female, and horns. 

b. The nose bovine, with a large coriaceous moist muffle, and a 
narrow bald space on the upper lip. The animals have very 
slender, elegant legs; small hoofs and false hoofs; conical, 
subangular horns ; with an oblique, indistinct keel. 

3. Tragelaphus ; Antilope (Tragelaphus), Blainv., H. Smith. 

Horns conical, subangular ; tear-bag distinct ; nape and back with 
a more or less distinct mane : they are brown ; with spots on 
haunches, crescent on chest, and inside of legs white, and a dark 
dorsal stripe. 

* Face with a curved band between the eyes ; horns large ; 
back cross-banded. Euryceros. 

1. Tragelaphus Euryceros. The Euryceros. 

Head pale brown ; broad band before the eyes, and two large spots 
on cheeks, chin and front of upper lip white ; horns elongate, thick, 
scarcely bent forward at the tip ; throat with long black hairs. 

Antilope Eurycerus, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 120.— A., n. sp., Afze- 
lius, N. Act. Upsal. vii. 269. t. 8. f. 3 ; H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 361. 
— Tragelaphus Euryceros, Gray, Knows. Menag. 27. t. 23. f. 1, horns. 

Inhabits W. Africa. Horns in Brit. Mus. and Zool. Soc. 

2. Tragelaphus Angasii. The Inyala. 

Black ; back with a dorsal streak and four or five bands on each 
side ; head blackish ; narrow band before eyes, two small spots on 



Zoological Society. 227 

cheeks, front of upper lip and chin white ; forehead and feet bay ; 
throat with a mane of long rigid blackish hair ; horns rather slender, 
elongate, rather bent forward at the tip ; female bay, with many white 
bands. 

Tragelaphus Angasii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1848, 89. t. 4 & 5, male, fe- 
male and young ; Knows. Menag. 27. 

Inhabits S. Africa ; Port Natal. Brit. Mus. male, imperfect skin. 

** Face without any frontal streak; horns small, 
f Back with transverse white stripes. 

3. Tragelaphus scriptus. The Zalofes or Harness Ante- 
lope. 

Pale bay ; back with four cross-bands and a central white streak ; 
haunches white spotted ; cheek with two white spots ; spot on chest, 
nose, feet, and spots on the legs blackish ; dorsal streak and end of 
tail black. Adult : chest and outside of shoulder and haunches and 
legs black : the male with a high ridge of long, coarse white hair ex- 
tending the whole length of the back to the tail. 

Antilope scripta, Pallas, Misc. 8. — Antilope {Tragelaphus) scripta, 
H. Smith. — A. maculata, Thunb. — A. (Tragelaphus) Phalerata, 
H. Smith. — Tragelaphus scripta, Gray, Knows. Menag. 28. t. 28. — 
The Harness Antelope, Pennant, Syn. 27 .—Guib, Buffon, H. N. xii. 
305, 307. t. 40. t. 41. f. 1 ; F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. t. ; Diet. Scl 
Nat. t. . 

Inhabits W. Africa ; Senegal and Gambia. Called Oualo/es or 
Zalofes. 

The dark colour of the chest and outside of the limbs, and the 
high crest of the male, are not developed until they are four or more 
years old. 

This species varies in some having seven and others nine white 
cross-bands, and some are spotted and others not ; but they breed 
together, and the produce is often a different variety from the parent. 

They breed constantly at Knowsley : in May 1845 they had a small 
herd of two males and four females, three of which were expected to 
bear young. 

4. Tragelaphus Decula. The Decula. 

Grey brown ; back with three or four indistinct cross-bands ; an 
arched streak on upper part of side, a few spots forming an arch on 
the haunches ; dorsal line, streak on nose, and in front of fore-legs 
blackish. 

Antilope Decula, Riippell, Abyss, t.4. — Tragelaphus Decula, Gray, 
Knows. Menag. 28. 

Far. Back without the cross-bands. 

Inhabits Africa ; Abyssinia (Riippell) . 

ff Back without any cross-bands or lateral streak. 

5. Tragelaphus sylvaticus. The Bosch Boc. 

Blackish brown ; head pale brown ; back, across forehead, black ; 
small spot on haunches, larger spot on insides of legs and on feet 

15* 



228 Zoological Society. 

white ; dorsal line longly crested, black, white varied in. Female 
paler brown. Young : pale bay. 

Antilope sylvatica, Sparmann, Act. Holm. iii. t. 7. — Tragelaphus 
sylvatica, Harris, W. A. A. t. 26 j Gray, Knowsley Menag. 28. — 
Forest Antelope, Pennant. 

Inhabits S. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope. Brit. Mus. 

Var.1 Smaller horns, rather more erect. 

Antelopus Ronleynei (the Serolomoot broque), Ronaleyn ; G. Cum- 
ming, Hunter's Life S. A. ii. 178, 179. 

Inhabits Limpopo. 

Of the two pairs of horns, named by Colonel H. Smith Boselaphus 
canna (a, b, in the List of Mamm. Brit. Mus. 155), the one pair, pre- 
sented by Dr. W. Burchell, is certainly the horns of this species ; the 
other appears to be those of a young male, Strepsiceros Kudu. 

The Asiatic Strepsiceres have a bovine nose, with a large 
coriaceous moist muffle extending over the whole front of the upper 
lip ; small, short, angular horns ; a deep longitudinal tear-bag ; and 
the hind-legs much shorter than the fore-ones ; the skull without any 
suborbital pit, and only a minute fissure ; and with supplementary 
lobes to the grinders. 

4. Portax ; Oreas, sp. Fischer; Tragelaphus, Ogilby ; 
Bamalis {Portax), H. Smith. 

Horns short, conical, angular, with an obscure oblique ridge ; tear- 
bag deep, longitudinal ; shoulders higher than the rump. 

1. Portax tragocamelus. The Nylghau. 

Grey ; under surface, rhombic spot on the forehead and above the 
hoofs black and white ringed; tail, end black. Female browner. 
Young : dull reddish fawn ; lower part of fore -legs brighter ; under 
lip, spot on jaws, and line along belly on inside of legs and fore-part 
of hock, white ; tip of tail, line on back of nose and on front of legs 
black. 

Antilope Trago-eamelus, Pallas, Misc. 5. — A. picta, Pallas, Spicil. 
xiii. 54; Gray, Cat. B. M. — A. albipes, Erxl. 280. — A. leucopus, 
Zimm. Zool. 54 1 . — Damalis (Portax) Risia, H. Smith. — Portax picta, 
Gray, Cat. B. M. — P. Tragocamelus, Gray, Knows. Menag. 28. t. 29. 
— Tragelaphus Hippelaphus, Ogilby. — P. Tragelaphus, Sundev. — 
Biggel, Mandelst. Reise (1658), p. 122. — Tragelaphus Caii, Raii Syn. 
82?; Parsons, Phil. Trans. No. 476. p. 465. t. 3. f. 9.— Nylghau, 
Hunter, Phil. Trans, lxi. 170. t. 5.—Nilghaut, Buffon, H. N. Supp. 
v. t. 10, 11 ; F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. t. . — Indostan Antelope, 

Penn. Syn. 29 .— White-footed Antelope, Penn. Syn. 29. t. 6. f. 1, 2. 

Inhabits India. The Roou of the Mahrattas, the Nylghau of the 
Persians. 

This species has bred at Knowsley. In December 1845 they had 
two calves, both females, making a flock of one male and four fe- 
males : they are in the paddock with the Eland in summer. They 
have also bred in the Gardens of the Zoological Society and in the 
Menagerie of Sir Robert Heron at Shibton. 



Linnaan Society. 229 

LINN^AN SOCIETY. 

January 21, 1 85 1 .-—William Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a memoir " On the various forms of Salicornia." By Joseph 
Woods, Esq., F.L.S. : with some additional remarks by Richard 
Kippist, Esq., Libr. L.S. 

The paper relates almost exclusively to the British species of Sali- 
cornia, and more particularly to those which occur on the coasts of 
Sussex and Hampshire. 

The author begins by noticing what he considers as the typical 
form of S. herbacea. This he describes as always erect, except 
that late in the autumn, the branches, usually spreading or ascending, 
are sometimes borne down by the weight of the fruit-spikes. The 
colour is green, generally glaucous, but never red. The spikes of 
fruit are cylindrical, 2 or 3 inches long, (ten to fifteen times their 
thickness,) and contain from ten to fifteen sets of seeds. 

The second form (S. procumbens, Sm.), which is stated to be 
more common than the first, is described as procumbent, decumbent, 
or ascending, but always with a bend at the top of the root, and 
therefore never erect : the branches and their subdivisions are much 
shorter and more numerous than in the typical form, and at the 
same time much more divaricate, the lower ones especially being 
frequently recurved ; and these lower branches being much longer 
than the succeeding ones, give to the entire plant a triangular out- 
line. The colour at maturity is always red. The spikes hardly 
exceed half an inch in length (about four or five times their own 
thickness) and contain about six sets of seeds each. 

The next form noticed by Mr. Woods, and which he proposes to 
call S. ramosissima, is described as much larger than either of the 
preceding, erect, very much branched and bushy, of a grass-green 
colour, but touched with red, the branches ascending, and the spikes 
not cylindrical cr oblong, but somewhat lanceolate, the longest about 
an inch in length (six or seven times their thickness) and containing 
about the same number of sets of seeds as fif. procumbens. This, 
which appears to be a rare form, was gathered in Haling Island. 

Mr. Woods now proceeds to describe two intermediate forms, 
apparently serving to unite the three preceding. The smallest of 
these, which the author proposes to designate S. pusilla, seems closely 
to resemble <S. procumbens, from which it differs in its smaller size 
and less triangular outline, its erect or suberect branches, the lowest 
of which are neither larger nor more branched than the succeeding 
ones, and in its still shorter spikes, which scarcely exceed ^ inch 
in length, being sometimes almost globular, and containing about 
five sets of seeds. The other form, which the author calls S. intermedia, 
and which is stated to be the most abundant on the muddy salt 
marshes of Sussex, embraces several subvarieties, all of which are 
erect, but vary much in other respects, sometimes resembling S. pu- 
silla, but with much longer and redder spikes ; in other cases ap- 
proaching the typical form of fl», herbacea, in their yellowish green 
colour, hardly tinged with red, cylindrical spikes an inch or morq 



230 Linncean Society. 

in length (eight or nine times their width), but with not more than 
eight or nine sets of seeds ; while others again, in their bushy habit 
and colour, and in the form of their spikes, show an affinity to S. 
ramosissima. 

All the above-mentioned varieties have oval or oblong seeds, about 
half as long again as broad, and thinly covered with hooked hairs, 
upon an even surface. In the two following the seeds are shorter, 
nearly globular, but covered in the same manner with hooked hairs. 

5. radicans, the next species, is described as differing exceedingly 
in its mode of growth from any of the foregoing. In all these the 
root is evidently annual, and produces a single stem, which is hard, 
and in 5. ramosissima may fairly be called woody. In S. radicans, 
however, a small plant, with only one or two branches, rises at first 
from the seed. The stem of this lies down, and, generally burying 
itself in the mud, sends out radical fibres and new shoots. The 
process is continued from year to year, the old stems of one year 
becoming the rhizomes of the next, and these successively dying 
away as new rhizomes are formed, thus producing a very rambling 
and diffuse plant. In the preceding forms, every branch and sub- 
division is terminated by a spike of flowers. In S. radicans many are 
barren. The spikes, when they occur, are sometimes interrupted, 
half an inch to an inch long, and composed of about six joints. The 
colour is a dull greyish green ; with the ends of the spikes brownish, 
but never red. Though much less abundant than the first, second, 
and fourth forms, it is by no means rare in the muddy creeks of 
Sussex and Hants. 

The last form mentioned, under the name S. lignosa, bears some 
resemblance in its diffuse mode of growth to S. radicans, and Mr. 
Woods found some indications of radical fibres from the lower part 
of the stem, but was unable to ascertain positively the existence of 
a creeping rhizome. It differs however from &. radicans in the 
thickness, and firm solid structure of the lower part of the stem, 
which as in every European species is destitute of annual rings, and 
attains its thickness and hardness in the course of one year. From 
S.fruticosa, L., to which it approaches nearly in many respects, it 
is distinguished by the multitude of its slender branches, and pro- 
bably also by the structure of its seed, which Koch and Bertoloni 
describe as tubercled and not hairy in S.fruticosa. The spikes of 
our English plant are an inch or a little more in length, and about 
six times their width : those of the true S. fruticosa are usually 
both absolutely and relatively longer. 

Mr. Woods next makes some observations on the synonymy of the 
Salicornias described by Ray, who appears originally to have admitted 
but two species ; the first including all the forms of S. herbacea and 
also S.procumbens ; the second attributed by Smith to S.fruticosa, L., 
but now generally regarded as S. radicans. To these Dillenius adds 
three others, of which the first, S. myosuroides procumbens, &c, is con- 
sidered by Mr. Woods as S. radicans ; the second, <S. ramosior pro- 
cumbens, &c, as probably S. procumbens, Sm. ; and the third, Si erecta 
foliis brevibus cupressiformis, he refers with some doubt to his S. 
intermedia. 



Linnaan Society. 231 

Then follow some remarks on the characters of Arthrocnemum, a 
genus separated by M. Moquin-Tandon from Salicornia, principally 
on account of the different form of its embryo, and to which he refers 
S '. fruticosa and S. radicans. In all specimens of 5. radicans, and 
in some of what is called S. fruticosa, Mr. Woods finds the seeds 
apparently destitute of albumen, and with the radicle lying against 
the edges of the cotyledons; but in the true S. fruticosa, supposing 
that name to be correctly applied only where the seed is tubercled 
and hairless, he finds a portion of albumen, but the extremity of the 
cotyledons still close to the point of the embryo. 

The author concludes with the following resume : — " If I were 
to sum up the result of my observations of this year on the genus 
Salicornia, I should say that S. procumbens is a distinct species ; that 
S. radicans and S. lignosa are certainly specifically distinct from S. 
herbacea ; but whether they are so from each other, and whether, if 
that be the case, S. lignosa ought not to be considered as a variety 
of S. fruticosa, L., and the plant with tubercled seeds to be called 
S. megastachya, I do not feel competent to decide. The other forms 
of S. pusilla, S. intermedia and S. ramosissima, may perhaps be 
varieties of S. herbacea, but this also is a subject for further investi- 
gation." 

The paper was accompanied by specimens of the various forms 
therein described, for the Society's herbarium ; and a note was added 
by Air. Kippist, Libr. L.S., who at the request of Mr. Woods had 
examined the seeds of the specimens sent. He had found the struc- 
ture of the embryo to be nearly the same in all the British forms ; 
consisting of thick, fleshy, almost semicylindrical, bright green coty- 
ledons, in some species scarcely wider than the radicle, which is bent 
sharply round, and lies not against their edges, but on the back of 
one of them, the radicle being therefore incumbent. In one or two 
instances the cotyledons were found to be inclined rather obliquely 
towards the radicle, but this appeared to be the result of accidental 
pressure, the majority of the seeds examined of each variety pre- 
senting the same character of incumbent cotyledons. In all, the 
albumen was either entirely wanting, or in very small quantity. This 
seems to be equally the case with S. radicans, notwithstanding that 
M. Moquin-Tandon refers this species, as a variety, to his Arthro- 
cnemum fruticosum, to which he ascribes copious albumen. As re- 
gards the structure of the seed, Mr. Kippist agrees with Mr. Woods 
in thinking that the S. radicans, Sm., would be much better placed 
in Salicornia, as defined by Moquin-Tandon, than in his genus Ar- 
throcnemum, to which he attributes a crustaceous testa and semi- 
annular peripherical embryo, characters which Mr. Kippist had not 
met with in any British species. In all the specimens gathered by 
Mr. Woods on our own coast, the covering of the seed is thin and 
membranous, and clothed with hairs, which differ much in length in 
different species. In S. herbacea and the species most nearly related 
to it, they are of a sigmoid form, spreading at the base, but curled 
inwards at their extremity, unbranched, and destitute of septa or 
spiral fibre. They are longest in the form which Mr. Woods calls 
intermedia, much shorter in lignosa, while in radicans, they are so 



232 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

short, and so closely pressed against the integument of the seed, 
that it is difficult to distinguish them : the seeds of this species, 
however, were all obtained from one specimen, and may not have 
been thoroughly ripe. 

In the plant for which Mr. Woods proposes the name of *S*. me- 
gastachya (and which is in all probability a species of Art hr omentum), 
a native of the South of Europe, the structure of the seeds is ex- 
tremely different. The testa is hard, black, and crustaceous, quite 
destitute of hairs, and covered with concentric rows of little tubercles. 
The albumen is very evident, and principally confined to the 
straighter side of the seed, the convex side being occupied by the 
embryo, which is cylindrical and but slightly curved ; the thick, 
fleshy cotyledons, taken together, are about equal in diameter to the 
radicle, which seems to be nearly continuous with them in direc- 
tion, not bent sharply round upon them as in *S\ herbacea, and 
probably in all the true Salicornias* 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

May 15, 1851. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1 . " Biographical Notice of the late Mr. George Don." By Dr. 
Neill. 

2. " List of Plants found in Peebleshire." By George S. Blackie. 
Of the plants included in this list the following may be mentioned : — 
Vicia Orobus, Manor-head ; Galium pusillum ; Pyrola rotundifolia ; 
Primula farinosa ; Betula nana; Sibbaldia procumbens, Manor-head ; 
Saxifraga stellaris ; Aretostaphylos Uva-ursi ; Hymenophyllum tun- 
bridgense, and H. Wilsoni. 

3. " Notice oiExidia hispidula, Berk., used in China as a remedy 
in disease, and also as an article of diet." By Dr. Dill. Dr. Dill 
remarks * — " The fungus was first brought to my notice in Hong 
Kong as a favourite remedy of the Chinese in attacks of dysentery. 
It is used by them in the form of decoction, boiled along with dried 
plums, the latter being added merely to give flavour, &c. to the de- 
coction. The first time 1 ever saw it used was in the case of the 
person who told me of its efficacy in the before-mentioned malady. 
This man, an English gardener, was suffering from a severe attack of 
dysentery, and as his house was a most unhealthy one, I strongly 
advised his going into hospital. He said, before doing so he would 
like to try a Chinese medicine, which had been strongly recommended 
to him by an old Chinaman, a friend of his. I said, 'Take care 
what you do with yourself, for your case won't do to be trifled with/ 
Three days after this I was surprised to find him at his work, and 
well again. ' Sir,' he said, c this medicine has had such a wonderful 
effect upon me, that I have kept some of it to show you.' The spe- 
cimen he then gave me I handed to my Chinese servant, who seemed 
perfectly familiar with it, and speedily obtained me a large supply. 
I then determined to try it in the first case that came before me. A 
few days afterwards a sailor applied to me having chronic dysentery. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 233 

which had been going on for eighteen months. I immediately gave 
him a strong decoction of the fungus, which he took in 2-oz. doses, 
three times a day ; and in eight or ten days he seemed quite cured. 
Being then permitted to go out, he got drunk, was exposed to night 
air, <&c, and had a return of his malady. Again, however, the same 
medicine was employed with the same favourable result, and he 
joined his ship in the enjoyment of recruited health. These two 
cases made me very sanguine of the value of the fungus as a cure in 
diarrhoea and dysentery, but future experience by no means realized 
the hopes I entertained respecting it. Since then I have so often 
found it fail completely, that I now regard it as being inferior in 
efficacy to many of the remedial agents we already possess. Mr. A. 
H. Balfour has also tried it successfully at Hong Kong, but I think 
his experience has been similar to my own. It grows on old, dead 
trees and rotten timber ; hence, and from its shape, the name by 
which it is designated in China — ■ Mok-yii,' the ear of a tree. The 
fungus itself is much prized by them as an article of food on account 
of its mucilaginous properties. They eat it in soups, stews, &c, and 
consider it a great dainty. In taste it is very insipid, but certainly 
not more so than the far-famed bird's nest." 

Dr. Douglas Maclagan exhibited specimens of the plant brought 
from Penang by Mr. W. D. Maclagan. In that country it is called 
Sweekiang, and is used for food. 

4. "On Poisoning with Indian species of Da tura." By Dr. Her- 
bert Giraud, Professor of Chemistry and Materia Medica in Grant 
Medical College, Bombay. Dr. Giraud brought this subject before 
the Medical and Physical Society of Bombay, and the observations 
forming the present paper were communicated to the Botanical 
Society by Dr. Balfour. The very numerous cases of poisoning by 
Datura that have of late occurred in Bombay, have afforded oppor- 
tunities for observing the action of a poison, of which but a scanty 
record is to be found in the standard works on Materia Medica and 
Toxicology. Several species of the genus Datura are indigenous 
throughout India; and "Datura alba ,y (D. metel, Roxb. Flora, i. 
561) and " Datura fastuosa" (Roxb. Flora, i. 561) are found grow- 
ing in gardens and amongst rubbish, about villages, all over the 
country. The intoxicating properties of these plants appear to have 
been known amongst Eastern nations from time immemorial, and they 
have long been employed in India, China (where D.ferox is used), 
and the islands of the Eastern Archipelago to facilitate the commis- 
sion of theft and other crimes ; for which nefarious purposes the 
Datura Stramonium appears, of late years, to have been in some few 
instances employed in France and Germany. Here the cases of 
poisoning by the species of Datura are so frequent, that the natives 
usually recognise them by their characteristic symptoms. It is re- 
markable, that although administered under many different circum- 
stances, and with varied motives, it should so seldom prove fatal 
here, that not a single case, in which the effects of Datura could be 
distinctly traced, has terminated fatally ; and of fifty-one cases that 
were treated in the Bombay Hospital during the past year, only four 



234 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

presented alarming symptoms. Notwithstanding the recent prevalence 
of Datura-poisoning, it has been only on the presumptive evidence of 
its characteristic symptoms that its action has been inferred. The 
poison is administered so stealthily, and the natives are so backward 
in aiding the cause of justice, that it is next to impossible to obtain 
positive evidence of the administration of the poison, or to trace it to 
the culprit ; although, from their familiarity with its nature and 
with the modes of its administration, it is evident that many of the 
lower orders of the people are acquainted with the adepts who employ 
it. These remarks, however, apply, with equal truth, to cases of 
poisoning by such substances as arsenic and corrosive sublimate, the 
presence of which may be determined by the surer methods of che- 
mical analysis. From the information Dr. Giraud has been able to 
collect from natives, it would appear that the seeds are the parts of 
the plant usually administered. They are powdered and thrown into 
rice, bajree, and other grains ; or mixed up with cakes and sweetmeats. 
Sometimes, however, an infusion or decoction of the leaves is prepared 
and introduced into the vessels in which food is being cooked ; but 
of the usual quantities of the seeds employed, or of the strength of 
the infusion and decoction, Dr. Giraud has had no means of judging. 
Of the cause that has produced so sudden and remarkable an increase 
in the use of this poison, it is difficult to form any conjecture. View- 
ing the most prevalent motive to Datura-poisoning, it would seem as 
if some regularly organized band of thieves had, within the last year, 
invaded our island. From 1837 and 1838, when a few cases of 
poisoning supposed to be from Datura were noticed by Drs. Bell and 
M'Lennan, in the annual reports of the Native General Hospital, up 
to 1848, only from six to ten such cases have been annually recorded ; 
but during the past year, fifty-one cases have come under hospital 
treatment. 

In a note received by Dr. Cleghorn from the Superintendent of 
Thuggee in Mysore, it was stated, that the seeds of Datura alba 
were employed by thieves and other rogues to narcotise their victims, 
and deprive them of the power of resistance. 

5. "Report on the State of Vegetation in the Edinburgh Botanic 
Garden." By Mr. M'Nab. 

A note was read from Mr. Babington, stating that Ranunculus 
trichophyllus, mentioned by Mr. Syme as found near Edinburgh, is a 
very common form of R. aquatilis. 

It was stated by Dr. Mitchell, that the plant called by Dr. Howitt 
(Enanthe pimpinelloides, and for which he gives several stations in 
his ' Flora of Nottingham,' is CE. Lachenalii. It is very abundant in 
the blue lias districts. All the Leicestershire stations for CE. pim- 
pinelloides are those of (E. Lachenalii, the former species not being 
found either in Leicestershire or Nottinghamshire. These facts 
render it probable that (E. Lachenalii is not so " rare in fresh water," 
as it is said to be both in Babington' s ' Manual,' and in the last 
edition of Hooker's 'Flora' ; the mistake has doubtless arisen from 
the roots not having been examined. Specimens of the plant were 
sent by Dr. Mitchell. 



Miscellaneous. 235 

Mr. M'Nab exhibited several sections of oak-stems found in the 
course of excavations made at Tanfield, Canonmills, and read the fol- 
lowing notice supplied by Mr. M'Caul, who had superintended the 
operations : — " In the course of excavating a pit for a new gasometer 
nine years ago, a number of oak-stems, the largest 2 feet in diameter, 
were found. In the pit now excavating, and from 80 to 90 feet from 
the one alluded to, two fine trees were found. The position they 
occupied was about 10 feet below the original surface, beneath the 
lowest bed of gravel, and immediately over the boulder clay, their 
direction being nearly east and west. Three of the pieces were lying 
horizontally, and two of them had a rise towards the east at an angle 
of 10°. At the western or lower part of these stems, roots in con- 
nection with them could be traced ; but they mouldered away to the 
touch." 

A specimen of yellow-flowered Hibiscus, raised by Mr. Isaac An- 
derson from seeds sent from China by Colonel Eyre, was exhibited. 
The plant was about 2 feet high and had a woody stem. The leaves 
are hairy, the petals sulphur-yellow, the flower when expanded being 
3 to 4 inches across. The epicalyx consists of eight to ten linear 
sepals, while the calyx consists of two sepals united and thrown to 
one side. 

A specimen of Hyoscyamus raised from seeds communicated to Mr. 
Moore of the Chelsea Botanic Garden by Major Madden, was exhi- 
bited. The plant grows in the Himalaya, and resembles H. albus 
in some respects. In the open border it attains the height of 2 feet. 
It has ovate leaves and terminal cymes. The flowers are of a clingy 
yellow, and the calyx is covered with glandular pubescence. Dr. 
Douglas Maclagan tried the effect of the plant on the eye. A single 
drop of the fresh juice caused dilatation of the pupil in twenty 
minutes, and the dilatation with slight double vision continued for 
twenty-four hours. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

HOLOSTOMUM CUTICOLA. PI. V. figS. 3 & 4. 

Norwich, June 10th, 1851. 
To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, — Should you consider the following notice worthy 
of insertion in the ■ Annals,' you will oblige me by its publication. 
I remain, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, 

Robert Wigham. 

Specimens of the Bream and Roach have long been observed in 
the rivers of this part of the country to be frequently covered with 
black spots, and have been generally considered, when in this condi- 
tion, to be in a diseased state. I have lately examined these spots 
with the microscope, and find them to consist of a collection of 
minute black granules of a branched radiating structure and of a 
confervoid appearance, and which form the outer coat of cysts con- 
taining a transparent membranous cyst in which I found an ani- 



236 Miscellaneous. 

malcule. Not being able to find it described in any British author, 
I sent it to Prof. Allman of Trinity College, Dublin, who kindly 
informed me it is the Holostomum euticola of Nordmann, and is 
described and figured in his * Mikrographische Beitrage,' which work 
has not been yet translated, and that he had not seen it before, and was 
not aware that it had before been observed in Britain. Prof. Allman 
very kindly sent me a neat sketch of the animal, a copy of which I 
inclose. 

PL V. fig. 3. Holostomum euticola, front view under slight compression. 
fig. 4. The same, side view. 

On the Occurrence of Trigonellites in the Upper Chalk at Norwich. 
By T. G. Bayfield. 

Norwich, Aug. 11, 1851. 

Sir, — I have lately obtained from a chalk-pit, near this city, an 
example of the problematic fossil called Trigonellites by Parkinson, 
and Aptychus by Meyer. The specimen exhibits the inner surface 
marked by lines of growth, as in the Oolitic species. In the same 
pit have been found Ammonites per ampins, and another species, which 
are usually rare in the Upper Chalk. This discovery is interesting, as 
it proves the distribution of the Trigonellite to be co-extensive with 
that of the Ammonite, of which it has been regarded as the operculum. 

Yours respectfully,. 

To Br. Francis. T. G. Bayfield* 

LOCALITIES OF RARE BRITISH CRUSTACEA. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Shantalla, Gal way, August 18, I85T. 

Gentlemen, — Allow me to communicate the following localities 
in the county of Galway for some of the rarer British Crustacea : — 

Achceus Cranchii ; in 5 fathoms, Bar of Killeany Bay, Great South 
Island of Aran. 

Pagurus Hyndmani ; 1 common at various depths — 6 to 40 fa- 

P. Icevis ; J thorns. 

P. Forbesii ; one specimen in 20 fathoms, and a second in 35 fa- 
thoms, outside of the Great Isle of Aran. 

Crangon fasciatus ; along with 

Achceus Cranchii. 

Crangon spinosus ; in 20 fathoms, South Sound of Aran. 

C. sculptus ; one specimen in 6 fathoms, off Deer Island, Galway 
Bay, and two in 20 fathoms, South Sound of Aran. 

C. bispinosus 1 ; two specimens in 30 fathoms, limestone gravel 
bottom, outside of the Great Isle of Aran. 

I have no doubt that these specimens are referable to C. bispinosus ; 
but the learned author of the * British Crustacea ' will decide the 
point, as the specimens will shortly be in his possession. 

Nika edulis ; Bertraghboy Bay. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Alexander G. Melville. 



Miscellaneous, 237 

NOTE ON PEDICELLARIA. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Royal Naval Hospital, Haslar, Aug. 8th. 
Gentlemen, — The bodies named Pedicellarise found upon the 
bodies and around the mouths of Echinoderms, have been considered 
by Oken, Forbes, and Sharpey as special organs of the animals on 
which they are found. The discovery by myself of a new species (P. 
volutarum), parasitic on the skin of Voluta vespertilio, will I think 
confirm the opinion of Cuvier and Miiller, that the bodies in question 
are independent parasitic organisms. The specimen obtained I have 
preserved in spirits- I am, Gentlemen, yours very truly, 

Arthur Adams. 

Addendum to Mr. Benson's Paper on Cyclostoma, in the present 
Number, page 191. 

Dr. Pfeiffer, having examined the original specimen of Cyclostoma 
Indicum, now writes that it has nothing in common with C. oculus 
Capri, and that it is distinct also from C. Ceylanicum and stenom- 
phalum, to both of which it is allied. 

TEREBELLA medusa, by c. spence bate. 

The manner in which this animal proceeds to construct its case is 
very interesting to watch. By the long feelers or tentacular cirri 
which surround its head, anything is grasped with which it may 
come into contact, such as minute shells, grains of sand, &c. These, 
upon being drawn near, are placed upon its mouth, the lower edge of 
which forms a prehensile lip. While resting here, it is, I presume, 
that the glutinous substance, which, when dried, forms the mem- 
branous lining of the tube, is poured over it. With its lip the crea- 
ture places the sand upon its back, and then rolls itself over from 
side to side, and again puts forth its tentacula in search of fresh 
building material. 

Their tubes are buried in the sand, to the depth of about a foot 
or more, with one end above and open to the sea, at which extremity 
minuter ones branch oif, giving it an arborescent appearance. 

The tentacular cirri are hollow, crescent-shaped tubes, which are 
extended and retracted by the injection into its centre of a fluid sent 
from the body of the animal. [It is a similar power employed by the 
Nereid Worms to extend the internal mouth of that family.] When 
it seizes anything, it does so, I presume, by exhausting the water from 
the convex side of the crescent-shaped tube, and consequently holds by 
means of the pressure of the surrounding fluid. 

Within its case the Annelid has the power of moving freely and 
turning itself at will. Its progressing movement is performed by 
means of setae, or oars, planted in thick muscular sheaths, which 
enable it to pass freely in one direction, but which, being directed 
backwards, wholly preclude a retrograde movement. The mechanism 
by which this latter power is executed, is by means of a long row of 
minute triple-pointed hooks situated at the base of each set of setae ; 



238 Miscellaneous. 

each hook, which has three points at one extremity, is finished off 
with a blind hook at the opposite end, the whole of which turns upon 
a central hinge, so that the elevation of the blind extremity, which 
is perhaps the ordinary position in which the apparatus rests when 
not employed, precludes the triple-pointed hook from interfering with 
the advancement of the animal in its naturally confined abode ; but 
the instant that the blind or protecting hook is depressed, the sharp 
triple-pointed end becomes a most powerful agent to assist in its 
retiring within its own abode, and is, I believe, the only external in- 
strument belonging to the worm possessed of this capability. 

These hook-like appendages are common to most of the Tubicolce, 
but vary in form and shape, not only with genera, but species. 

The whole internal cavity of the worm, in which the viscera exist, 
is filled by a fluid, by means of which the animal moves ; the loss of 
this entails destruction of motive power, to preclude which, upon 
receiving any external wound, the animal will cut itself, by contrac- 
tion of the annular muscles, above the injury inflicted. It also will 
perform the same act of bisection as a means of escape from the 
grasp of an enemy ; and this is done not only without the loss of any 
particle of fluid, but without any appearance of discomfort or pain to 
the animal. 

The intestinal canal is folded upon itself for about one-third of the 
entire length of the worm, when it joins the outer walls, and is con- 
tinued into a sort of tail or prolongated rectum. The stomach is but 
a slight enlargement of the alimentary passage, which again contracts 
into an oesophagus, the extremity of which is surrounded by a pre- 
hensile muscle, which closes and forms the mouth, surrounding the 
abdominal ridge of which are situated the tentacular cirri. 

The respiratory apparatus consists of arborescent branchial fila- 
ments, three or four upon either side of the head. These receive the 
blood from the abdominal artery, (which is, in truth, a respiratory 
heart, since it injects the blood which it receives from a vascular 
plexus into the branchial apparatus, from whence it is returned to the 
dorsal artery,) which carries it beyond the principal viscera of the 
animal, and then loses itself in small branches upon the walls of the 
animal, and anastomoses with those which cover the alimentary canal. 

Above the gills are situated two ear-like appendages, which seem 
adapted for the purpose of protecting the excessively delicate branchial 
organs from the friction of the tube, occasioned by the creature's 
passing to and fro. 

From the head of the animal to about the lower extremity of the 
stomach is a mass of white granulous material, which I presume to 
be the ovary, and on either side several ducts lead into pear-shaped 
sacs. Within these sacs, early in February, 1 observed active motion 
of the fluid passing as a current in one direction, excited by a power- 
ful set of cilia. All the sacs do not seem to be in the same state of 
advancement ; but the progress of the young creature's development, 
as far as I was able to make out, is as follows : — Some of the particles 
of the fluid existing within the sacs seem to unite into a nucleus, 
which in a short time becomes the earliest formation of the new 



Meteorological Observations. 239 

animal. This little creature is nourished in its earlier stage by the 
introduction within its own system of the parent fluid in which it 
exists. This is done through a circular umbilical pulsating heart, 
which opens by a slit, situated about the centre of the young animal. 
At this early stage the future intestinal canal is not visible, but certain 
oval-shaped cells are apparent in irregular positions, sometimes con- 
nected in chain-like line. 

Shortly, that which I here call umbilical circulation ceases, and the 
young worm moves within the uterine sac ; the intestinal canal becomes 
now more apparent, the oval cells lying more compact, and the whole 
surrounded by a wall. Before this is quite perfect, the young crea- 
ture leaves the sac and passes into a passage or oviduct, one of which 
on either side of the animal traverses the walls of the worm, and opens 
into the rectum, beyond the point where the intestinal tube is incor- 
porated with the outer walls of the worm, and is thus voided. Some- 
times, though rarely, two young worms exist within the same sac. 
The greatest number which one might have is perhaps about a dozen. 
The average number of young found in any specimen at one time is 
three or four. — Report of the Swansea Literary and Scientific Society 
for 1850. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JULY 1851*. 

Chiswick. — July 1. Hazy and mild : rain : cloudy and fine : thunder and light- 
ning, with very heavy rain. 2. Fine : very fine : clear. 3. Uniformly overcast: 
cloudy and tine : densely clouded. 4. Overcast : very fine : clear. 5 — 7. Very 
fine. 8. Cloudy : rain. 9. Cloudy and fine. 10. Rain. 11, 12. Very fine. 

13. Cloudy and fine : overcast : rain. 14. Cloudy : windy. 15. Fine : windy : 
slight rain. 16, 17. Very fine. 18. Cloudy. 19. Fine : rain : constant heavy 
rain in the evening. 20. Cloudy and fine. 21. Very fine. 22. Dry haze : very 
fine. 23. Rain. 24. Heavy rain. 25, 26. Very fine. 27. Cloudy and fine. 
28. Cloudy: rain. 29. Very fine. 30. Foggy : very fine. 31. Hazy : overcast. 

Mean temperature of the month 60 o, 71 

Mean temperature of July 1850 61 '91 

Mean temperature of July for the last twenty-five years . 63 '13 
Average amount of rain in July 2*30 inches. 

Boston.— July 1,2. Fine. 3. Cloudy. 4, 5. Fine. 6,7. Cloudy. 8. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. and p.m. 9. Rain : rain a.m. 10 — 12. Cloudy. 13. Fine: rain p.m. 

14. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 15, 16. Cloudy. 17. Cloudy: rain with 
thunder a.m. 18. Fine. 19. Fine : rain p.m. 20. Cloudy : rain a.m. 21. Fine: 
rain p.m. 22. Fine. 23. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 24. Rain: rain a.m. 
and p.m. 25. Cloudy : rain a.m. and p.m. 26. Cloudy : rain p.m. 27. Fine. 
28. Rain: rain early a.m. 29. Cloudy: rain p m. 30. Cloudy. 31. Cloudy: 
rain p.m. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — July 1. Fog. 2. Cloudy: clear. 3. Clear. 4. 
Cloudy : drizzle. 5. Damp : clear. 6. Damp : drizzle. 7. Drizzle : rain. 
8. Bright: clear. 9. Bright: clear: fine. 10. Drops. 11. Showers: fog. 
12. Rain. 13. Cloudy: rain. 14. Damp. 15. Drizzle : rain. 16. Cloudy. 
17. Damp: drizzle. 18. Bright: fine. 19. Fine. 20. Bright: rain. 21. Drizzle: 
rain: cloudy. 22. Bright : clear : fine. 23. Fine: clear: fine. 24. Cloudy: fine. 
25. Cloudy : drizzle. 26. Cloudy : rain. 27. Drizzle : fine. 28. Rain : cloudy. 
29,30. Cloudy. 31. Rain : drizzle. 

* The observations from the Rev. W. Dunbar of Applegarth Manse have 
not readied us. 






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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 46. OCTOBER 1851. 



XXI. — On the Cidaridse of the Oolites, with a description of some 
new species of that family. By Thomas Wright, M.D. &c* 

[With three Plates.] 

The Echinoderms form the highest class of the radiated animals ; 
it includes organisms which are either fixed or free, composed of 
a regular but very complicated skeleton, secreted by and inclosed 
within organized membranes, and often preserved in admirable 
perfection in the fossiliferous strata of all periods of the earth's 
history. The study of this class, although hitherto much neg- 
lected by geologists, presents many points of importance to the 
progress of their science, for the test of Echinoderms exhibits 
characters of more import and significance than those afforded 
by the shells of Mollusca. Unlike the testaceous covering of that 
class, the test of Echinoderms constitutes an internal and inte- 
gral part of the animal, participating in its life, intimately con- 
nected with the organs of digestion, respiration and generation, 
as well as with those of locomotion and vision, and having in 
consequence many of the distinctive characters of the organism 
impressed upon it. 

In all Echinoderms, the external parts of the body, with the 
organs of locomotion, are disposed around a common centre ; in 
the spherical forms they are arranged in rows like the lines of 
longitude on a terrestrial globe, and the mouth and the anus are 
situated at the opposite poles : the elements of the body are re- 
peated several times in the composition of the skeleton. 

It has been shown by M. Agassizf that the radiated type of 

* Read at Cheltenham at the Meeting of the Cotteswold Naturalists' 
Club, June 24, 1851. 

t Prodrome d'une Monogr. des Echin,, Mem. Soc. de Neuchatel, torn. i. 
p. 168. 

Ann. % Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. ym. 16 



242 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 

structure observable in this class can be resolved into a modi- 
fication of the bilateral symmetry seen in the higher groups of 
the animal kingdom. The elements of the skeleton are arranged 
on two sides of a median line. If we take for example the Spa- 
tangus purpureus, we observe that the test is elongated in the 
direction of the line which connects the mouth with the anus ; the 
mouth being situated at the base and nearer the anterior border 
of the test, whilst the anus occupies an elevated position on the 
posterior border. Were we to make a transverse section of the 
Spatangus, we should have an oral or anterior half, and an anal 
or posterior half; whilst, on the contrary, were we to split the test 
asunder in the line of its long diameter, we should have the right 
half and the left half of the body. The five ambulacral area? are 
unequal. The anterior area is not identical with either of the 
others ; the first pair are symmetrical, but differ from the second 
pair, which are likewise symmetrical ; the bilateral symmetry of 
these oblong Spatangoidse is therefore very evident. In the glo- 
bular forms of Cidaridse, however, a more careful study is requi- 
site to make the demonstration complete. In them the test is 
formed of polygonal plates united together by sutures and di- 
vided into ten segments, of which five are named ambulacral 
arese, and five interambulacral arese, each area being formed of 
two columns of plates ; the ambulacral and interambulacral arese 
alternate with each other, and are separated by ten zones of small 
plates perforated for the passage of tubular retractile organs con- 
nected with locomotion and respiration, and forming the porife- 
rous avenues. 

The test of Echinus sphaera is composed of twenty distinct 
zones of elementary parts, which are narrow at the summit, 
from whence they divide in rays, and gradually increase in 
width towards the circumference or equator, where they are 
widest ; they again contract as they approach the mouth, which 
occupies the base. The symmetrical disposition of these ele- 
mentary zones occasions the radiated form which characterizes 
the Cidaridse. Besides the plates of the ambulacra, interam- 
bulacra, and poriferous avenues, the summit of the test is fur- 
nished with a circle of plates surrounding the anus, composed 
of five larger plates in relation with the generative organs, and 
called ovarial, and five smaller plates disposed between them, in 
which are lodged the organs of vision, and called ocular ; each 
of the ten plates is perforated with a small hole for giving pas- 
sage to the genital ducts and for lodging the eyes. This anal 
circle of plates is called the apical rosette or disc. 

The ovarial plates occupy the summit of the interambulacral 
arese, and the ocular plates the summit of the ambulacral arese ; 
the ovarial plates are not all of equal size or of the same structure ; 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 243 

one is larger and more prominent than the others, presenting a 
spongy porous surface, and called the madreporiform plate ; it 
is placed opposite the ambulacra, which is the analogue of the an- 
terior area in the Spatangus, and occupies therefore the posterior 
border of the apical disc, affording thereby a key for ascertaining 
the antero-posterior diameter of the body ; the other four ovarial 
plates are disposed in pairs before the single madreporiform plate. 
The polygonal plates of both arese are arranged in double ver- 
tical rows, two columns of ambulacral plates alternating with 
two columns of interambulacral plates ; the plates of each pair 
are united by a zigzag suture formed by the re-entrant angles 
of the plates ; the plates of the ambulacra are united to those 
of the interambulacra by minutely serrated edges. The porife- 
rous zones have small plates, the sutures of which cut through 
the centre of the holes, by which arrangement the enlargement 
of the foramina with the growth of the test is provided for. 

The surface of the test is covered with tubercles for supporting 
spines ; these are of two kinds, the principal and the miliary 
tubercles. The principal tubercles are in general raised on mam- 
millated eminences with or without crenulations at their summit, 
and arranged in vertical rows on the sides of the arese between the 
mouth and the anus. The miliary tubercles are much smaller 
and more numerous ; they are not disposed with the same regu- 
larity, but are frequently scattered on the surface of the plates, or 
disposed in circles around the bases of the principal tubercles. 

Each tubercle supports a spine, the size of which corresponds 
with that of its tubercle ; the spines are composed of three distinct 
parts, the stem, the neck, and the articular head. The stem is 
more or less elongated and of various forms ; the head is sur- 
rounded by a raised ridge, and has a concave excavation for its 
articulation with the tubercle ; the head is separated from the 
stem by a smooth neck, the extent of which varies in the differ- 
ent species. The spines present very numerous modifications of 
size, form and sculpture, which are closely connected with specific 
distinctions ; some are elongated, cylindrical, fusiform, or subu- 
late; others are compressed, spatuliform, or triangular ; whilst 
others, on the contrary, are expanded, pyriform or claviform. 

The surface of the spines is smooth, striated, or furnished with 
granules, prickles, or other asperities disposed in regular order or 
scattered at hazard over the stem. The same individual has its 
test occupied with different kinds of spines ; hence the great im- 
portance of obtaining these appendages in connection with the 
test. 

We have made the following estimate of the number of sepa- 
rate pieces which enter into the composition of the test of Echi- 
nus sphara : — 

16* 



244 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 

Interambulacral areae 32 plates in each column 32 X 2 X 5= 320 plates. 
Ambulacral area; 80 do. do. 80x2x5= 800 do. 

Poriferous avenues 160 do. do. 160x2x5=1600 do. 

Apical disc 10 plates 10 do. 

Each interambulacral plate supports 10 tubercles 320 X 10=3200 tubercles. 

Each tubercle supports a moveable spine 3200 spines. 

Each ambulacral plate supports 2 tubercles ... 800 X 2 1600 tubercles. 

Each tubercle supports a moveable spine 1600 spines. 

There are 70 rows of holes in each avenue, 

and in each row these six holes are disposed 

in pairs obliquely 70x6x 10=4200 foramina. 

The mouth in the Cidaridse is situated at the centre of the 
basal surface, and provided with five jaws, each armed with a 
long tooth ; the jaws are united by ligaments and moved by 
numerous muscles belonging to the voluntary class. 

According to Prof. Brunner, the analysis of the test of Echinus 
lividus gave the following result as its chemical composition : — 

Carbonate of lime .... 96-27 

Sulphate of lime 1*53 

Carbonate of magnesia . . . 0*93 



9873 

The fracture of the test and the spines presents a peculiar 
crystalline surface altogether unlike that of the external skeleton 
of other Invertebrata, depending probably on the manner the 
salts of lime and magnesia are deposited in the cells of the ani- 
mal basement membrane. The external and internal surfaces of 
the test are covered by organized membranes, which extend 
through the sutures and invest the spines and pedicellarise, and 
are the producers and the sheath of the test and its appendages. 

The mode by which the spheroidal test of an Urchin main- 
tains its original form, whilst it increases in all directions, is 
easily understood after what we have stated relative to its com- 
position. The viscera of the animal are inclosed in this fra- 
gile and inflexible globular crust, which is never shed like the 
external skeleton of the Crustacea, but grows by a process which 
has some analogy with the expansion of the skull in the verte- 
brate classes. By the division and subdivision of the hollow globe 
into a number of elements inclosed between two layers of mem- 
brane, additions are made to the periphery of the plates, whereby 
they are enlarged and increase in thickness in proportion to the 
requirements of the animal, so that the form of the test is main- 
tained and its expansion provided for at the same time : the dif- 
ference between the test of a young and an old Urchin chiefly 
consists in the number and size of the plates entering into the 
composition of the same. The new plates are developed around 
the oral and anal poles, but chiefly near the latter region, where 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 245 

we may observe in young Urchins small plates loosely connected 
together and supporting incomplete spines. 

The numerous genera of the family Cidaridse are distributed 
by M. Agassiz into four groups : — 

1. The Cidarid^e are characterized by their thick test, nar- 
row ambulacra, and large principal tubercles in the interambu- 
lacral arese. 

2. The Saxenians are characterized by the development of 
their apical disc, and the presence of an additional central or sur- 
anal plate in the same. 

3. The Echinid^: have a thin test, and numerous small 
principal tubercles in the ambulacral and interambulacral arese. 

4. The Echinometrans have an elongated oblong form in a 
direction oblique to the antero-posterior diameter of the test. 

Family Cidarid^e*. 

Form circular. Mouth central, situated at the inferior pole, 
closed by a buccal membrane which is either naked or covered 
with granules. Anus opposite the mouth, opening in a ring 
composed of ten plates, five of which appertain to the genital, 
and five to the visual organs. The antero-posterior diameter is 
indicated by the median madreporiform body which becomes 
united to the single ovarial plate. The plates of the test sup- 
port tubercles disposed in regular order for carrying moveable 
spines of various forms, some of which are proportionably large. 
The organs of mastication consist of five jaws, each armed with 
a long tooth. This framework is articulated to the test by several 
arched processes called auricles. 

Genus Cidaris, Lamk. 
Form circular, test thick, flattened at both poles. Ambulacral 
arese narrow, about one-fourth the diameter of the interambulacral 
arese, and covered with small close-set granules. Pores disposed 
in simple pairs. The principal tubercles in the interambulacral 
columns are perforated, and carry large heavy spines which are 
smooth or furrowed, spiny or granular. The ovarial plates are 
large, pentagonal and equal ; the ocular plates are small and tri- 
angular, and wedged between the ovarial. The mouth is cir- 
cular and without indentations ; the buccal membrane is covered 
with imbricated scales upon which the ambulacral pores extend. 
Jaws powerful, composed of five pyramids, the branches of 

* The group of Cidaridsc includes six genera : Cidaris, Lam., Gonioci- 
daris, Desor, Hemicidaris, Agass., Acrocidaris, Agass., Acropeltis, Agass., 
Palteocidaris, Agass. 



246 Dr.T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 

which are not united at their summits. Teeth channelled, not 
carinated on their internal surface. This genus admits of a na- 
tural division into two types; in the one the tubercles are 
smooth, in the other they are crenulated at their base. 

The first type. — Tubercles with the base not crenulated. Are 
found in our present seas, and fossil in the carboniferous, triasic, 
cretaceous, and tertiary rocks. They are not found in the Oolitic 
strata, to which group the present paper is restricted. 

The second type. — Tubercles with the base crenulated. Com- 
prehends oolitic and triasic forms. 

The circular mouth without indentations serves to distinguish 
the genus Cidaris from the genus Hemicidaris. The form of 
the ambulacral arese, the number and arrangement of the gra- 
nules on the same, the size of the tubercles, and the number of 
their crenulations afford good specific characters. The ovarial and 
ocular plates are seldom preserved. The lantern and teeth ought 
to be carefully studied, as they are sometimes found detached ; 
the spines likewise yield good specific characters, but they are 
seldom preserved along with the test. 

Cidaris Fowleri, Wright, n. sp. PI. XL fig. 5 a, b, c. 

Test spheroidal, depressed at both poles ; ambulacral area? flat, 
narrow and undulated, furnished with two rows of small, re- 
gular marginal granules and two rows of central blunt irregular 
microscopic granules ; poriferous avenues wide ; pores oblong 
and distant ; interambulacral areas furnished with two rows of 
from 8-10 principal tubercles ; intertubercular spaces wide and 
covered with small granulations ; spines large, with irregular 
forward- directed prickles. 

Height 1 inch yoth, transverse diameter 1 inch and y^ths. 
Specimens from the upper stages of the Oolites measure in 
height 1 inch and T 8 Qths, transverse diameter 2 inches and y^ths. 

Description. — This beautiful Urchin has been catalogued as 
C. coronata, but it presents characters very distinct from that 
form ; a fact which has been ascertained by comparing C. Fowleri 
with the typical specimens of C. coronata in the British Museum : 
the latter species has hitherto been found only in France, Germany, 
and Switzerland, and figured in the works of Goldfuss, Agassiz, 
and Cotteau. In the Swiss Jura C. coronata characterizes the 
terrain k chailles, a local formation, the greatest similarity to 
which exists palseontologically with the lower calcareous grit of 
Yorkshire ; in l'Albe Wurtembergeoise it appertains to the Coral- 
line Oolite. 

The ambulacral arese of C. Fowleri arc slightly serpentine and 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridae of the Oolites. 247 

ribbon-shaped, and nearly of a uniform breadth throughout. 
The poriferous avenues are broad ; the pores are oblong and set 
in pairs in a single file at short distances apart. The areae are 
flat, slightly raised, and have four rows of granules ; the external 
rows consist of larger granules, which range regularly on the 
margins of the area?; the internal rows consist of small, flat, 
almost microscopic granules; there are fifteen pairs of holes 
opposite each of the large tubercular plates. 

The interambulacral area? are formed of broad plates ; the zig- 
zag median sutural line is very clearly defined ; each column 
contains from eight to ten primary tubercles, so that the test of 
this Urchin supports from 80 to 100 large spines. Each plate 
is occupied with a smooth areola slightly furrowed at its cir- 
cumference and raised into a boss towards the centre. The sum- 
mit of the boss is sculptured with fifteen deep crenulations ; 
from the boss arises a short cylindrical stem terminated by a 
small hemispherical deeply perforated spinigerous tubercle, the 
diameter of which exceeds a little that of its stem ; the margin 
of each areola is bounded by a circle of fifteen prominent gra- 
nules, some of which from the equator to the anal pole are raised 
upon broader bases. There is a granular circle around each 
areola, but from the equator to the buccal pole one row of gra- 
nules is common to two areolae. The interareolar spaces are 
covered with small close-set granules of two different sizes. The 
mouth is large, and is half the diameter of the test at the equator. 
In the specimen before me the five strong pyramids of the lan- 
tern are armed with conical triangular teeth in situ. The anal 
disc was broken in all the specimens hitherto found. 

The spines are never seen attached to the test, but in the same 
bed and lying near some of these Urchins, long cylindrical slightly 
flattened spines have been found about 1$ inch in length and 
from 2 to 3 lines in diameter, with a crenulated base, short neck, 
and having the surface of the flattened stem covered with short 
sharp prickles, the points of which are directed forwards ; these 
spines most probably belonged to C. Fowleri, as it is the only 
Urchin found in the same bed whose test could support such 
large spines (fig. 5 c). 

Affinities and differences. — Cidaris Fowleri resembles C. Blu- 
menbachii in the general form and structure of the test, but it 
differs from that well-known species in the flatness of the am- 
bulacral areae, in the greater breadth of the poriferous avenues, 
and in having a greater number of plates in the interambulacral 
columns ; the granulated space between the principal tubercles 
is wider, and the granular wreath encircling the areolae is like- 
wise composed of smaller granules. It differs from C. Parandieri, 
Ag., in having a greater number of tubercular plates in the 



248 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridae of the Oolites. 

interambulacral areae. It resembles C. maxima, Goldf., in the 
general outline of the test, the width of the granular spaces be- 
tween the tubercles, and in the spines supposed to belong to 
C. Fowleri being armed with short forward-directed prickly pro- 
cesses like those of C. maxima. It differs from C. propinqua in 
having a greater number of plates in the interambulacral areae. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — Cidaris Fowleri was ob- 
tained from the ferruginous beds of the Pea-grit at Crickley Hill. 
I have dedicated this beautiful species to my friend Charles 
Fowler, Esq., who obtained two fine specimens from this locality, 
and to whose generosity I am indebted for the one which has 
served for my description and enriches my cabinet. 

Cidaris Blumenbachii, Munster. 

Syn. Cidarites Blumenbachii, Munst. ; Goldfuss, Petref. Germanise, 

t. 39. p. 117. 
Cidaris Blumenbachii, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. 2nd part, t. 21. p. 61 ; 

Park. Org. Rem. vol. iii. t. 4. fig. 15. 
Cidaris fiorigemma, Phillips, Geol. of York. t. 3. fig. 12. 
Cidarites Blumenbachii, Munst. ; Cotteau, Etudes Echin. Foss. t. 10. 

p. 108. 

Test circular, inflated at the sides and depressed at the poles ; 
ambulacral areae narrow, elevated, undulated, and furnished 
with four rows of granules ; interambulacral areae with two rows 
of from six to seven tubercles ; areolae approximated, elliptical 
and excavated, and surrounded by a circle of small tubercles ; 
spines large, thick, subcylindrical, and ornamented with longi- 
tudinal rows of granules ; neck short and smooth. 

Height 1 inch and T 4 oths, transverse diameter 2 inches ; spines 
1 inch and T 8 oths in length, and y^ths of an inch in diameter. 

Description. — This typical species was very abundant in the 
seas which deposited the Coralline Oolites of Europe. It has a 
globular form considerably depressed at the poles ; the ambulacral 
areae are narrow, nearly of a uniform breadth throughout ; they 
are much undulated and furnished with four rows of granules ; 
the external rows are larger, more regular and prominent, and 
more developed towards the base than the internal rows. The 
poriferous avenues follow the undulations of the areae; they 
are narrow, and lie in a groove formed by the prominent gra- 
nules of the ambulacral and the external marginal granules of 
the interambulacral area?. The interambulacral areae are five 
times as wide as the ambulacral, and are occupied with two rows 
of large prominent tubercles from six to seven in each row, which 
are supported on large mammillary eminences gradually rising 
from smooth elliptical areolae. The mammae at their summits 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 249 

are sculptured with from ] 8-20 crenulations, and the areolae are 
separated from each other by a circle of granules made more 
prominent, inasmuch as they are raised on oval elevations of the 
test. The principal tubercles are small and closely set together 
at the base, but at the equator, and always at the upper part of 
the test, they become largely developed; the narrow central 
space between the ranges of the large tubercles is occupied with 
an abundant granulation, the granules of which are smaller, 
however, than those encircling the areolae. 

The mouth is armed with powerful jaws and teeth, which are 
not, however, preserved in the specimens before me; the apical 
disc is unknown. 

The spines attain a great size ; they have an elongated thick 
subcylindrical form which suddenly expands above the neck, and 
then gradually tapers towards the apex ; their surface is covered 
with small granulations, very uniform in size and disposed in lon- 
gitudinal rows ; the tubercles of the adjoining rows alternate, and 
each series is connected by a filament which passes from one 
tubercle to another ; at the summit of the spine the granules 
become elongated, and expand to form a radiated star-like disc ; 
the neck of the spine is short and smooth, the articulating head 
is small, and the rim of the acetabulum is encircled with crenu- 
lations. 

Affinities and differences. — C. Blumenbachii is distinguished 
from C. Fowleri in the extreme narrowness of the ambulacral areae, 
the size and prominence of the granules which cover the same, 
and in the closer approximation of the pairs of pores in the avenues. 
The interambulacral areae are wider, whilst the central granular 
space between the tubercles is narrower ; there are fewer ranges 
of tubercles in the areae, and the areolae are encircled by much 
larger granules ; but it is in the structure of the spines that the 
greatest difference is observed : instead of the well-known regular 
form of the tubercles so constant in the spines of C. Blumenbachii, 
the spines of C. Fowleri are compressed and covered with irregular 
rows of prickles. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This Urchin is very cha- 
racteristic of the Coralline Oolites of Wilts, Oxfordshire, and 
Yorkshire ; we have never seen it either in the Inferior or the 
Great Oolite ; our specimens are from the Coral Rag of Wiltshire ; 
it occurs in France in the corallian stages of Chatel-Censoir and 
Druyes and in the environs of Tonnerre, and at Bailly and at 
Courson *. In Germany it was found at Thurnau and Muggen- 
dorf f ; in the coralline Oolite of Hildesheim in the kingdom of 
Hanover % ; in Switzerland in the terrain h chailles of Fringelli, 

* Cotteau, Echin. Foss. p. 110. f Goldfuss, Pctr. Germanise, p. 117. 
X A. Roemer, Norddeutsches Oolithen Gebirge. 



250 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 

Wahlen, and Gunsberg in the canton of Soleure, and in the 
white corallian of Hoggerwald *. 

History. — This beautiful species was long ago figured by 
Parkinson in his f Organic Remains/ afterwards it was most 
accurately figured and described by Goldfuss in his ' Petrefacta/ 
and subsequently by Agassiz, Phillips, and Cotteau, in their re- 
spective works. 

Cidaris propinqua, Minister. PL XL fig. 6. 

Syn. Cidarites propinquus, Miinst. ; Goldfuss, Petrefact. German. 

p. 119. t. 40. fig. 1, 2 ; Agassiz, Prodrom. Echin. p. 21 ; Echi- 

noderm. Foss. Suisse, p. 62. t. 21. fig. 5-10 ; Desmoulins, Tabl. 

Synop. p. 328, No. 17. 
Cidaris monilifera, Agassiz, Catal. Syst. Ectyp. Neoc. p. 9. 
Cidaris coronata,Y&Y. minor, Agassiz andDesor, Cat. raisonne desEchi- 

nides ; Cotteau, Echinides Foss. du Depart, de PYonne, p. 104. 

Test thick, circular, and depressed at the poles ; ambulacral area? 
narrow, sinuous, and furnished with two rows of small round 
prominent granules ; interambulacral area? with two rows of 
large prominent tubercles, six in each row, raised on small 
mammillary eminences with smooth summits ; " spines with a 
short neck and a thick granulated stem ;" apical disc unknown. 
Height T 6 oths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch. 
Description. — This Urchin resembles in many points the pre- 
ceding species, but exhibits characters very distinct from it. The 
ambulacral area? are extremely narrow and serpentine, having 
two rows of small prominent granules arranged on the margins 
of the area?, with a few central microscopic ones between them 
about the equator. The pores are placed in rather deep winding 
avenues, closely and obliquely together in single pairs. The in- 
terambulacral area? are nearly five times the width of the ambu- 
lacral, and furnished with two rows of tubercles, six in each row ; 
they are large, prominent, slightly perforated, and nearly sphe- 
rical ; the mammillated eminences on which they are supported 
being disproportionately small, and having smooth and convex 
summits, unlike the crenulated summits observed in the mamma? 
of other Oolitic Cidarida. The specimen before us is too much 
injured to enable us to state whether any rudimentary sculpture 
surrounds the summits of the mamma? on the superior surface 
of the test, as is the case in the Swiss and German specimens. 
The areola? are shallow and nearly of a circular form, their mar- 
gins being encircled by a wreath of twelve small round promi- 
nent granules supported on little eminences, and forming a 
distinct beaded boundary for each tubercle. The median space 
down the centre of the area? is slightly concave, and filled with 
* Agassiz, Echin. Foss. Suisse. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 251 

granules of a much smaller size than those encircling the margins 
of the areolae. The mouth- opening is circular and about one-half 
the diameter of the test at the equator ; the tubercles surround- 
ing the mouth are well developed, but smaller than those occu- 
pying the middle and upper part of the test. The apical disc is 
absent, but the space which it filled is of considerable diameter. 
The spines have not been met with in our locality. 

Affinities and differences . — C. propinqua so nearly resembles 
C. coronata, that although it was described as a distinct species 
by Agassiz in his l Echinoderm. Eoss. de la Suisse/ it was after- 
wards grouped as var. minor of C. coronata in the ' Catalogue 
raisonne des Echinides * } of the same author. The test of this 
Urchin has unquestionably a very close resemblance to C. coro- 
nata, but a fact mentioned by Goldfuss should not be overlooked ; 
he found peculiar spines associated only with C. propinqua, which 
never occurred with C. coronataf. The extreme narrowness of 
the ambulacral arese with the two marginal rows of granules 
likewise distinguish it from C. coronata, which has six rows in 
the same arese. In the absence of crenulations from the mam- 
millary eminences on the lower part of the test, together with the 
bead-like granular circle around the areolae, it resembles C. coro- 
nata. Not having a specimen of that species in our cabinet with 
which to compare the specimen before us, we are unable to pur- 
sue the comparison further. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — Whilst searching the Pea- 
grit of Crickley Hill to find a more perfect specimen of Gonio- 
pygus for Mr. Baily to figure, I discovered C. propinqua, having 
only seen a defaced specimen once before from the same bed and 
locality, which was too much worn to be identified. We have never 
seen this species in any collection of Inferior Oolite fossils, and 
from the pains we have taken to ascertain the different species 
found in the Cotteswold Hills, it must be rare ; it occurs in the 
Stonesfield slate at Eyeford, but is very rare J. In Germany it 
was found by Count Minister in the Baireutheschen Jurakalke, 
principally in the vicinity of Streitberg§. In Switzerland it oc- 
curs in the Terrain h chailles in the environs of Besancon, Bale, 
Randen, and Sirchingen || . In France it was collected by M. Cot- 
teau from the corallian stage at Druyes, but always in the state 
of moulds, the specimens being of small size and having very 
narrow ambulacral arese ^[. 

* Annates des Sciences Nat. torn. vi. 3rd series, p. 331. 
f Goldfuss, Petrefact. part 1. p. 120. 

% Sir R. Murchison, Geol. of Cheltenham, 2nd ed., by Buckman and 
Strickland, p. 68. 

§ Goldfuss, Petrefact. German, part 1. p. 120. 

II Annates des Sciences Nat. torn. vi. 3rd series, p. 331. 



IT Echinides Foss. du Depart, de l'Yonne, p. 10' 



i 



252 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

History. — First figured and described by Goldfuss in his f Pe- 
trefacta Germanise/ and afterwards by Agassiz in his ( Description 
des Echinodermes Foss. de la Suisse/ and now figured and de- 
scribed as a British fossil from the Inferior Oolite near Chelten- 
ham for the first time. 

Genus Hemicidaris (Agassiz). 

Test subglobose, more or less flattened at the poles. Ambu- 
lacral areas narrow and sinuous, furnished with primary tubercles 
on the lower fourth part of each area, which suddenly diminish 
into small tubercles or granules above, set more or less closely 
together like those in the areas of Cidaris. Interambulacral areas 
much larger than the ambulacra!, widest at the equator of the 
test and narrowest at the poles ; around the circumference of the 
mouth they are about the same breadth as those of the ambu- 
lacral areas. 

The primary tubercles of the interambulacral areas are raised 
upon large prominent mammillary eminences, having a crenu- 
lated margin encircling the base of the tubercle ; the equatorial 
plates carry the largest mammillary eminences. Pores biserial, ex- 
cept near the mouth, where they are triserial. Mouth large, with 
decagonal indentations around its circumference. Anus central, 
surrounded by a solid circle of ten plates which are often well 
preserved. The five ovarial plates are larger and perforated at 
their summits. The single or madreporiform plate is the largest ; 
it has a more porous structure, and is differently sculptured from 
the pairs of plates. The five ocular plates are small and trian- 
gular : both ovarial and ocular plates are covered with minute 
granulations. 

Spines of two orders : the primaries are long, cylindrical, and 
mostly of considerable dimensions, the secondaries are small and 
compressed. This genus differs from the true Cidaris in the 
bases of the ambulacral areas supporting primary tubercles. He- 
micidaris thus forms a type of structure intermediate between 
Cidaris and Diadema. In Hemicidaris the mouth is decagonal, in 
Cidaris it is circular. 

All the species are fossil, and characterize the middle and 
upper stages of the oolitic rocks. Some are found in the Neo- 
comian and in the Chalk. 

Hemicidaris intermedia, Fleming. 

Syn. Cidaris papillata, var. Park. Org. Rem. pi. 1. fig. 6. vol. iii. 

Cidaris intermedia, Fleming, Brit. Animals, p. 478. 

Hemicidaris crenularis, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 53 ; Strickland 

and Buckman, Geol. of Chelt. 
Hemicidaris intermedia, Forbes, Brit. Org. Rem. Decade 3. pi. 4. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridae of the Oolites. 253 

Test subglobose or subcorneal ; ambulacral arese narrow and 
slightly undulated, with a double row of small perforated tu- 
bercles on the margins, and ten larger tubercles at the basis 
of the arese ; interambulacral are* occupied with six or seven 
pairs of primary tubercles which are raised on large closely- 
approximated prominent mammae, with deeply crenulated sum- 
mits ; mouth large and decagonal, margins deeply notched ; 
spines long, cylindrical, and striated longitudinally, with a 
tumid base ; apical rosette not prominent. 

Great Oolite specimens : height T 9 n ths of an inch, transverse 
diameter 1 inch and f^ths. Coral Rag specimens : height 1 inch 
and T 4 Qths, transverse diameter 1 inch and y^ths. 

Description. — The test of this Urchin has sometimes a subglo- 
bose form ; in other varieties the height exceeds the breadth, and 
it then presents a subconical outline. The summit is slightly 
depressed and the base is flat. The ambulacral areae are narrow 
and gently undulated ; at the base or lower third we observe five 
pairs of moderate-sized tubercles ; at the upper two-thirds the 
tubercles become very small and are ranged on the margins of 
the arese ; both the large and small tubercles are mammillated 
and perforated. The pores are arranged in simple pairs, but at 
the enlarged space around the mouth additional pairs are intro- 
duced. The interambulacral areas are nearly four times the width 
of the ambulacral, and furnished with six or seven pairs of large 
primary deeply perforated tubercles. The mammillary eminences 
on which these tubercles are placed are largely developed and form 
prominent projecting cones, the bases of which touch those of the 
adjoining cones in the same range; an undulating line of small 
perforated granules separates the external border of the mammil- 
lary bases from the poriferous avenues, and a double row of 
similar granules forms a zigzag division down the centre of the 
arese. The upper and lower boundaries of the areolae of the 
mammae are confluent, whilst their outer and inner boundaries 
are surrounded with the granules already described. 

The apical rosette is moderate in size, being about one-fourth 
the diameter of the test ; the madreporiform plate is larger than 
the pairs of ovarial plates ; the ocular plates are heart-shaped, 
and the surface of the elements of this disc is studded with small 
granules. 

The mouth is large, being half the diameter of the test ; it has 
a decagonal form \ and the margin is deeply notched. 

The spines are of two kinds : the primary ones are long, cylin- 
drical and tapering, and grow to double the length of the dia- 
meter of the test, some of them measuring 3| inches in length ; 
they are delicately grooved in the longitudinal direction, and the 
base is provided with a raised crenulated band, situated between 



254 I)r. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

two convex smooth bands ; another smaller crenulated band sur- 
rounds the rim of the socket which affords attachment to the liga- 
ments articulating the spine with the tubercle. The secon- 
dary spines are small, needle-shaped and compressed, and striated 
longitudinally. 

Affinities and differences. — This species approaches so near to 
H. crenularis that it was long regarded as Lamarck's species. 
The form and development of the spines of the two Urchins how- 
ever prove them to be distinct; this circumstance shows the 
necessity of caution in the identification of species of Echinidae 
in the absence of any of the data upon which a correct opinion can 
alone be formed. H. intermedia resembles H, icaunensis in its 
general outline, but is distinguished from that species by its 
more prominent tubercles, in having the ambulacral areas more 
undulated and having larger tubercles at the base. These cha- 
racters likewise sufficiently distinguish it from H. alpina and H. 
granulosa. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — One of our specimens was 
obtained from the spoil of Salperton Tunnel from a bed belong- 
ing to the Great Oolite ; the other specimen was collected from 
the Bradford clay near Cirencester. We have never met with H. 
intermedia in the Inferior Oolite. This Urchin is very abundant 
in the Coral Hag of Calne, from whence most cabinets have been 
supplied. The varieties in the Great Oolite are more globular 
and depressed than those obtained from the Coral Rag. 

History. — As it is uncertain whether we possess H. crenularis 
in our beds, it is probable that H. intermedia was figured and 
described by Martin Lister*. Our synonyms show the changes 
of name through which this species has passed. It has, however, 
been so accurately described by Prof. Forbes, and so admirably 
figured t in the ' Memoirs of the Geological Survey/ that we must 
refer to that work for further details of the species. 

Hemicidaris icaunensis, Cotteau. 

Syn. Hemicidaris icaunensis, Cotteau, Echin. Foss. t. 3. fig. 1-5. 
p. 56 ; Forbes, Geological Survey, Mem. Decade 3. 

Test hemispherical, inflated and slightly depressed ; amtmlacral 
areas with two rows of small marginal tubercles, and with three 
or four pairs of larger tubercles at the base ; interambulacral 
areas with two ranges of primary tubercles ; mouth large and 
decagonal ; margin deeply notched. 

Height T 8 oths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and T %ths. 
Description. — This species is hemispherical and inflated at the 

* Historia Animalium Anglise, t. 7. fig- 21, 1678. 
t British Organic Remains, Decade 3. pi. 4. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridas of the Oolites. 255 

sides, and its transverse diameter is one-half more than its height. 
The interambulacral areas are furnished with two rows of large 
primary tubercles ; in each range there are from six to seven 
tubercles, which attain their greatest development at the equator 
of the test, and diminish in size near the anal and buccal open- 
ings. The mammillary eminences supporting the tubercles are 
large, prominent, and surrounded by areolae. The tubercles are 
small and perforated ; one row of granules separates the large 
tubercles from the poriferous avenues, and a double row occupies 
the middle of the areas. The lateral boundaries of the areolae 
are surrounded by a semicircle of granules, whilst the upper and 
lower boundaries of the same blend into each other. 

The ambulacral areas are narrow, slightly undulated, and fur- 
nished through nearly all their extent with a double row of small 
tubercles, which are not very apparent, but are larger on the 
sides than at the apex of the areas ; between the size of these and 
the three pairs of tubercles at the base a sensible difference exists. 
The mouth-opening is large, and is one-half the diameter of the 
test ; it is of a decagonal form with the margin deeply notched. 
The apical disc is not preserved and the spines are unknown. 

Affinities and differences. — The Hemicidaris icaunensis in its 
general form and characters closely resembles the H. intermedia ; 
it is distinguished from the latter by having the primary tuber- 
cles of the interambulacral areas less prominent, by the ambu- 
lacral areas being less waved, and in having the basal tubercles 
much smaller. This character assimilates H. icaunensis to H. 
Thurmanni, but it is sufficiently distinguished from that Urchin 
by its greater height, less undulated ambulacra and the greater 
number of tubercular plates in the interambulacral areas. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This rare species was ob- 
tained by Mr. Lycett from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton. 
M. Cotteau collected it in France from the superior beds of the 
Bathonian stage at Chatel-Censoir, and M. Rathier found it in 
the Forest marble of Chatel -Gerard, where it is likewise rare. 

History. — This species was first figured and described by M. 
Cotteau*, and was provisionally identified by Prof. Forbesf; it 
is figured in plate A. fig. 9. of the ' Monograph of Great Oolite 
Fossils ' to be published by the Palasontographical Society. The 
specimen that has come under our notice is so imperfect that we 
have followed M. Cotteau's description. 

* Echinides Foss. du Departement de l'Yonne, tab. iii. p. 56. 
f Memoirs of the Geological Survey ; Brit. Organic Remains, Decade 3. 
Description of plate 5. 



256 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

Hemicidaris alpina, Agass. PL XI. fig. 3 a y b. 
Syn. Hemicidaris alpina, Echin. Foss. Suisse, Agass. t.18. fig.19-22. 

Test subglobose; ambulacral areae undulated, prominent and 
convex, covered with small hemispherical granules closely set 
together ; base of the areae with four mammillated and perfo- 
rated tubercles ; apical disc large, convex and prominent. 

Height nearly yoths of an inch, transverse diameter T %ths of 
an inch. 

Description. — The test of this beautiful species is subglobose ; 
the ambulacral areae are slightly undulated and of a medium size ; 
they are prominent and convex, of an elongated conical form, and 
are thickly covered with small hemispherical granules without 
perforations or other sculpture ; the marginal rows are larger and 
more regular. Between them are from four to six rows of smaller 
granules closely set together. 

At the base of the areae are four mammillated and perforated 
tubercles which are limited to this region. The pores are set 
obliquely in pairs with a smooth elevated granule between each 
pair, which forms a moniliform sinuous line running between the 
pores. The interambulacral areae are of moderate breadth, with 
two rows of primary tubercles, five or six in each column. The 
mammillary eminences of the two central tubercles are large and 
prominent. Those towards the anal and oral poles are smaller ; 
they are all crenulated at their summits; the tubercles are 
deeply perforated, and supported on a short stem, the hemisphe- 
rical head of the tubercle not exceeding in diameter that of the 
stem ; the areolae around the mammae are slightly channelled 
and nearly all confluent, those towards the anal pole have a circle 
of granules encircling the areolae; the interareolar spaces are 
covered with small smooth granules similar in form and size to 
those occupying the ambulacral areae. The apical disc is promi- 
nent, the ovarial plates are large, convex, and much granulated, 
and the ocular plates are of a proportionate size ; the spines are 
unknown. 

The mouth-opening is of moderate size, its margin being 
deeply notched and reflexed as in H. intermedia ; the pores are 
disposed in simple pairs all the length of the poriferous avenues, 
but are arranged in double files around the border of the oral 
aperture in such a manner as to occupy the free space in the 
ambulacral areae, resulting from the contraction of the interam- 
bulacral areae in this region. 

Affinities and differences. — Our specimen is smaller in size than 
the one figured by Agassiz from the Calcaire de Saanen. The 
ambulacra are more prominent and convex than those of the 
Swiss specimen ; the rows of marginal granules are not so pro- 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridas of the Oolites. 257 

portionately large nor are the basal tubercles so numerous as 
those delineated in Agassiz's figure. We consider our Urchin, 
however, merely as a variety of the Swiss species, for which we 
propose the name var. granulans. This beautiful species is 
easily distinguished from its congeners by the structure of the 
ambulacral area?, which are convex, prominent, and thickly 
covered with small close-set granulations unlike any other species 
of Hemicidaris yet known. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This species was collected 
from the Bradford clay of Pickwick, Wilts ; a valve of Ter. digona 
was attached to the test, and it is adherent to Ter. concinna. 
Plates of this Urchin have been found in the same stratum at the 
Tetbury Road Station of the Great Western Railway. Mr. Lowe 
of Chippenham has found it in the Forest marble of Wilts, but 
it is a rare species. 

History. — First figured and described by Agassiz in the { De- 
scription des Echinodermes Fossiles de la Suisse/ afterwards iden- 
tified in the British Museum collection by Mr. S. P. Woodward, 
and recorded by Prof. Forbes in Decade 3. of his ( Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey/ and now described as a British species for 
the first time. 

Hemicidaris granulosa, Wright. PI. XI. fig. 4 a, b, c. 

Test spheroidal, depressed ; ambulacral areas straight, with two 
rows of prominent defined granules, the three inferior pair 
only being perforated and raised upon crenulated mammillary 
eminences ; inter ambulacral areas with from two to three pairs 
of primary tubercles, the superior part of the areas being 
occupied with warty granules ; apical rosette formed of large 
petaloidal plates. 

Height T 7 oths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and T ^ths. 

Description. — This beautiful Urchin constitutes a well-marked 
species ; the double row of prominent wart-like granules on the 
ambulacral areas, which are neither perforated nor raised on 
eminences, serving as a good diagnostic character. The base of 
the area is enlarged to give space for the three pairs of crenu- 
lated and perforated tubercles found in this region in all the spe- 
cies of Hemicidaris. The upper part of the areas is occupied with 
from 10-12 pairs of warty granules, which are smooth, deformed, 
and set regularly in rows alternating with each other ; the in- 
tervening surface of the ambulacral plates being occupied with 
small ill-defined scattered granulations. The pores are disposed 
in slightly oblique pairs, with a raised eminence between them ; 
at the wide basal region of the avenues they fall into triple 
oblique pairs. 

Ann. | Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 1 7 



258 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

The interambulacral arese are twice and a half the diameter of 
the ambulacral ; in each column there are from six to seven plates, 
the three or four inferior of which support moderate-sized mam- 
millary eminences with crenulated summits, from the centre of 
which a large prominent deeply perforate tubercle rises. The 
areolae are smooth and gently inclined, and around their circum- 
ference fifteen small granules are set. The three superior plates 
are destitute of mammillary eminences, and in lieu thereof have 
clusters of granules on each plate similar to those occupying the 
ambulacral arese. There are from two to five such granules pro- 
truding from the upper surface of the test; they are arranged in 
pairs, or form triangular, quadrangular or pentagonal figures. 
The apical rosette is well developed ; the ovarial plates are large 
and marked with a depression near their centre, and their in- 
ternal borders are slightly raised. The madreporiform plate is 
larger than the pairs of plates, and its centre is occupied with a 
porous structure. The ocular plates are large and heart-shaped, 
with a depression down the centre of each plate. In the speci- 
men before me the plates of the apical rosette are devoid of other 
sculpture. 

The base is flat, the mouth large and decagonal, the opening 
being more than half the diameter of the test at its equator. 

The spines are unknown. 

Affinities and differences. — This Urchin differs from H. inter- 
media in the absence of tubercles from the upper part of the in- 
terambulacral arese, in the form and size of the ovarial and ocular 
plates, and in the form and structure of the granules covering 
the ambulacral arese. It is distinguished from H. alpina by the 
absence of the close-set granulations covering the convex ambu- 
lacra of that Urchin. It has some resemblance to H. icaunensis, 
but is distinguished from it by the small number of its primary 
tubercles, and the warty figures which take the place of the 
tubercles on the upper surface of the test. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — From the Inferior Oolite 
of Dundry. Imperfect specimens, probably belonging to this 
species, have been collected from the upper beds of Leckhampton. 

Hemicidaris confluens, M'Coy. 

Syn. Hemicidaris conjluens, M'Coy, Annals of Nat. Hist. vol. ii. 
New Series, p. 411. 

Test spheroidal, much-depressed; ambulacral arese slightly con- 
vex and nearly straight, with two alternate marginal rows of 
small microscopic mammillated and perforated tubercles, four 
pairs of larger tubercles at the base ; intermediate surface 
covered with small close-set granulations ; interambulacral 
arese with three pairs of large tubercles at the middle, four 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridaj of the Oolites. 259 

small tubercles at the base, and six rudimentary tubercles at 

the apex of the area? ; mouth moderate and decagonal. 

Height /yths of an inch, transverse diameter f^ths of an inch. 

Description. — The spheroidal test of this Urchin is much de- 
pressed at the anal pole and flattened at the base. The ambu- 
lacral arese are nearly straight and of a tolerably uniform width 
throughout, and furnished with two rows of small, quite micro- 
scopic, but nevertheless mammillated and perforated tubercles, 
about fourteen in each row, disposed alternately on the margins 
of the arese, and increasing slightly in size towards the basal 
angle. The base of the arese has four pairs of larger tubercles as 
in the other species of this genus. The interambulacral arese are 
nearly three times the width of the ambulacral, and furnished 
with two rows of tubercles from 9-10 in each row, the three 
pairs at the equator of the test alone attaining their full develop- 
ment ; those at the base being of a secondary size, whilst those 
on the upper part of the arese are disproportionately small and 
even rudimentary. The upper surface of the test is covered with 
small close-set granulations, in the midst of which the rudi- 
mentary tubercles rise at distant intervals apart. The mammil- 
lated eminences of the six large tubercles are surrounded by 
well-defined areolse, which are confluent at their upper and lower 
margins ; but down the centre of the arese two or four rows of 
granules, and at the lateral borders thereof one or two rows of 
granules descend, which form lateral wreaths surrounding the 
side margins of the areolse : these marginal granules are larger 
and more uniform in their arrangement than those occupying 
other parts of the surface of the test. 

The mouth-opening, of a decagonal form, is one-half the dia- 
meter of the body, with deep marginal notches dividing its 
circumference into ten nearly equal lobes, those of the ambulacral 
arese being the largest. 

The apical disc is either absent or concealed in the specimens 
before me, and the spines are unknown. 

Affinities and differences. — H. confluens resembles H. Thur- 
manni, Ag., in its depressed form and in the small number of the 
primary tubercles on the interambulacral arese; it is distin- 
guished from that species in the partial absence of the circle of 
granules which entirely surround the tubercles in H. Thurmanni, 
and in the rudimentary condition of those occupying the upper 
surface of the test. The ambulacral arese are nearly straight in 
H. confluens, and much undulated in H. Thurmanni. This Urchin 
has many points of affinity with Acrosalenice, but our ignorance 
of the apical disc leaves a doubt in our mind whether it may not 
belong to that genus. Until specimens with the disc preserved 
are found, that doubt cannot be removed. 

17* 



260 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This species was collected 
by Mr. Lycett from the planking beds of the Great Oolite at 
Minchinhampton, and we have received several specimens from 
the same stratum at Kiddington (Oxfordshire). 

Hemicidaris pustulosa, Forbes. 

Memoir of Palaeontograph. Soc, Forbes, plate A. fig. 8, Great Oolite 
Fossils. 

We have not seen Hemicidaris pustulosa figured by Professor 
Forbes in the above memoir; its nearest ally, it is stated, "is 
Hemicidaris diademata, Agass., which it resembles in the sudden 
diminution and very small size of the uppermost interambulacral 
tubercles, but differs in having the sutural granulated space of 
the interambulacral areas very wide*." 

The SALENiANsf, Gray. 

This group is composed of small Urchins resembling Hemici- 
daris ; they are distinguished from that genus, however, by the 
number, structure, and mode of arrangement of the plates form- 
ing the apical disc, which is composed of five ovarial, five ocular, 
and a supra-anal plate. The ambulacral arese are narrow, carry- 
ing secondary tubercles like Hemicidaris. The pores are dis- 
posed in distinct poriferous avenues in single pairs. The inter- 
ambulacral areas are wide, and their plates support primary 
tubercles raised on mammillary eminences. We divide the Sale- 
nians into two groups : — 

In the first group the tubercles are not perforated ; they form 
the genera Salenia, Peltastes, and Goniophorus, which are limited 
to the rocks of the Cretaceous period. 

In the second group the tubercles are perforated, forming the 
genus Acrosalenia, the species of which are distributed throughout 
the Jurassic strata. 

Genus Acrosalenia, Agass. 

Test small, more or less depressed ; anal pole surrounded by a 
well-developed circular disc, composed of five ovarial and five 
ocular plates, with a central supra-anal plate, composed of one or 
more elements. The anal opening is situated at one side of the 
supra-anal plate, and is therefore eccentrical. The ambulacral 
areae are narrow, and support a double row of from ten to twelve 
small perforated tubercles set on crenulated mammas. 

* Memoirs of Geological Survey, Prof. Forbes, Decade 3. 

f The group of Salenians is composed of five genera : Salenia, Gray ; 
Peltastes, Agass. ; Goniophorus, Agass. ; Acrosalenia, Agass. ; Goniopygus, 
Agass. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 261 

The interambulacral area? are nearly three times the width of the 
ambulacral areas, and support two rows of from six to eight large 
perforated tubercles raised upon crenulated mammillary emi- 
nences ; the base is flat, the mouth large, decagonal and notched, 
and the margin reflexed. The apices of the notches point to the 
centres of the columns of the interambulacral plates. 

Acrosalenia hemicidaroides, Wright, n. s. PL XI. fig. 1 a, b, c, d. 

Test hemispherical, considerably depressed ; ambulacral areas with 
two ranges of from fourteen to sixteen small perforated tuber- 
cles, gradually decreasing in size from the base to the apex ; 
interambulacral areas with two ranges of primary tubercles, 
eight in each range. The supra-anal plate is composed of 
several elements ; the anus is situated before and to the left 
side ; the surface of the ovarial, ocular, and supra-anal plates 
is studded with small granulations; primary spines long, 
tapering, smooth and slightly compressed ; secondary spines 
small and needle-shaped ; mouth large and decagonal ; margin 
reflexed. 

Height ygths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and ^th. 
One large specimen measures 1 inch and T 3 oths in diameter, but 
the proportional height cannot be ascertained, as its base is 
crushed. 

Description. — Test spheroidal, depressed; ambulacral areas 
slightly sinuous, nearly uniform in breadth, tapering towards 
both poles, and supporting two rows of secondary mammillated 
perforated tubercles, which are largest at the inferior third of the 
area, diminishing in size as they approach the mouth and the 
anus. The tubercles, from fourteen to sixteen in number in each 
row, are situated alternately on the margins of the area ; a zigzag 
line of granulations, with lateral branches passing down the cen- 
tre of the area, separates the tubercles from each other. The 
poriferous avenues consist of about forty-five pairs of pores set 
obliquely in a single file. The interambulacral areas are three 
times the breadth of the ambulacral ; each area is composed of 
two columns. There are eight plates in each column, and each 
plate supports a large smooth mammillated eminence surmounted 
by a tubercle, which occupies the greater part of the plate ; it is 
of a conical form, and is encircled by a concave smooth areola. 
The summits of the mammas are sculptured on their margins with 
eleven crenulations, in the centre of which a deeply perforated 
tubercle rises, with a rather depressed articular surface. In 
some specimens the areolas of the mammas are confluent, in 
others they are separated by a row of small granules. The ex- 
ternal and internal margins of the plates are furnished with rows 



262 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

of small granulations, with still smaller granules here and there 
interspersed ; on the external side of each plate there are nine 
granulations, which, with those of the adjoining plates, form a 
sinuous granulated line which defines the internal boundary of 
the poriferous avenues. The internal row of granulations, with 
those of the opposite and adjoining plates, form a double granu- 
lated zigzag space, occupying the centre of the area?, and forming 
an elevated ridge which serves to separate the two ranges of 
primary tubercles from each other. 

The mouth is large and decagonal, and is one-half the diameter 
of the test. The margin is deeply notched with ten indenta- 
tions. The divisions of the circumference are not equal, as the 
arch over the ambulacral is one-half greater than the arch over 
the interambulacral arese. 

The apical disc is greatly developed, occupying more than one- 
third the diameter of the test ; it is of a pentagonal form, the left 
anterior angle being more developed than the right. The madre- 
poriform plate is large, and divided into a posterior porous and 
an anterior non-porous segment. The posterior pair of ovarial 
plates are likewise large, the anterior pair are small and imper- 
fectly developed ; the left plate is rudimentary, in consequence of 
the anal opening being eccentric and situated before and towards 
the left side ; the supra-anal plate is in general of a pentagonal 
form, and composed of from four to six elements united together 
and set round the posterior border of the anal opening. The 
ocular plates are triangular and well-developed ; all the plates of 
the apical disc are studded with small granules. This species 
belongs to Agassiz's first division of the Salenians which have 
the sur-anal plate and the oviductal apparatus situated before 
the madreporiform plate. The primary spines (fig. 1 d) are long, 
tapering, and slightly compressed, so that a transverse section of 
one of them forms an ellipsis in the specimen before me. They 
are in length about twice the diameter of the test. The body of 
the spine is smooth throughout \ the base is encircled with a pro- 
minent elevated ring of small oblong closely-set granulations ; a 
smaller circle of larger crenulations surrounding the margin of the 
concave articulating surface. The secondary spines articulating 
with the tubercles of the ambulacral areas resemble the primaries 
in miniature, some of them measuring T 3 oths of an inch in length. 

The dental apparatus is well-developed. The teeth are strong, 
triangular, and slightly curved towards the point. 

Affinities and differences. — Acrosalenia hemicidaroides is distin- 
guished from its congeners by its size, the number and regularity 
of the primary tubercles, the compound structure of the supra- 
anal plate, and the granular surface of the apical disc. This 
Urchin so much resembles a Hemicidaris in the form of the 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 263 

test, the structure of the ambulacra and poriferous avenues, that 
it was not until we had obtained specimens with the apical disc 
preserved that we were satisfied of its being an Acrosalenia, of 
which it certainly forms the finest species. The genera Hemici- 
daris and Acrosalenia have so many characters in common, which 
are almost always well-preserved, and so few that are special, and 
which are for the most part either broken or absent, that it is 
difficult to decide upon the genus unless the apical disc is more 
or less preserved ; it is for this reason we conjecture that so few 
Acrosalenia have been hitherto catalogued from the Oolites, most 
of the species having been erroneously referred to other genera. 
The development of from four to six larger mammillated tubercles 
at the base of the ambulacral area? is a good character for Hemici- 
daris. In A. hemicidaroides the tubercles in this region are well 
developed, but are not so well defined as in Hemicidaris. When 
doubts exist, they can only be solved by the discovery of the 
apical disc with its supra-anal plate. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — I have collected this beau- 
tiful Urchin from the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite at Leck- 
hampton, and the Rev. P. B. Brodie found it with its spines 
attached in the same zone at Selsley Hill. It is found in the 
planking beds of the Great Oolite at Minchinhampton, and in 
the Cornbrash near Chippenham. Several fine specimens with 
the spines attached to the test were obtained from the Forest 
marble near Malmsbury in Wilts, which are now in the British 
Museum and the Museum of Economic Geology, and several 
private cabinets. We have the same species from Kidding- 
ton, Oxfordshire, in slabs of Great Oolite. From these facts 
we infer that this large Acrosalenian had not only a considerable 
stratigraphical range, but likewise that the species was very 
abundant. 

Acrosalenia Lycetti, Wright, n. s. PI. XL fig. 2 a, b, c, d. 

Test hemispherical, depressed, circumference subpentagonal ; 
ambulacral arese prominent, having a double series of small 
tubercles ; interambulacral arese with two ranges of large tu- 
bercles ; mammillary eminences of both arese conical and pro- 
jecting ; tubercles of the interambulacral arese disproportion- 
ately small. 

Height half an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch. 

Description. — This Urchin resembles A. hemicidaroides in 
many of its characters, but presents others which justify its sepa- 
ration from that species. The ambulacral arese are straight, pro- 
minent, and furnished with a double row of small well-developed 
tubercles, about' twelve in each row ; a zigzag line of small gra- 
nules descends down the centre of the arese, sending out lateral 



264 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridae of the Oolites. 

branches which inclose the areolae of the tubercles for about two- 
thirds of their circumference, leaving the areolae open to the 
poriferous avenues. The interambulacral areae are nearly three 
times the width of the ainbulacral, and possess a double range of 
primary tubercles from seven to eight in each range. The mam- 
millary eminences supporting them are very prominent, and are 
surrounded by an elliptical areola. The summits of the mammae 
are sculptured with about ten crenulations. The tubercles are 
disproportionately small when compared with the development 
of the mammae supporting them ; the two ranges of tubercles 
are separated by four rows of granulations which form zigzag 
granular bands descending down the centre of the areae ; similar 
bands of granulations bound the external borders of the inter- 
ambulacra, and separate the ranges of the principal tubercles 
from the poriferous avenues ; the upper and lower borders of the 
areolae are confluent, but the other parts of their circumference 
are surrounded by a wreath of granules. The mammillary emi- 
nences and tubercles are largest at the equator, gradually dimi- 
nishing as they approach the oral and anal poles. The pores are 
large and disposed obliquely in simple pairs. The mouth-open- 
ing is large and decagonal, the marginal notches being of mo- 
derate depth. The apical disc is absent in all the specimens we 
have found ; it is therefore impossible to state whether the anal 
opening was situated before or behind the single madreporiform 
plate. 

Affinities and differences. — This species is distinguished from 
A. hemicidaroides in having the areolae more excavated and ellip- 
tical. The granules occupying the intertubercular spaces are 
smaller and more numerous. The tubercles of the interam- 
bulacra are disproportionately small when compared with the 
development of their mammae ; the circumference has in general 
a subpentagonal outline, from the prominence of the ambulacral 
areae, the double row of tubercles on which is more fully deve- 
loped than in A. hemicidaroides. These differences between the 
tests of our two species although inconsiderable are nevertheless 
connected with others, which although not seen may be inferred, 
as the differences in the size and form of the primary and secondary 
spines belonging to the tubercles of both areae leave no doubt 
on our mind that A. Lycetti is distinct from A. hemicidaroides, 
and we know of no other species among its congeners for which 
it could be mistaken. A granulated spine, and of which we give a 
figure (2 d), found frequently in the same beds with A. Lycetti, 
and probably belonging to this species, if proved to be such, 
would form an important specific character. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — We collected this Urchin 
from the lower ferruginous beds, Pea-grit, of Crickley Hill, and 
have found it in the same stratum at Leckhampton, Cleeve, and 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 265 

Brockhampton quarries. The specimens are in general much 
crushed, and the apical disc is always absent. 

The two specimens which have preserved their form and served 
for the foregoing description were only obtained within the last 
few days ; all those previously collected having been too much 
injured to serve for minute observation. 

I dedicate this species to my friend John Lycett, Esq., one of 
the learned authors of a monograph of the Mollusca from the 
Great Oolite. 

Acrosalenia spinosa, Agassiz. PL XII. fig. 3 a, b, c, d. 
Acrosalenia spinosa, Agassiz, Echin. de la Suisse, 2nd part, t. 18. 
fig. 1-5. p. 39; Cotteau, Echin. Foss. du Departement de l'Yonne, 
t.3. fig. 6-11. 
Test subpentagonal, depressed ; a double row of small tubercles 
occupies the ambulacra, and a double range of large mammil- 
lated tubercles the interambulacral arese ; the ovarial disc is 
large, the madreporiform plate rudimentary, the anal opening 
behind the supra-anal plate ; mouth decagonal, margin deeply 
incised. 

Height T 3 oths of an inch, transverse diameter ^fths of an inch. 
Description. — The test of this beautiful little Urchin has a sub- 
pentagonal form arising from the convexity of the ambulacral arese, 
w r hich converge in straight lines from the base to the summit, 
and are furnished with two ranges of from ten to twelve very small 
tubercles, which, although microscopic, are nevertheless mam- 
millated and perforated. The intertubercular spaces are covered 
with small granules which form circles around the tubercles. 
The pores are disposed obliquely in simple pairs, forming a single 
rectilineal file on each side of the areae. The interambulacral 
arese are twice the width of the ambulacral, and ornamented with 
a double range of primary tubercles, eight in each range. The two 
inferior tubercles are small, the two or three succeeding ones are 
very large, whilst those on the upper part of the test suddenly di- 
minish in size and gradually become dwarfed as they approach the 
anal disc : they are all crenulated and perforated. The primary 
tubercles occupying the equator of the test are seated upon large 
prominent mammillary eminences, surrounded by deeply grooved 
elliptical areolae, and encircled by a wreath of small granules. 
The intertubercular surface on the upper part of the test is 
studded with very fine granules. The apical rosette, formed of 
ovarial, ocular, and sur-anal plates, is admirably preserved in the 
specimens before us ; it is large and of a pentagonal form (fig. 3 d). 
The two anterior pairs of ovarial plates are nearly of the same size, 
the posterior pair being notched to form the basal angles of the 
triangular anal opening ; the sur-anal plate occupying the centre 
of the rosette is small, single and pentagonal ; the single or madre- 



266 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

poriform plate is rudimentary, to make space for the apex of the 
anal opening. By this arrangement it is evident that the anus is 
eccentrical and situated behind the sur-anal plate ; its opening is 
in a great measure formed by the imperfect development of the 
madreporiform plate, a condition the opposite to that existing in 
A. hemicidaroides, where the anus is situated in front of the sur- 
anal plate, and is excavated at the expense of the left anterior 
ovarial plate. The four ovarial and sur-anal plates are adorned 
with a delicate sculpture which occupies their centres ; the ocular 
plates are small ; the three anterior are inserted between the pro- 
minent angles of the ovarials, whilst the two posterior lying be- 
tween the madreporiform plate and the posterior pair of ovarials 
form the lateral walls of the anal opening ; all the plates are 
finely granulated. 

The mouth is large, its circumference being divided into ten 
nearly equal lobes, and the margin is much renexed. 

Affinities and differences. — Acrosalenia spinosa is distinguished 
from its congeners by its subpentagonal form, the volume of the 
mammillary eminences of the primary tubercles at its equator, 
and the sudden smallness of those occupying the upper part of 
the test, the position of the anal opening behind the sur-anal 
plate, and the rudimentary condition of the madreporiform plate. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — I collected this Urchin 
from the yellow clay resting on the Stonesfield slate at Seven- 
hampton with Anabacia orbulites, Pecten vagans, Ostrea acumi- 
nata, and other Great Oolite shells. Likewise from the Corn- 
brash near Chippenham, Wilts, where it is very abundant. The 
specimens from both localities are as perfect as recent Echini. 

Many of the Cornbrash specimens are attached to Avicula 
echinata. In Switzerland A. spinosa was collected from marls 
containing Ostrea acuminata in the Canton of Soleure. It is 
found in great abundance in France in the Great Oolite of Caen, 
and has been collected by M. Cotteau from the upper beds of the 
Bathonian stage in the environs of Chatel-Censoir. 

History. — This species was figured and described for the first 
time by M. Agassiz in his 'Echinoderm. Eossiles de la Suisse/ 
and entered in his ' Catalogue raisonne des Echinides/ It has been 
figured and described by M. Cotteau from specimens obtained 
in the department of PYonne. It is catalogued by Mr. M'Coy 
as a Minchinhampton species from the Great Oolite, and is now 
described from British specimens for the first time. 

Genus Goniopygus, Agassiz. 

Test circular, subconical ; apical disc very solid with an angular 
circumference, composed of ten plates ; sur-anal plate absent ; 
mouth large ; tubercles imperforate without crenulations at their 
base ; pores disposed in simple pairs throughout. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridas of tlie Oolites. 267 

Goniopygus (?) perforatits, Wright, n. s. PI. XIII. fig. 5 a, b. 

Test spheroidal, depressed; ambulacral areas with two rows of 
small tubercles ; interambulacral areas with two rows of nearly 
equal-sized primary tubercles, each surrounded by a circle of 
granules ; tubercles perforated. 

Height T 3 yths of an inch, transverse diameter T 6 ^ths of an inch. 

Description. — The ambulacral areas of this little anomalous 
Urchin carry small marginal tubercles increasing in size towards 
the base of the areas, and having a few granules interspersed be- 
tween them. The interambulacral areas are about twice and a 
half the width of the ambulacral, and furnished with two rows of 
tubercles from seven to eight in each row. The tubercles are 
raised on mammillated eminences which are destitute of crenu- 
lations ; the summit of the tubercles is slightly perforated, they 
detach themselves in a well-defined manner from the surface of 
the test and are very uniform in size, and each mamma is en- 
circled by a distinct wreath of small granules. There are a few 
other granules studding the plates besides those forming the 
boundary circles of the areolas. The apical disc is absent ; the 
mouth is large and deeply notched. 

Affinities and differences. — I have placed this Urchin provi- 
sionally in the genus Goniopygus, as it comes nearer to the cha- 
racters of that form than any other. Agassiz states in his Cata- 
logue that the tubercles are imperforate, but this character is not 
alluded to in his f Echin. Foss/ The absence of crenulations 
from the mammas, the nearly uniform size of the tubercles, the 
distinctness with which they stand out from the test, and a frag- 
ment of the angular apical disc in situ, seem to justify the sup- 
position of its being Goniopygus \ but the perforations in the 
tubercles make the exception, and suggest the query whether the 
absence of perforations is a generic or only a sectional character. 
The specimens before me, the only three yet found, are so im- 
perfect, that I write with much reserve regarding them ; they may 
perhaps prove to be the young tests of Pedina, in which we have 
observed that the pores change from simple pairs to triple oblique 
pairs with age, and the crenulations of the mammas can scarcely 
be seen. 

Locality. — I collected these Urchins from the Pea- grit of 
Crickley Hill with Acrosalenia Lycetti and small Bryozoan poly- 
pifera. 

The Echinid;e* 

Have a thin test, and are distinguished from the Cidaridas and 

* The group of Echinidce includes twenty-three genera: Astropyga,Gra,y ; 
Diadema, Gray ; Hemidiadema, Agass. ; Cyphosoma, Agass. ; Echinocidaris, 



268 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

Salenians by having numerous nearly equal-sized tubercles upon 
the ambulacral and interambulacral arese. The pores are differ- 
ently arranged in the avenues in the different genera ; the apical 
disc consists of five ovarial and five ocular plates. 

Genus Diadema, Gray. 

Test thin, of a circular or pentagonal form, more or less de- 
pressed, supporting perforated tubercles raised on mammillary 
eminences with slightly crenulated summits. The ambulacral 
arese are wide, straight, and well developed ; each area has two 
rows of primary tubercles nearly as large as those occupying the 
interambulacral area?. The pores are set in pairs, uniformly 
superimposed on each other, with one or two exceptions, where 
they fall into double files. The interambulacral area? have two 
rows of primary tubercles, and sometimes ranges of secondary 
tubercles placed external to them. The mouth is large and 
decagonal, with shallow marginal notches. The five ovarial plates 
have an elongated hexagonal form ; the madreporiform is larger 
than the pairs of plates ; the five ocular plates are small and tri- 
angular, and are lodged at the summits of the ambulacra between 
the re-entrant angles formed by the ovarial plates. The spines 
are long, slender, and subulate, and of a very uniform size 
throughout. 

Diadema depressum, Agassiz. PI. XII. fig. 2 a, b } c, d. 

Syn. Diadema depressum, Agassiz and Desor, Catalogue raisonne des 
Echinides, Ann. des Sciences Nat. 1846; Cotteau, Etudes sur 
Echinides Fossiles, p. 43. t. 2. 

Test pentagonal, depressed; ambulacral arese convex and promi- 
nent ; interambulacral arese flattened ; two rows of nearly 
equal-sized primary tubercles in both arese; secondary tu- 
bercles absent or rudimentary ; mouth large and slightly de- 
cagonal. 

Height T 5 oths of an inch, breadth 1 inch and ygth. 

Description. — The ambulacral arese of this Urchin are rather 
more than one-half the breadth of the interambulacral arese, and 
have from ten to twelve pairs of well-developed primary tubercles 
separated by a zigzag line of small granulations. The interam- 
bulacral arese are nearly of a uniform breadth throughout ; there 
are about ten pairs of tubercles in each area ; in consequence of 

Desmoulins ; Echinopsis, Agass. ; Arbacia, Gray ; Eucosmus, Agass. ; Cce- 
lopleurus, Agass.; Codiopsis, Agass.; Mespilia, Desor; Microcyphus, Agass.; 
Salmacis, Agass. ; Temnopleurus, Agass. ; Glypticus, Agass. ; Polycyphus, 
Agass. ; Amblypneustes, Agass. ; Boletia, Desor ; Tripneustes, Agass. ; Ho- 
lopneustes, Agass. ; Echinus, Linn. ; Pedina, Agass. ; Heliocidaris, Des- 
moulins. 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridae of the Oolites. 269 

these segments of the test being double the width of the ambu- 
lacral, the tubercles stand more apart. The tubercles of both 
areae are nearly uniform in size, they have a smooth base with a 
finely crenulated summit, and are perforated ; there are no secon- 
dary tubercles, but the intertubercular spaces are covered with 
small granulations, which are closely set together on the surface 
of the plates ; three or four of these at the base of the areae are 
perforated. The mammillary eminences of both arese are sur- 
rounded by smooth areolae, which are nearly all confluent. The 
ambulacra! areae become rapidly contracted towards the vertex, 
whilst the interambulacral areae maintain their breadth, so that 
the space between the rows of primary tubercles is very uniform 
in width throughout. The intertubercular spaces, with the ex- 
ception of the internal border of the four superior interambu- 
lacral plates, are covered with small close-set granulations of dif- 
ferent sizes, which form semicircles around the areolae, and zig- 
zag lines down the centres of the areae. The pores consist of 
thirty- six pair in each avenue superimposed in a single file ; in 
the wide space of the avenues around the mouth they form double 
or triple rows. The mouth is large and decagonal ; the notches 
are slight, and the borders are reflexed at the angles ; the apical 
disc is unknown ; the spines are small, subulate, and delicately 
striated longitudinally (fig. 2d). 

Affinities and differences. — This Urchin resembles D. aquale, 
Agass., but differs from it in the absence of secondary tubercles 
in the interambulacral areae : by its pentagonal form it resembles 
D. mbangulare, but is distinguished from that species in having 
the pores arranged in a single file, whereas in D. subangulare, 
from the equator to the apical disc, the pores fall into double 
files. The tubercles are likewise smaller and more deeply per- 
forated ; it belongs moreover to a lower zone of the Oolitic group, 
D. subangulare being a characteristic Urchin of the Coral Rag of 
Wilts and the " Terrain k chailles n of Switzerland and Ger- 
many*. Like D. subangulare, D. depressum possesses a pentagonal 
form, a peculiarity depending on the prominence of the ambu- 
lacral areae, and common to several species of this genus. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This Urchin is common in 
the lower ferruginous beds of the Inferior Oolite, the Pea-grit of 
Crickley, Leckhampton and Dundry Hills ; I have collected it 
from the Great Oolite at Minchinhampton and from the Bradford 
clay at Tetbury road station ; the latter were extremely small. 
The specimens are in general much crushed; the anal disc is 
always broken, and the spines are sometimes adherent to the test. 
It has been collected by M. D'Orbigny in the Inferior oolite of 

* Goldfuss, Petrefacta Germanise ; and Agassiz, Echinodermes Fossiles 
de la Suisse. 



270 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

Saint Honorine Ranville, where it is abundant. It has been ob- 
tained by M. Cotteau from the ferruginous oolite, from Tour- 
du-Pre, near Avallon, Departement de l'Yonne, which bed lies 
upon the Calcaire h entroques, the true equivalent of the Dun- 
dry, Cotteswold and Dorsetshire beds of the Inferior Oolite. 

History. — The D. depression was first mentioned in the ' Cata- 
logue raisonne des Echinides * by Agassiz and Desor, but was 
neither figured nor described by them. This however has been 
done by M. Cotteau in his c Etudes sur les Echinides Fossiles/ 
and is now figured and described from the English Oolites for 
the first time. In both countries it appears to characterize beds 
belonging to the same geological horizon. 

Diadema subangulare, Agass. 

Syn. Cidarites subangularis, Goldfuss, Petref. t. 40. f. 3 ; Rcemer, 

Verstein. t. 1. fig. 20. 
Diadema subangulare, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. t. 17. fig. 21-25. p. 19. 

Test subpentagonal, depressed ; interambulacral arese with pri- 
mary and secondary tubercles ; upper part of the poriferous 
avenues with a double series of pores. 

Height ^ths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and T 2 n ths. 

Description. — The test of this Urchin has a depressed and pen- 
tagonal form arising from the prominence and development of 
the ambulacral arese, which are narrow and contracted above and 
furnished with ten pairs of primary tubercles. The interambu- 
lacral area? are nearly twice as wide as the ambulacral, and are 
adorned with two rows of primary tubercles from ten to eleven 
in each row, and two rows of secondary tubercles arranged on 
the sides of the primaries, but irregular both as regards their 
number and size. Secondary tubercles are absent in the ambu- 
lacral area?. The tubercles of both arese are proportionally large 
and raised upon inconsiderable mammillary emineuces with de- 
licately crenulated summits; the mammae are surrounded by ellip- 
tical areolae, and round two-thirds of their circumference small 
granules are disposed in circles ; although the tubercles are large 
and spherical, the perforations are small and of inconsiderable 
depth. Down the centres of both arese numerous small granula- 
tions occupy the intertubercular surface of the plates, and similar 
granular bands descend down the external margins of the interam- 
bulacral areae ; but the distinctive character of this Urchin resides 
in the structure of the poriferous avenues, which, instead of 
forming, as in other Diademata, a single row of pores from the 
base to the apex, from the equator to the apical disc they form 
double rows of pores disposed in oblique lines. 

The mouth is large and decagonal, but the marginal notches 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 271 

are not deep. None of the specimens that we have seen possess 
the apical disc, but the vacant space left by the absence of the 
ovarial and ocular plates proves that this part of the test was well 
developed. 

Affinities and differences. — In its pentagonal form it is allied 
to D. depression, but its secondary tubercles and double file of 
pores form a good diagnosis between D. subangulare and other 
species of the same genus. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — We know this species only 
from the Coral Rag of Wilts and Oxford ; in Germany it is found 
in the same stages at Thurnau and Muggendorf ; and in Switzer- 
land it is obtained from the " Terrain h chailles " of the valley of 
the Birse, of Blochmont and of Weissenstein. 

History. — First figured by Goldfuss, afterwards more accu- 
rately described and figured in detail by M. Agassiz, and now 
described as a British species for the first time ; the specimens 
previously catalogued under this name having been D. depressum 
and not D. subangulare. 

Diadema pseudo -diadema, Agass. PL XII. fig. 1 a, b, c. 

Syn. Cidarites pseudo-diadema, Lamarck, Syst. Anim. sans Vert. 

torn. hi. p. 385. 
Diadema Lamarckii, Desmoulins, Tabl. Synopt. p. 316. No. 18. 
Diadema pseudo-diadema, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. t. 17. fig. 49-53. 

Test hemispherical, depressed; interambulacral arese with pri- 
mary and secondary tubercles ; ambulacral arese with primary 
tubercles and a few scattered rudimentary ones. Mouth 
large and decagonal; margin deeply notched; apical disc 
large ; spines long and needle-shaped. 

Height 1 inch and /^ths, transverse diameter 2 inches and 

Description. — This fine species has a hemispherical form, much 
depressed at the anal pole and flattened at the base. The ambu- 
lacral arese are straight and well developed, and furnished with two 
rows of primary tubercles from 18-20 in each row; between 
these a zigzag line of small secondary tubercles extends two- 
thirds up the arese ; the poriferous avenues are not well defined ; 
the pores are disposed in pairs ; between each pair of holes there 
are elevated smooth tubercles forming a range of small bead- 
like bodies which define the limits of the arese; at the base 
the pores fall into double and triple files. 

The interambulacral arese are more than twice the width of 
the ambulacral, and are furnished with two rows of large pri- 
mary crenulated and perforated tubercles, and several rows of 
secondary tubercles likewise crenulated and perforated ; down the 



272 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridas of the Oolites. 

centre of the areas two rows of secondary tubercles are arranged 
which separate the principal ranges from each other, and like 
rows of secondary tubercles separate the principal tubercles 
from the ambulacral areas. These secondary tubercles are very 
irregular as to size and arrangement, and are in general best 
developed at the base and equator of the test ; besides the pri- 
mary and secondary tubercles, the surface is studded with small 
granulations. The mouth-opening is large and decagonal, and 
its margin is divided by deep notches. The lobes which cor- 
respond to the ambulacral areas are twice as large as those 
corresponding to the interambulacral areas. The apical disc is 
broken in the specimen before me. According to Agassiz the 
oviductal apparatus is generally very apparent. The ovarial 
plates are large and pentagonal ; their summit forms a pro- 
minent angle which advances into the interambulacral areas. The 
madreporiform plate is larger than the pairs of plates, and like 
them is perforated and finely granulated. The ocular plates are 
very small and inserted between the angles of the ovarials and 
dovetailed with the apex of the ambulacra. The anal opening is 
large and of a circular form. The spines are long, needle- 
shaped, and finely striated longitudinally. 

Affinities and differences. — The size of this species, the arrange- 
ment of the secondary tubercles, and the structure of the pori- 
ferous avenues form a group of characters by which it is readily 
distinguished from its congeners. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — The specimen before me 
was obtained from the Coral Rag of Wiltshire or Oxfordshire ; 
it is found in the Corallian stage of Besancon, canton of Soleure, 
in Switzerland, and in the Coral Rag of Angoulin, near Rochelle, 
in France. 

History. — Figured and accurately described for the first time 
by M, Agassiz in his f Echin. Foss./ and now first figured and 
registered as a British fossil. 

Genus Pedina, Agassiz. 

Test thin, circular and depressed ; primary tubercles very 
small, but still perforated and crenulated like those of Diadema. 
Pores arranged in triple oblique pairs as in the genus Echinus. 
Mouth small, slightly decagonal; margin not much notched. 
The ovarial disc not prominent ; the surface of the test com- 
paratively smooth when compared with the other genera of the 
Echinidce. The ambulacral areas have two ranges of tubercles, 
and the interambulacral areas have two ranges of primary, and 
one or more rows, more or less complete, of secondary tubercles, 
situated at the external and internal sides of the primaries. This 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 273 

genus is extinct, and the species are found in the Oolitic and 
Cretaceous rocks. 

Pedina rotata, Agassiz. 

Syn. Pedina rotata, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. de la Suisse, pi. 15. 
fig. 4-6. p. 36. 

Test hemispherical, depressed; ambulacral arese with two mar- 
ginal rows of small tubercles ; interambulacral arese with two 
ranges of primary tubercles and a few secondary tubercles ; 
mouth small; margin slightly notched and divided into ten 
nearly equal-sized lobes. 

Height y^ths of an inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and y^ths. 

Description. — The test of this Urchin is circular; in some 
specimens a fullness of the ambulacral arese gives it a slightly- 
subpentagonal outline, and it is depressed at both poles. The 
ambulacral arese have two rows of small tubercles disposed on 
the external border of the arese, between which small granules 
are arranged with less regularity. The interambulacral arese are 
twice and a half the width of the ambulacral, and furnished 
with a double range of primary tubercles extending from the 
mouth to the ovarial plates ; two ranges of secondary tubercles, 
not very regular however in their arrangement, extend from the 
mouth to near the middle of the arese. The tubercles of both 
classes are very small in size, but perforated and crenulated on 
the surface of the test a number of small microscopic granules 
cluster together, and form circles around the areolae of the small 
mammillated eminences. The poriferous avenues are narrow, 
in which the holes are closely set in triple oblique pairs ; in the 
three specimens before me the apical disc is either absent or con- 
cealed by the oolitic matrix. The mouth is small and decagonal. 
The margin is slightly notched, and divided into ten nearly equal- 
sized lobes ; no reflection of the test is observed at the angles of 
the notches. The spines are unknown. 

Affinities and differences. — This species is distinguished from 
P. sublavis by the rudimentary development of the secondary 
tubercles in the interambulacral arese, which can only be said to 
exist at the internal side of the primaries, between the mouth 
and the equator ; in the rest of the arese they degenerate into 
granules. The other characters of the Urchin agree so well with 
Agassiz' s very incomplete description, that we have not hesitated 
to identify it with the Swiss species. Our specimens are all much 
worn, and we know nothing of the apical disc. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This Urchin was collected 
from the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite at Shurdington Hill, 
along with Discoidea depressa and Clypeus sinuatus. 

History. — First described and figured by Agassiz in his ' Echi- 
Ann.fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 18 



274 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 

nodermes Fossiles/ Mr. M'Coy catalogues this species from the 
Great Oolite of Minchinhampton, but we know of no specimens 
from that locality ; all the examples, five in number, examined by 
us, have been obtained from the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite. 

Genus Echinus, Linnseus. 

Test more or less globular. Ambulacra in general about half 
the width of the interambulacra ; primary tubercles of nearly the 
same size in both arese, and forming vertical ranges more or less 
numerous in the different species, but neither having perforated 
summits nor crenulations at their base ; the poriferous avenues 
are well-developed ; the pores are numerous, and disposed in 
transverse ranges in arched or triple oblique pairs ; the mouth 
is large, of a circular or pentagonal form, and more or less 
divided at the margin by notches into ten lobes. The apical 
disc is composed of four nearly equal-sized ovarial plates, and a 
single larger madreporiform plate, and between the ovarial the 
five ocular plates are lodged. The masticatory organs or lantern 
are formed as in the genus Cidaris ; but the pyramids are exca- 
vated in their superior part, and the two branches are united by 
an arch at the summit. The teeth are tricarinated. 

Echinus perlatus, Desmarest. PL XIII. fig. 1 «, b, c, d. 

Syn. Echinus perlatus, Desm. Diet. Sc. Nat. t. xxxvii. p. 100. 
Echinus lineatus, Goldf. Petrefact. Germanise, t. 40. fig. 11. 
Echinus germinans, Phillips, Geology of Yorkshire, pi. 3. fig. 15. 
Echinus perlatus, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. dela Suisse, t. 22. fig. 13-15. 
Echinus diademata, M'Coy, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. S. 2. p. 410. 
Echinus multigranularis, Cotteau, Echinides Foss. del'Yoime, p. 61. 
tab. 7. fig. 6-8. 

Test hemispherico-conoidal with a pentagonal circumference; 
ambulacral area? with two ranges of primary tubercles ; inter- 
ambulacral areas furnished with two complete ranges of primary 
tubercles and six incomplete ranges of secondary tubercles, 
and a median depression in the centre of the areas ; apical 
disc small ; anus eccentrical. 

Height 1J inch, transverse diameter 2 inches. 

Description. — The ambulacral are about one-half the breadth 
of the interambulacral areas, and are very uniform in width 
throughout ; they are prominent and convex, giving the cir- 
cumference of the test of this beautiful Urchin a pentagonal 
form. The ambulacral columns have two rows of primary 
tubercles, about thirty in each row, placed on the poriferous 
borders of the plates, and from four to six tubercles between 
these rows at the base and angle of the test. The interambu- 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidarida? of the Oolites. 275 

lacral area; are slightly convex, and taper very uniformly from 
the base to the summit. The lower half of the area? is occupied 
by eight rows of primary tubercles, four in each column; at the 
base and for a short distance up the sides of the test, these 
tubercles are of a uniform size, but beyond this two rows only 
maintain their development, and numbering twenty-four pairs of 
primary tubercles in each area ; the two external rows and the 
single internal row of tubercles are arrested in their develop- 
ment, and therefore become of a secondary size. The tubercles 
of both area? are surrounded by a smooth areola encircled by a 
groove, on the external margin of which a wreath of small granules 
is disposed, reminding us of the granular zone surrounding the 
primary tubercles in the genus Cidaris. The intertubercular 
spaces of the area? are filled up with small granules. The inter- 
ambulacral area? are separated along the median line by a some- 
what depressed furrow, which is most conspicuous between the 
equator and the anal pole. This furrow arises from the con- 
vexity of the new-formed plates, and becomes less evident when 
the plates attain a greater width; this depression is likewise 
destitute of granulations, and affords a good specific character 
for this Urchin. The poriferous avenues are of uniform width 
on the sides of the test ; they become slightly contracted at the 
basal angle, and expand from that point to the margin of the 
mouth-opening. The avenues have three pairs of holes disposed 
obliquely throughout, but increased to four or five pairs to fill 
up the increased spaces of the avenues in the vicinity of the 
mouth. The ovarial and ocular plates are in general preserved. 
The anal opening is always eccentrical, which gives the summit 
of the test an irregular form ; the opening is placed forward, so 
that the madreporiform plate occupies nearly the centre of the 
anal polar axis. The pairs of ovarial and ocular plates are small 
and imperfectly developed. 

The base is concave, and in this region all the primary tubercles 
of the interambulacral area? attain their full development. The 
mouth-opening is large and decagonal, occupying nearly one- 
half the diameter of the base; the circumference is deeply 
notched with ten indentations which extend into the interambu- 
lacral area?, and have their borders reflexed. 

The spines are small, delicate, and subulate, but are very 
seldom found in connection with the test. 

Affinities and differences. — We have, through the courtesy of 
Mr. S. P. Woodward, compared our Urchins with the typical 
specimens of E. perlatus in the Brit. Mus., and through the 
kindness of Professor Forbes with a specimen of E. germinans, 
sent by Mr. Phillips from Yorkshire; from this examination it 
is certain that the Gloucestershire and Yorkshire Echini are 

18* 



276 Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridas of the Oolites. 

the same species, and that the difference between them and the 
foreign E. perlatus from the evidence afforded by the test alone 
amounts at most to a more granular variety. We may consider 
therefore E. perlatus, var. germinans, as characteristic of the 
inferior stages, and E. perlatus of the upper stages of the Oolitic 
group. E. diademata of M'Coy agrees so nearly with our speci- 
mens of the young of this species that we think them the same. 

Stratigraphical range and localities. — This Urchin is found in 
good preservation in the inferior ferruginous beds of the Pea- 
grit at Leckhampton, Cleeve, and Crickley Hills. Our best 
specimens were obtained from the latter locality ; it is found in 
the shelly freestone of the above hills, and in the Inferior Oolite 
of Stroud, Nailsworth, Minchinhampton and Dundry ; its convex 
prominent ambulacral columns, and the median furrow down 
the centre of the interambulacral arese, serving to determine the 
species even when its other characters are effaced. On the con- 
tinent E. perlatus is considered a characteristic Urchin of the 
" Terrain a chailles," and was long ago described by Desmarest. 
The specimens from the Inferior Oolite are more granular than 
those obtained from the upper stages of the Oolitic series, but in 
other respects the specific characters are identical. 

History. — Echinus perlatus, figured and described by Des- 
marest and Goldfuss, has been long known to characterize the 
upper Oolitic beds of the continent. We have no doubt that 
Mr. Phillips's E. germinans is at most only a variety of this 
species found in the Inferior Oolites of England. Mr. M 'Coy's 
description of E. dimidiata corresponds so closely with young 
specimens of this species, a series of which now lies before us, 
that we cannot doubt their identity. 

Echinus serialis, Agass. PI. XIII. fig. 2 a, b, c f d. 
Syn. Echinus serialis, Agassiz, Echin. Foss. de la Suisse, t. 22. 
fig. 10-12. 

Test hemispherical, depressed, circumference slightly pentagonal; 
ambulacral arese with two rows of marginal tubercles ; inter- 
ambulacral arese with two ranges of tubercles in the centre of 
the columns ; base concave, mouth moderate-sized, decagonal, 
and slightly notched ; apical disc small ; anus slightly ec- 
centrical. 

Height 1 inch, transverse diameter 1 inch and T 7 n ths. 
Description. — This Echinus resembles a Diadema in having two 
ranges of tubercles very nearly the same size on both areas ; the 
ambulacral are rather more than one-third the width of the inter- 
ambulacral areas, and are furnished with two rows of small 
tubercles, each alternate plate supporting a tubercle on its pori- 
ferous margin ; the interambulacral arese are wide, and have in 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 277 

like manner two ranges of small tubercles, about twenty in each 
range, occupying the centre of the plates ; the tubercles are raised 
on inconsiderable mammillary eminences surrounded by smooth 
areolae, and encircled by a zone of small granules ; the intertu- 
bercular spaces of both arese are covered with similar small granula- 
tions; there are a few irregular secondary tubercles about the base, 
but none on the sides of the interambulacral or ambulacral arese; 
the poriferous avenues are narrow, and occupied by numerous close- 
set pores arranged in triple oblique pairs ; the basal angle is ob- 
tuse, and the base concave ; in this region the tubercles are largest, 
and a few additional ones are introduced at each side of the cen- 
tral range; the mouth-opening is moderate, being y^ths of an inch 
in diameter ; it is nearly of a circular form, the marginal notches 
being of inconsiderable depth ; the ovarial and ocular plates are 
small and preserved ; in some of the smaller specimens the madre- 
poriform plate is larger than the pairs of ovarials ; the anus is 
situated before the single plate, and to the right side, and is 
therefore slightly eccentrical. The spines are unknown. 

Affinities and differences. — The comparative smoothness of the 
test, and the absence of secondary tubercles, with the smallness 
of the marginal notches in the mouth-opening, form diagnostic 
characters by which we distinguish E. serialis from E. perlatus ; 
the median depression between the two columns of interambulacra 
is likewise absent in this species. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This species has been col- 
lected from the Inferior Oolite at Shurdington and Dundry Hills ; 
the specimen from the latter locality is the one which has served 
for our description, the parts of the test which are broken being 
fortunately present in the smaller Urchin from the former loca- 
lity ; the Swiss specimens were found in the " Terrain k chailles n 
at Fringeli (Canton of Soleure), where it is very rare. 

History. — First found by M. Gressly and figured and described 
by M. Agassiz in his ' Echin. Fossiles ' ; we are not aware of its 
having been noticed before as a British species. 

Echinus granulans (Wright), n. s. 

Test depressed, pentagonal ; ambulacral arese with two rows of 
tubercles ; interambulacra with eight rows of tubercles, at the 
base and lower third of the area? diminishing in size and num- 
ber from six to four rows towards the apex ; mouth large with 
marginal indentations ; anus central ; ovarial and ocular plates 
small. 

Height T 7 (jths of an inch, transverse diameter 1^ inch. 
Description. — This Urchin is distinguished from the foregoing 
species by its depressed poles and pentagonal form, arising from 



278 Dr. T. Wright on the CidaridaB of the Oolites. 

the prominence of the ambulacral arese, which are not quite one- 
half the width of the interambulacral, and have two rows of 
tubercles throughout, and an additional row of from six to eight 
arranged between the marginal rows at the widest part of the 
areas near the basal angle ; the interambulacral arese are wide 
and covered with tubercles ; at the basal angle and lower third 
of the arese we observe eight rows of tubercles, but at the upper 
part of the sides and near the apex there are only six rows : the 
specimen before us being much defaced about the apices of the 
arese, this part of the test cannot be accurately described. The 
poriferous avenues are occupied with close-set pairs of pores ar- 
ranged in triple oblique rows ; the basal angle is obtuse, and the 
base is flat ; the mouth is large and indented at the circumfe- 
rence; the ovarial and ocular plates are small, and the anus is 
central. 

Affinities and differences. — The depressed test, pentagonal form, 
central anus and granular surface serve to distinguish this species 
from E. perlatus, which it much resembles. The same characters 
form a clear diagnosis between it and E. serialis, the number and 
smallness of the tubercles giving the upper surface of the test a 
rugous or granular appearance. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This Urchin was obtained 
from the upper ragstone of Leekhampton Hill (Inferior Oolite), 
where it is rare ; we have only seen three specimens of the species. 

Genus Arbacia, Gray. 

Small Urchins of a subspherical form, having the test covered 
with numerous small smooth-based imperforate tubercles, forming 
numerous rows on the ambulacral and interambulacral arese ; the 
pores arranged in rather deep avenues in single pairs ; base con- 
cave; mouth large, margin with ten inconsiderable notches; 
apical disc narrow, prominent, and ring-shaped. 

Arbacia Forbesii, Wright, n. s. PI. XIII. fig. 4«, b, c. 

Test hemispherical ; ambulacral arese narrow, with four rows of 

small tubercles ; interambulacral arese wide, divided by deep 

median depressed lines, and covered with from twenty to thirty 

rows of small nearly equal-sized tubercles. 

Height 2%ths of an inch, transverse diameter ^ths of an inch. 

Description. — The test of this beautiful little Urchin is divided 

into fifteen unequal lobes; five of these are narrow and form the 

ambulacra], and ten are wider, forming the divided interambulacral 

arese, which present an unusual appearance, having a median 

furrow descending down the centre of the arese and dividing them 

into two equal convex conical lobes ; the surface of the arese is 



Dr. T. Wright on the Cidaridse of the Oolites. 279 

thickly studded with small smooth tubercles ; at the widest part 
there are from twenty-five to thirty rows ; the number of these 
diminish at the apex and base, the basal tubercles are however 
larger than the others ; the ambulacral arese are narrow and of a 
nearly uniform width ; they are furnished with four rows of small 
tubercles similar to those occupying the interambulacral arese ; 
they are in fact so closely set together that the plates are invi- 
sible, so that the test presents only a uniform granulated surface ; 
the avenues are straight, narrow, but well defined ; the pores are 
closely arranged in simple pairs ; the base is concave and the 
tubercles in this region are larger ; the mouth presents almost a 
pentagonal form in consequence of the wide straight arch made 
by the margin over the ambulacra and the small angles which 
the shallow notches make in the interambulacra ; the apical disc 
is narrow and prominent ; the madreporiform is larger than the 
pairs of ovarial plates, and the oculars are small, but apparently 
soldered into the angles formed by the ovarials. 

Affinities and differences. — The greater number and the dimi- 
nished size of the tubercles, with the deep median furrow down 
the centre of the interambulacral arese, serve to distinguish A. 
Forbesii from A. nodulosa : as they are the only two forms of this 
genus hitherto found in our Oolites, these characters form a good 
diagnosis. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This Arbacian was collected 
from the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite near Dundry, and we 
only know it from that locality. I have dedicated this species to 
Prof. Edward Forbes, to whose genius, talents, and learning 
natural history is so largely indebted. 

Arbacia nodulosa, "Wright. PL XIII. fig. 3 a, b. 

Syn. Echinus nodulosus, Goldfuss, Petr. Germanise, t. 40. fig. 16. 
p. 125. 

Test hemispherical, with a subpentagonal circumference ; ambu- 
lacral arese prominent and bounded by deep poriferous avenues ; 
interambulacral arese divided by a slight median depression ; 
tubercles nearly equal-sized in both arese, and arranged in lon- 
gitudinal rows. 

Height /^ths of an inch, transverse diameter f^ths of an inch. 

Description. — This nodulated Urchin is hemispherical and has a 
subpentagonal form from the development of the ambulacral arese, 
which are very prominent, especially at the basal angle ; they are 
furnished with three rows of smooth prominent spherical tubercles 
set at short distances apart, the central row being absent at the 
base and apex of the arese ; the interainbulacral arese are twice the 
width of the ambulacral, and are occupied at their widest parts 
with about ten rows of tubercles, about the same size as those of 



280 Mr. T. Austin on the Connexion between 

the ambulacral, and like them set distinct from each other, which 
gives the surface of the test a nodulated air ; a slight furrow passes 
down the centre of the interambulacral arese, dividing them into 
two parts ; the rows of tubercles diminish in number at the apex 
and base of the arese, they are larger and more fully developed, 
however, in the latter region ; the apical disc is small, ring- 
formed, and prominent; the poriferous avenues are deep and 
strongly denned, the pores are arranged in simple pairs above, 
but they form double ranges which fill up the wide space at the 
basis of the area? ; the base is concave, the mouth is large and 
pentagonal like the former species, the notches are closely ap- 
proximated at the bases of the interambulacra, and the marginal 
arch over the ambulacra is straight and wide ; the tubercles dis- 
posed at the bases of both area? are larger and more fully developed 
than those occupying the sides. 

Affinities and differences. — The size of the tubercles and their 
diminished numbers when compared with A. Forbesii serve as a 
sufficient diagnosis whereby A. nodulosa may be distinguished 
from the former Urchin; the slight median furrow down the centre 
of the interambulacral area? is very different from the deep line se- 
parating the arese in A. Forbesii into two equal nearly conical lobes. 

Locality and stratigraphical range. — This species was collected 
by my friend the Rev. P. B. Brodie from the bed of clay resting 
on the Stonesfield slate at Sevenhampton Common, along with 
Acrosalenia spinosa and Pecten varians ; this bed occupies the same 
relative position in other parts of Gloucestershire, and is probably 
the basal clay band on which the shelly freestone beds of the 
Great Oolite rest. I only know the solitary specimen before 
me; in Germany, Count Minister found it in the Jurakalk of 
Baireuth. 

History. — First figured and described as an Echinus by Gold- 
fuss. I am not aware of its having been noticed before as a 
British fossil. 

My thanks are especially due to Mr. W. H. Baily for the pains 
he has taken with the beautiful figures which accompany this 
paper, the original specimens of which are in my cabinet. 



XXII. — Observations on the Connexion between the Crinoidese and 
the Echinodermata generally. By Thomas Austin, F.G.S., 
Fort Major, &c. 

In offering these observations and generalizations relative to the 
Crinoidese, it is but an act of justice to acknowledge how deeply 
we are indebted to the laborious researches of those who have 
preceded us in this branch of inquiry. Among the writers on 
the Crinoidese who have thrown considerable light on this im- 



the Crinoidese and the Echinodermata. 281 

portant group of animals, the late Mr. J. S. Miller is entitled to 
a prominent place ; and although the correctness of many of his 
inductions may be fairly doubted, we must nevertheless be sen- 
sible of his great assiduity, deep research, and persevering in- 
dustry in raising the Crinoidese from a miscellaneous state of 
confusion to a position of arrangement and order, which has 
caused them to be better understood and appreciated. 

Subsequently, however, to Miller's investigation, so numerous 
have been the discoveries, that out of three or four hundred 
species of fossil Crinoids now known to science, he was only 
acquainted with twenty-four. The number of genera since 
established greatly outnumbers even the species discovered up to 
the period at which he wrote. Not only have new discoveries 
been made as regards numbers, but more perfect specimens have 
been obtained, so as to enable the naturalist to draw inductions and 
prove analogies between them and existing groups of animals, 
and thus in a manner compel him to re-arrange the whole tribe, 
to use a new nomenclature, and, in short, to raise it to a parallel 
position with the class to which it belongs, and which the ad- 
vanced state of knowledge imperatively demands. 

As we advance in our acquaintance with this very interesting 
class of animals, we are soon struck with the manner in which 
this remarkable tribe demonstrate the changes of organic life on 
our earth and the mutations it has undergone, and also the 
various physical changes that have taken place ; the distribution 
of fossil zoological remains proving that these repeated changes 
in animal life have been in perfect accordance with the altered 
physical conditions of the planet. 

The discoveries I have been fortunate enough to make of many 
new species, and nearly perfect in form, has thrown considerable 
light on the subject. Mr. Fletcher and Mr. Gray, of Dudley, 
have done good service to science in collecting many fine speci- 
mens of Crinoidese, while the extensive addition of new forms 
made by Dr. Troost, of Tennessee, and other American geologists, 
reflects honour on their country. Dr. Troost has added between 
one and two hundred new genera and species, all of which he 
obtained from the American rocks. As far as my own observa- 
tion yet extends, the species are without exception unknown to 
the rocks of Europe. Sir Charles Lyell found that the American 
marine shells agree with the European to the extent of 35 per 
cent. This is the more remarkable, as of the American fossil 
Crinoids which have come under my notice, consisting of upwards 
of twenty species, together with six new Pentremites and the 
allied Olivanites, and for which I am mostly indebted to the 
liberality of Dr. Yandell, I cannot recognise a single individual 
as being exactly identical with any European species. 



282 Mr. T. Austin on the Connexion between 

One or two detached pieces, it is true, appear to belong to well- 
known European species, but till more perfect specimens are 
obtained the identification cannot be complete. 

Dr. Troost claims to have added two hundred new forms to 
the long catalogue of these fossils already known. After making 
considerable allowance for the zeal of a first discoverer in bestow- 
ing a name on every fossil new to him, by deducting a fair per- 
centage from the gross amount, a very considerable number of 
new genera and species (probably all the latter) still remain to 
make Dr. Troost's discoveries of great value and interest to 
science in various ways, not the least of which is that of enabling 
us to compare the forms inhabiting the seas of our own latitude 
in remote epochs with those which existed three thousand miles 
distant in the West. On making this comparison we find that 
each portion of the globe had in those earlier periods its own 
peculiar animals, each equally distinct and strongly marked in 
character as at the present day. Few genera and species being 
common to such distant localities as Europe and America, yet 
when we take a casual view of the fossils found on the two con- 
tinents, we are instantly impressed with the idea of their general 
resemblance to each other ; but when we come to examine them 
more closely, the resemblance is no longer maintained. Genera 
that at first appear identical with long known forms, prove per- 
fectly distinct, and species which seem to a casual observer as 
one and the same, under the eye of the scientific inquirer are 
found to be wholly dissimilar in the arrangement of the calcareous 
framework. Thus the Agaricocrinus of America closely ap- 
proaches our Amphoracrinus, but it is in reality intermediate 
between that genus and Actinocrinus, and so on of many others. 

Many distinguished naturalists have published detailed de- 
scriptions of various Crinoids ; among these may be mentioned 
M. d'Orbigny, Count Munster, and M. Romer. The researches 
of these and other observers have greatly enlarged the limits of 
fossil zoology by increasing our acquaintance with those ancient 
and extinct genera and species of Crinoidese which supply many 
important links which were before wanting to complete the chain 
in the scale of organic life, from the period when the world was 
first inhabited to the present time. In this manner as our in- 
formation increases we find a perfect and unbroken succession of 
organic beings gradually developed in accordance with the phy- 
sical changes that have taken place on the earth ; changes so 
manifest, that the stratified rocks may be distinguished from each 
other not only by mechanical structure, mineral condition, che- 
mical composition, arrangement and position, but above all by 
their fossil contents. 

The manner in which these fossil bodies or organic remains 



the Crinoidese and the Echinodermata. 283 

are distributed through the strata greatly aids the geologist in his 
inquiries. They enable him to identify at distant points rocks 
which may perhaps present different appearances of mineral 
composition and whose geological position is but obscurely in- 
dicated, but which, when the imbedded fossils are carefully 
examined, prove them to be of contemporaneous age; for we 
know by experience that certain genera and species of animal 
remains occur in regular and beautiful sequence in the different 
groups of rocks, and that in many cases certain species are 
peculiar to a single formation, by which it can be distinguished 
even amidst the greatest confusion ; that is, when the original 
arrangement of the strata has been so disturbed as to reverse the 
order of their superposition, or their complications by faults so 
great that every relation to distant masses is rendered obscure 
and doubtful. 

In the Crinoidese, Mollusca, and other remains of ancient and 
by-gone periods, we find so many beacon-lights, or directing 
points, that, by an accurate knowledge of genera and species, we 
can arrive at results and conclusions, that under other circum- 
stances we could never hope for, and but for such knowledge 
could never be attained. With a view of contributing to this 
desirable end, we have undertaken the task of describing the 
Crinoidese in a monograph, not only because their remains are 
found so abundantly in the older formations, but also on account 
of the many new forms which have been discovered, and which 
have thrown so much additional light on a subject formerly so 
obscure and complicated. 

Since those early periods in the earth's history when the Cri- 
noidese existed in countless myriads, they have gradually dimi- 
nished in numbers during subsequent ages, until only a few 
species are found amongst the living creation ; and these, with 
the exception of one, the Pentacrinus Caput Medusae, are so un- 
like ancient forms, that few persons, except the scientific, would 
identify them as allied to this once abounding tribe. 

To the geologist, the zoologist, and those who desire informa- 
tion, the fossil genera present a wide field for inquiry and contem- 
plation : — their symmetry of form, and the beautiful arrangement 
seen in the elaborate contrivance by which hundreds of thousands 
of separate indurated pieces are so placed that each piece is so 
nicely fitted to the adjacent pieces, that a skeleton seemingly so 
complicated in its mechanism becomes obviously, as we study the 
uses of the various parts, as simple in action as it is delicately 
articulated and geometrically constructed. 

In the Eoctracrinus Briareus I have counted upwards of 741,710 
joints or separate pieces, exclusive of the small plates which stud 
the membrane that covers the inside of each ray, and which 



284 Mr. T. Austin on the Connexion between 

if taken into the calculation would swell the number to upwards 
of a million. And if we consider the number of muscles requisite 
to put this million of parts in motion, we are lost in admiration 
at the apparent complexity, but in reality simplicity of structure 
in the indurated skeleton of this animal. 

For the better comprehension of this important and interesting 
group of animals it is desirable to enter into some detail respect- 
ing the whole tribe of Echinoderms, a term applied byBruguiere to 
those animals whose skin is generally furnished with calcareous 
spines. Accordingly the Star-fishes or Asteriadce are first noticed. 
These animals are enveloped in a coriaceous integument studded 
in various degrees with granules of calcareous matter. They 
present different modifications of form, and according to that 
form depend in a great degree the characters which have enabled 
naturalists to divide them into various genera and species. 

The genus Goniaster may be described as an animal of a pen- 
tangular form ; on the inferior surface and on a line with the 
angles run five furrows or depressions, on the margins of which 
are numerous foramina, through which protrude the tubuliform 
tentacula, which are furnished with cup-like appendages. These 
may be considered as the feet, as they are the only locomotive 
organs possessed by animals of this genus. 

The true Asterias are known by their simple flattened rays, 
which are generally five in number, but some species have as 
many as ten or twelve. All these have the mouth placed beneath, 
around which are several perforated plates ; these perforations 
are known to be the ovarial passages. There are other openings 
which probably aid in the purposes of respiration, as well as in 
the water circulation, as they lead to the canals known as the 
aquiferous system. The term 'oviducal plates ' has been applied 
to the pieces through which the ovarial apertures pass. 

Next, the Ophiura may be known by a small orbicular disc-like 
body, from which emanate five circular attenuated rays. These 
are in many instances furnished with spines which aid them in 
locomotion. 

The Euryale, or Gorgonocephalus of Leach, bears some resem- 
blance to the Ophiura ; but in place of the five simple rays, each 
of its rays branches off into so many subdivisions, that 512 have 
been counted as given off by each ray, which multiplied by 5, 
the number of the parent rays, gives 2560 lesser subdivisions or 
filaments capable of forming a net for the capture of food, and 
also by its undulatory motion of producing progression through 
the water. By means of these filaments the Euryale can attach 
itself to extraneous bodies, such as Gorgonice, and thus moor 
itself in order to repose, or as a protection against the violence 
of an agitated sea. 



the Crinoidese and the Echinodcrmata. 285 

Before passing from the Stelleridce, it will be well to bear in 
mind that among their essential characters that of being free 
locomotive animals must not be lost sight of; also, that their 
natural position is with the mouth downwards ; that the cavity- 
containing the digestive organs is a pouch-like sac giving off 
ca?ca, the refuse of their food in all the Ophiurida, and in many 
true Star-fishes, being rejected by the mouth ; likewise, that they 
possess distinct, well-defined oviducts, and are supposed by many 
naturalists to possess the power of self-impregnation. 

In connecting the Star-fishes with the Crinoidese it will be well 
to notice two genera, one now extinct, and the other an inhabitant 
of the seas of our own times. These in a very decided manner 
unite the more ancient Crinoids with the recent Echinoderms. 

First the Marsupite, whose body, that is, the dorsal portion 
of it, is covered by sixteen pentagonal plates. Fifteen of these 
plates are arranged in three tiers or series of five each ; the upper 
row, being the ray-bearing plates, has in each piece a horseshoe- 
shaped concavity in its centre for the insertion of the rays, while 
the lower series rest on the dorso-central pentagonal plate. 

The Marsupite has only been discovered in a fossil state in the 
chalk beds of Sussex, and has no doubt been long extinct ; and 
consequently although it furnishes us with but few indications 
of its habits and mode of life, yet it directs our attention to a 
genus which is found in a living state in our own seas, and which 
may be considered as the representative of the extinct Marsupite, 
namely the Comatula, which at once leads us back again to the 
Crinoids. 

The Comatula in its mature state is an unattached animal 
having a depressed orbicular body covered with calcareous plates 
which inclose the digestive organs. The mouth is centrical and 
somewhat protrusive, and is surrounded by tentaculated jointed 
rays or arms. On the dorsal side of the body below the rays 
are several claspers terminating in a hooked point. These bear 
a striking analogy to the auxiliary side-arms so common to many 
species of true Crinoids. 

The Comatula possesses both an oral and anal opening. In 
its early state it is attached to extraneous substances by a flexible 
column, and when first discovered was described as the Penta- 
crinus Europceus. 

When examining these two genera, we see in a very remarkable 
manner the connection between the free swimming and the per- 
manently attached Asteriada, or between the Star-fishes and the 
Crinoids. 

So perfect are all the arrangements in the organized world, 
and so complete the gradations from genera to genera and 
species to species, that in studying any one class of animals we 



286 Mr. T. Austin on the Connexion between 

find that no connecting link is wanting in the chain which seems 
to run through animated nature from an early period of time to 
the present day. Thus again the Lansdown Encrinite, discovered 
some years since by Mr. Baretti, of Bath, in the Oolite at Lans- 
down, is another connecting link between the fixed and free 
Echinoderms. This Crinoid has heretofore been placed in the 
genus Apiocrinus, but the impropriety of arranging a free loco- 
motive animal in the same genus with those which were perma- 
nently attached by a massive base, and from which it so essen- 
tially differs, is too apparent to require a moment's hesitation in 
elevating it into a new genus, for which the name of Gnathocrinus 
has been proposed. 

The column of this fossil consists of a series of annular pieces, 
more or less numerous in different individuals ; each joint gra- 
dually decreases in size as it recedes from the body, until the 
terminal joint ends in a small obtuse point without the slightest 
indication of root, or other appendage for permanent attachment. 
It would seem from this, that the animal possessed the power of 
free locomotion, and it may also be inferred that by twining its 
tapering column round extraneous objects, such as coral branches, 
sea weed, &c, it could moor itself securely to watch for its prey, 
or in order to remain at rest. 

The genus Apiocrinus affords considerable insight into the 
anatomy of the whole tribe. In this genus, I have examined 
specimens ranging from the embryonic monad to the mature 
and perfect animal, which at its first dawn of existence seems to 
have borne some resemblance to a minute Actinea encased in a 
calcareous integument. In the fossilized embryonic roots and 
stems the form of the parent Crinoid had not yet become fully 
developed, therefore proving that these animals were oviparous, 
since from the smallness of these rudimentary specimens, it is 
evident they were in their earliest state of existence mere mo- 
nads, and yet are found attached, not to the parent's body, but 
to a plate that had been separated from its original place, and 
had lain for some time exposed at the bottom of the sea. 
Whereas the offspring produced by gemmiferous generation 
never become detached from the body of the parent until they 
have attained a considerable size and more perfect form. 

Some well-preserved specimens show the oviducts in different 
stages of advancement towards ejecting the ova. In others we 
see, through the displacement of the pieces, the internal opening 
for the passage of the oviduct, and in others the oviducts appear 
as if turgid with ova. These specimens prove that the animals 
possessed ovaries with five ducts as in Echini. 

If we make a horizontal section of an Actinocrinus where the 
rays divide the body into the dorsal and ventral parts, the figure 



the Crinoidese and the Echinodermata. 287 

approaches that of a Goniaster ; and if the ovarial pores in Acti- 
nocrinus are situated at the base of the rays, as is generally be- 
lieved, then the resemblance becomes more complete ; the dif- 
ference in this respect being that in Goniaster the ovarian pores 
are marginal and situated between the rays, and in Actinocrinus 
at the points from whence the rays emanate. The Actinocrinus 
section also closely resembles in outline an impregnated Apio- 
crinus, making the connecting links still more perfect. 

In the American Ayaricocrinus of Dr. Troost, the ovarial ducts 
are clearly seen at the base of the rays. This newly discovered 
genus, forming as it does a connecting link between the genera 
Actinocrinus and Amphoracrinus, again shows the gradations by 
analogy that exist between the different genera in the whole 
group. 

Passing from the Encrinites proper, another very singular 
extinct family presents itself to our notice, of which we have no 
exact type in the living creation, namely the v Blastoidea, esta- 
blished by Say. This family contains but one genus, named Pen- 
tremites. The genus may be defined thus : — Perisomic plates 
so united and fitted to each other as to completely inclose the 
digestive organs and generative system ; the mouth and ovarial 
pores placed on and around the apex ; branchiae arranged in five 
ambulacral rows; column cylindrical, perforated in the centre 
and composed of numerous articulating joints; arms none. 

This remarkable genus bears so little affinity to any other yet 
discovered, excepting Dr. Troost's recent discovery of the Oliva- 
nites, to which it is allied, that it cannot with propriety be re- 
ferred to any natural family hitherto instituted, for to those 
which most nearly approach it, it is but remotely and obscurely 
allied. Its columnar attachment seems to connect it with the 
true Crinoids, but the absence of projecting rays altogether ex- 
cludes it from that group ; while the body in which are situated 
the ambulacral cilia, circularly placed openings and the central 
generally angulated one, proves its affinity to the Echinidce, but 
the columnar support and attachment prove that it cannot be 
properly grouped with them. 

Considerable analogy also exists between some species of Pen- 
tremites, the P. inflatus and P. pentangularis for example, and 
the Star-fishes. Likewise, if the internal sac of a small Goni- 
aster be filled or inflated to turgidity, the body assumes a conoid 
form, and then the general resemblance becomes strikingly ob- 
vious, while the ovarial apertures bear considerable analogy to 
each other. The Pentremites astraformis even more nearly ap- 
proaches the Goniaster Templetoni (Thompson) than the P. in- 
flatus or P. pentangularis . It also presents on its ventral surface 
some characters common to both Asterias and Ophiura. The 



288 Mr. T. Austin on the Connexion between 

genital openings however differ in position. Those of the Pen- 
tremites encircle the mouth, whilst those of the former are margi- 
nal ; yet here we have links which connect the Pentremites with 
listerias and Ophiura. 

By investigating the family of Pentremites we are led pro- 
gressively, as before indicated, to the Echinidce, when, taking Ci- 
daris for the type, we find the skeleton formed of five tumid or 
blunt rays, each composed of a double series of hexagonal plates, 
these rays being separated by a similar number of ambulacra, 
sinuous and perforated by minute foramina or ambulacral pores. 
The ambulacra radiating from the mouth, which is beneath, and 
taking an upward course, terminate near the apex, which is com- 
posed of five plates, each of which has a central opening or ovarial 
aperture. These pieces united may be considered as the dorso- 
central plate, in the centre of which the vent is situated. 

From this genus we pass by natural gradations to others ; but 
we may pause for an instant to remark on the resemblance which 
exists between the genus Conulus and some species of Pentremites, 
in which the ovarian openings exhibit considerable similitude to 
each other. 

As previously observed, in Cidaris and Echinus the mouth is 
found beneath, and the anal opening above or opposite ; but in 
Spatangus and other allied forms the anal pore occupies a lateral 
position, and as we extend our observations we find it, by gradual 
modifications in different genera or species, becoming more 
remote from the dorsal plane, and consequently by degrees ap- 
proaching the oral aperture. Thus in Clypeaster its position is 
in the extreme margin, in Echinoneus it is seen on the same plane 
as the mouth, and finally its approximation becomes so close, that 
at length in some instances it is merged in the oral opening as 
in Echinocyamus, thus returning through various and beautiful 
modifications of form and structure to the starting-point, or until 
it becomes typical with the Star-fishes. 

If a common Star-fish of five rays or lobes be examined, we 
find it to have a well-defined ambulacrum on the inner surface, 
sunk as it were in a deep furrow, which diverges from the central 
disc in the direction of the rays. Numerous foramina and small 
spines will also be observed. By flattening out the rays, the 
perforated ambulacra will be found ranged along the sides ; and 
if we bring up the points of the Star-fish to meet in a centre 
above, a spherical body is at once produced closely resembling an 
Echinus, the now curved ambulacra meeting and forming the 
double lines as seen most clearly in Cidaris ; and further, if the 
extreme points of the star are turned inwards, an apophysis is 
formed capable of supporting the muscles which in Echinus move 
and sustain the maxillary process or jaws. 



the Crinoidese and the Echinodermata. 289 

Again, if we take an Echinus and separate the plates down the 
middle of the interambulacral spaces and fold them back so as 
to meet above, and then turn down the separated bands, we have 
a complete Star-fish with the ambulacra and mouth beneath as 
in the Asteriadce generally. Likewise, if an Echinus is placed 
with the mouth upwards, we find the central plate beneath the 
proper axis. This not inaptly represents the upper joint of the 
column to which it bears considerable analogy. The five oviducal 
plates may be considered as corresponding to the quinquepartite 
dorso-central plate of the Apiocrinus, in which are seen the open- 
ings of the oviducts. Above these pieces are the double range 
of hexagonal plates which indifferently represent the perisomic 
plates, rays, &c, of the Crinoid. 

Having traced the gradual transition from the Asteriadce to 
the Crinoidece, from the Crinoidece to the Blastoidea, and from 
these again to the Echinidce, and these last into the Star-fishes, 
it now only remains to notice the Cystidece or Sphceronida, in 
which analogies and gradations may be traced connecting them 
with the Pentremites and Crinoidece, as well as with the Asteriadce 
and Echinidce, in a similar manner to those links which I have 
endeavoured to indicate in the preceding observations as existing 
between the different groups of Echinoderms, but which will 
however form the subject of further investigation. 

The Cystidece is an order of radiated animals which has long 
been known to naturalists, but until recently no attempt was 
made to place them in a position which their geological and 
zoological importance seemed to demand. Mr. Gray of the 
British Museum was the first, I believe, to see the necessity of 
establishing a family for the grouping together of those ancient 
forms of Radiata which closely resemble true Crinoids, but which 
are devoid of arms, properly so called. With this view Mr. Gray 
appears to have proposed the name of Sphceronidce for the group. 
Subsequently Baron von Buch, in his essay. " Ueber Cystideen," 
published at Berlin in 1845, grouped them together under the 
above title. But I reserve further observations on this portion 
of the subject to another opportunity, remarking however that 
Prof. E. Forbes, at p. 531, part 2. vol. ii. of the ' Geological Me- 
moirs/ seems to doubt the occurrence of Cystideans in our Moun- 
tain Limestone, and asserts that the bodies I have described as 
such he has " inspected through the kindness of Mr. Morris, and 
they appear rather to belong to a group along with Pentremites 
rather than to true Cystidea" 

In reply to this observation I can only remark, that the speci- 
mens in my possession were not seen either by Prof. Forbes or 
Mr. Morris, and that I ventured to group them with the Cystidea 
on the authority of Von Buch himself, who founded the family, as 

Ann. | Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol viii. 19 



290 Messrs. Alder and Hancock on two new species of 

the following extract from the translation of his paper on the 
Cystidea* will prove: — 

"Mr.. Austin states that Sycocrinites exhibits three dorso-central 
plates," &c (see Annals of Nat. Hist vol. xi. p. 206). "This is 
manifestly the description of a Crypt ocrinite (so named in 1840) ; 
but this author does not state the locality of his specimen," &c. 

I will only add, that Cryptocrinus is a genus arranged with 
Von Buch's family of Cystidea, and that it does not appear to 
belong to a group along with Pentremites* 

August 9th, 1851. 



XXIII. — Descriptions of two new species of Nudihranchiate Mol- 
lusca, one of them forming the type of a new Genus. By Joshua 
Alder and Albany Hancock. With the Anatomy of t/ie 
Genus, by Albany Hancock. 

[With two Plates.] 

The Nudibranchiate Mollusks, which we have now the pleasure 
of introducing for the first time to the notice of naturalists, we 
owe to the persevering researches of our friend Mr. W. P. Cocks 
of Falmouth, by whom they have been communicated to us, with 
kind permission to publish descriptions of them. The first spe- 
cies we shall notice we refer to the Thecacera of Fleming, a genus 
at present so imperfectly understood that any addition to our 
knowledge of its characters may be considered as furnishing a 
desideratum in this family of the Mollusca. We propose to 
characterize it as follows : — 

Thecacera virescens. Body rather convex, smooth, of a light 
peach-blossom tint, blotched with green anteriorly and poste- 
riorly. Head with a plain sub velar margin in front. Ten- 
tacles broadly laminated, the laminated portion green, the 
lower or smooth portion of the same colour as the body ; they 
are retractile within moderately-sized sheaths with smooth 
margins. Branchial plumes five, green, margined with white. 
A single row of obsolete tubercles encircles the branchial re- 
gion. Foot of a dull yellowish white. Length T 3 n ths of an 
inch. 

This beautiful little animal differs in several respects from the 
Doris pennigera of Montagu, which is the type of the genus The- 
cacera, and might by some naturalists be thought entitled to 
rank as a new genus ; we prefer, however, to consider it an ab- 

* A translation of this paper appeared in the Journal of the Geological 
Society, Feb. 1st, 1846. 




*&? 



Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 291 

normal form of Thecacera, with which it agrees in the sheathed 
tentacles and the plain frontal veil without filaments or tubercles. 
It seems to bear much the same relationship to T. pennigera as 
Polycera ocellata and P. Lessonii do to P. quadrilineata: 

Two specimens were found by Mr. Cocks in March 1849, at 
low-water mark on the oyster bed at Bar Point, Falmouth. 

The next novelty we have to describe is still more interesting. 
It belongs to the family Eolididce, but presents peculiarities that 
forbid its being associated generieally with any known form of 
that family. It will be necessary therefore to establish for it a 
new genus. 

OlTHONA*, n. g. 

Body elongated, limaciform ; head with four linear tentacles, 
constituting two pairs, both subdorsal ; the anterior pair, corre- 
sponding to the oral tentacles of Eolis, being situated consider- 
ably behind the lips. Mouth with corneous jaws. Branchiae 
papillary, clothing irregularly a subpallial expansion on the sides 
of the back and meeting posteriorly ; a produced membranous 
margin or fringe runs down the inner side of each papilla. Anus 
latero- dorsal, situated towards the right side. Orifices of the 
generative organs separate ; situated below the tentacles on the 
right side. 

This genus differs from Eolis in the anterior pair of tentacles 
not being placed on the lip, in the subdorsal position of the anus, 
and more especially in the curious frilled membrane that runs 
down the side of each branchial papilla. The papillae are also 
much more firmly attached to the back than in Eolis, and the 
apertures of the sexual organs are disunited. The anatomy also 
shows several interesting points of divergence. 

O. nobilis. Body pale buff or whitish, smooth ; tentacles long, 
broad at the base, and tapering to a fine point at the apex ; 
not wrinkled or laminated j both pairs nearly equal in length. 
Branchiae very numerous and crowded, commencing behind 
the tentacles and set without apparent order on the sides of the 
back on a subpallial expansion which is considerably produced 
posteriorly. They are linear-conical and rather compressed, 
particularly towards the base; the lateral fringe wide and 
strongly waved : the central vessel is of a rich dark brown, the 
sheath and waved membrane of a transparent buff-colour : 
the apices have an iridescent or metallic lustre, which is ob- 
servable also on the back. The foot is long and lanceolate, 
rounded in front and produced into a fine point behind ; the 
margins thin. Length 2 inches. 

* Oithona (the virgin of the wave), one of the heroines of Ossian. 

19* 



292 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 

Two specimens were found under a stone at Bar Point, Fal- 
mouth, together with some patches of spawn deposited on the 
surface of the stone. t ' When first taken," Mr. Cocks says, " the 
iridescent appearance of the back and the tips of the branchiae 
was delightful." The tentacles were not carried erect, but pro- 
jected horizontally ' ' like the horns of a bull." The spawn was 
of a hemispherical form, composed of a broadish band of ova 
disposed in a single coil, and curved inwards above. 

Unfortunately these beautiful creatures were killed during the 
first night after their capture by having been accidentally placed 
in a bottle that had contained quinine, and we thus lost the 
opportunity of seeing them in a living state. 

Anatomy of Oithona, by Albany Hancock. 

The anatomy of this animal amply proves its generic distinct- 
ness. Unfortunately we have not been able to go very minutely 
into the subject, having dissected only one of the two individuals 
captured ; the other being preserved for external identification. 
We have, however, ascertained all the leading features with suf- 
ficient accuracy, and therefore confidently give the following 
account of them. 

The tissues of Oithona are very tough and firm when compared 
with those of the other Eolididce, particularly the skin and the 
cellular tissue uniting the viscera. Of course we are now speak- 
ing of the animal, after having been subjected to the hardening 
action of spirit. Doto fragilis is the only species, with which 
we are acquainted, that at all approaches to it in this respect. 
The branchial papillae, too, are much more firmly attached than 
usual, and require considerable force to remove them. 

The oral orifice is situated in the inferior surface of the head ; 
it is small, and the external lip is divided behind on the median 
line much as in Eolis. The channel leading to the buccal appa- 
ratus is very short and constricted; and, just before it opens into 
that apparatus, receives on either side below, a very slender duct 
from a large, much folliculated, salivary gland (PI. IX. fig. 7 c, c). 
These glands lie beneath the stomach and extend almost half- 
way down the body. That on the right side is considerably less 
than the other, and is somewhat tubular, — distinctly so towards 
its termination ; the one on the left side is much complicated in 
form, being irregularly and extensively sacculated. The position 
of these glands is unusual : Doto fragilis is the only other species 
in which they open into the channel of the mouth in advance of 
the buccal mass. 

The buccal mass (PI. X. fig. 1 a & PI. IX. figs. 4, 5) is small, 
rather long, slender, and irregularly elliptical, the corneous 
plates or jaws (PI. IX. fig. 5 c) being visible at the sides : it is 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 293 

slightly prolonged behind for the reception of the posterior por- 
tion of the tongue, and the muscles are arranged much as in 
Eolis. On the dorsal aspect they are extensively developed, 
forming a dense mass, the fibres passing transversely and having 
their extremities inserted into the dorsal margins of the plates. 
These muscles undoubtedly assist in the motion of the jaws. 
Those for moving the whole apparatus forward are composed of 
flattened, isolated bands with their extremities attached to the 
posterior margin of the plates and to the muscles forming the 
walls of the channel of the mouth. 

The tongue is supported on a fleshy ridge that rises up from 
the floor of the buccal cavity, and extends in the antero-posterior 
direction from the oesophagus towards the anterior opening. 
This organ (fig. 6) is long, linear, and strap-formed, and is 
composed of forty transverse, semicircular plates (PI. X. fig. 7) 
of an orange colour, each bearing a stoutish central spine and 
six or seven smaller ones at the sides ; these latter having appa- 
rently a minute denticle at the base of their outer margin. All 
the spines are a little bent, and have their points directed back- 
wards towards the oesophageal opening. 

The corneous plates (PI. X. figs. 5, 6) are little short of the 
size of the buccal mass, and much elongated, well arched and 
ovate ; and, when united and entirely isolated, strongly resemble 
the valves of a minute Mytilus. They are smooth, glossy, and of 
a brownish amber colour, darkest towards the anterior extremity, 
which gives support to the cutting blade (a). This is a wing- 
like appendage of no great size, terminating below in a free 
point, and having the cutting margin arched forward, plain, and 
nearly at right angles to the general direction of the plate ; above 
is a small process or fulcrum (b) — the point at which the two 
plates are articulated; and immediately behind this point the 
dorsal margin of the plates is reflected and expanded into an 
arched lobe (c) for muscular attachment. 

The oesophagus (fig. 1 b) is a short and rather slender tube, 
which, passing from the upper aspect of the buccal mass towards 
its posterior extremity, opens into the anterior margin of a distinct 
pyriform stomach (c). This organ has the broad end forward, is 
placed above the reproductive apparatus, and lies quite in the 
anterior p rtion of the visceral cavity. The internal surface of the 
gastric organ does not appear to be lamellated. The intestine (d) 
passes from the posterior extremity of the stomach, and inclining 
slightly to the right side, passes backwards to the tubular anus 
(PI. IX. fig. 2 a), which is placed a little to the right of the me- 
dian line of the back, immediately behind the heart. The intes- 
tinal tube is rather short, of equal diameter throughout, and in- 
ternally plicated longitudinally. 



294 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 

The hepatic apparatus is very peculiar in this animal. The 
pyloric extremity of the stomach receives two biliary ducts, one 
on each side of the intestine. These ducts or hepatic canals 
(PL X. fig. 1 e> e) are nearly as wide as the intestine, and, diver- 
ging as they leave the stomach, very shortly pass into the skin at 
the sides of the back, where each opens into a wide channel that 
extends nearly the whole length of the body. The channels 
receive numerous branches (/), which communicate with the 
glands of the papillse, and as they approach the lateral expansion 
at the side of the body, they appear to be subdivided several 
times. The exact order of their subdivisions, however, was not 
determined ; but as the papilla? have no definite arrangement, it 
is probable that these branches also are irregularly disposed. 
The anterior portions of the great hepatic channels are appa- 
rently connected with two folliculated glandular bodies {g, g) 9 
much and irregularly sacculated. These bodies are united to 
the skin, one on each side near the region of the stomach, and 
probably form the inner walls of those portions of the channels. 
Amidst the cellular tissue at the extremity of the body, behind 
the ovary, there is likewise a glandular substance (A), of a reddish 
colour, folliculated and apparently branched, in connexion with 
the branches of the hepatic canals (i) within the skin. These 
branches at the posterior portion of the body probably form a 
sort of network of tubes across the dorsal aspect. Such perhaps 
may be inferred from the appearance the branches present when 
the skin of the back is divided down the median line. 

The arrangement of the hepatic canals differs from that which 
prevails in the Eolidida. In Eolis, Embletonia, Doto, Dendro- 
notus, Lomonotus, and Antiopa f the principal canals lie free in 
the visceral cavity, and in all of them there is a median posterior 
trunk. In this genus there is no such trunk, and the canals 
are almost entirely within the skin. In these respects Oithona 
would appear to resemble Hermaa, in which the whole of the 
hepatic ramifications are apparently connected with the skin, 
and there are only two principal trunks, which pass down the 
sides of the back. It is evident, however, that the digestive 
system alone sufficiently distinguishes Oithona from all the above 
genera, not even excepting Hermaa. 

The hepatic glands are large, nearly filling the papillse ; they 
are slightly and irregularly sacculated, with the inner surface of 
the investing membrane lined with a dark granular substance ; 
above, this substance is very abundant, forming a dense mass; 
below, the membrane in some of the papillse is entirely devoid of 
it. We failed to detect any ovate vesicle like that of Eolis in 
the apex of the papillse, neither have we been able to determine 
whether or not the apex is perforated. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 295 

Reproductive Organs. — There are two external orifices, one 
placed a little in advance of the other on the right side of the 
head between and a little below the tentacles. The one (PL IX. 
fig. 1 a) in front is for the exsertion of the intromittent organ, 
the other (b) is rather small and is common to both the female 
and androgynous apparatus. 

On laying open the dorsal skin, the reproductive organs are 
found as usual to occupy much of the visceral cavity, having the 
stomach and intestine lying above, and the buccal mass in front. 
The intromittent organ (PL X. fig. 2 a) is placed in advance of 
the other parts, and, in its retracted state, is long, rather slender, 
and linear ; differing considerably from the usual conical form of 
this organ when in this state. The outer extremity leads through 
the wall of the visceral cavity to the external orifice, and on its 
way the sheath or external covering becomes firmly attached to 
the muscles of the skin. The testis (b), a stout flesh-coloured 
tube two or three times convoluted, tapers at one extremity into 
a long slender duct or vas deferens (c), which is united to the 
inner extremity of the penis. The other extremity of the testis 
suddenly contracts into an equally slender duct (d), but very 
much shorter, and is joined by this duct to the oviduct. The 
ovary (e) fills the posterior portion of the visceral cavity, and is 
composed of large irregular lobules made up almost entirely of 
eggs, and packed into a dense mass, tapering a little behind and 
truncated in front. The oviduct (/) leaves the anterior border 
of the ovary as a slender tube, but, almost immediately dilating (g), 
equals the diameter of the testis. This dilated portion of the 
oviduct rests between the lobes of the mucus- gland, and is at 
first somewhat sacculated and convoluted ; it then passes forward 
and suddenly contracts (h) to its original diameter, and then ad- 
vances to the anterior border of the mucus-gland and receives 
the duct from the testis as before described ; it then bends a 
little backward and is shortly joined by a duct (k) from the sper- 
matheca. This latter organ (j) is a small oval membranous sac, 
lying between the lobes and at the front margin of the mucus- 
gland. The duct, which is short and slender, passes from one 
end of the sac, and, at the point where the duct is united to the 
oviduct, it is joined by a tube (m) which comes from the external 
orifice immediately within the female opening. This tube is the 
vagina or copulatory channel, and is cemented to the upper wall 
of the female channel. Just before the vagina reaches the duct 
of the spermatheca and oviduct, it gives off a branch which sinks 
into the female channel, and so far may be looked upon as a 
portion of the oviduct, for it is by this branch that the eggs find 
their way to the female outlet. 

The mucus-gland (n, n, wfyfor the secretion of the mucus-like 



296 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 

envelope of the eggs, is composed of two lateral lobes separated 
on the upper surface by a deep fissure. These lobes are semi- 
pellucid and are formed of a coarsely convoluted tube ; that on 
the right side having its anterior portion (n ! ) opake and flesh- 
coloured. The two lobes open into the female channel (/), which 
is wide and much longer than usual. 

The reproductive apparatus, we see, is formed on the type of 
that of Eolis. The mucus-gland is exactly of the same form, and 
the mode of union of the androgynous parts with the oviduct and 
testis is the same as in that genus. The only modification of 
any interest is in connexion with the testis. We know of no 
other species, in the whole of the Eolidida, in which it is furnished 
with a distinct vas deferens. In this respect our new genus re- 
sembles some of the Dorides, particularly Doris repanda, in which 
the testis has appended to it not only a vas deferens but is like- 
wise supplied with a much-constricted duct, which unites it to 
the oviduct just as in Oithona ; and the testis, too, of this Doris is 
very similar to the same organ in this animal. 

In Oithona, then, as in all the Nudibranchs, it is evident, from 
the connexion of the various parts of the genitalia, that self-im- 
pregnation is not only possible but probable ; while at the same 
time it is apparent that the ova may be fertilized by the congress 
of two individuals. 

Vascular and Respiratory Systems. — The vascular system is 
very interesting in this animal, inasmuch as we have been able to 
trace the efferent or branchio-cardiac vessels more completely than 
in any other member of the family. Indeed nearly the whole of 
these vessels are distinctly visible on the skin of the back, rising 
above the general surface, and exhibiting a very curious and novel 
appearance. The heart (PL IX. fig. 2 c) is situated about the 
middle of the back, where it forms a large oval swelling imme- 
diately below the skin, having the generative organs beneath. 
From the posterior extremity of the swelling a broad elevated but 
rounded ridge (d) passes down the median line of the back to 
the termination of the body. This ridge is joined on either side 
by numerous similarly elevated branches (e), which divide and 
subdivide as they approach the pallial-like expansion on the sides 
of the body. The whole of these branches and their subdivisions, 
standing boldly up from the general surface of the skin, have the 
branchial papillae set along them (fig. 3 a), and they give off 
twigs, which pass up the margin of the broad, flounced, mem- 
branous expansion (b) of the papillae. 

On opening the heart from above, the ventricle and auricle are 
found to occupy a well-defined oval pericardium. The ventricle 
(PL X. fig. 3 a) is large and muscular, of an irregular ellip- 
tical form, giving off the aorta (h) in front, which in the usual 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 297 

manner supplies branches to the various organs. The auricle (c) 
is united to it behind, a little on the left side ; it is delicate in 
comparison with the ventricle, but is nevertheless abundantly 
supplied with muscular fibres ; it lies diagonally in the pericar- 
dium, having the left side advanced almost to the front of that 
organ where it receives a trunk-vein from the skin. The right 
side of the auricle stretches backward, and receives a similar 
trunk-vein from the skin of this side almost at the posterior ex- 
tremity of the pericardium. 

On laying the dorsal wall of the auricle open, its cavity is 
found to be continuous with that of the great posterior elevated 
median ridge or trunk- vein (d) before alluded to, and on opening 
this trunk-vein the various lateral branches (f) are observed de- 
bouching into it on either side. It is therefore evident that this 
trunk-vein, which lies entirely within the skin, is the great poste- 
rior efferent or branchio- cardiac vein, and that all the elevated 
branches coming to it from the papillae are also efferent vessels. 
In this beautiful system of veins, then, we have a clear proof of 
the branchial character of the papillae. 

The papillae are, as we are already aware, of a very peculiar 
character in our animal, being somewhat compressed as in Eolis 
papillosa j and having a distinct, widish, frilled membrane, extend- 
ing up their inner margin. It is, as before remarked, to the 
border of this membrane that the twigs of the efferent vessels 
are given, and they pass up its entire length. Of this there can 
be no doubt, for we succeeded in forcing a creamy fluid which 
pervaded these vessels almost to the top of the membrane. When 
a transverse section of a papilla is made, a widish canal (fig. 8 b) 
is seen to pass up the opposite margin. This may be looked 
upon as an afferent branchial vein, and deteriorated blood, pass- 
ing from the skin up this canal, may be supposed to filter through 
the cellular tissue (d) between the external skin and the glandular 
sheath of the papilla, and so find its way to the vessel (c) at the 
free border of the membrane. If this view be correct, and it 
would seem scarcely possible to doubt it, the papillae are evi- 
dently specialized breathing organs, and by no means so low 
in organization as has been thought. 

At the same time, from the arrangement of the efferent vessels, 
from their elevation above the general surface of the skin, thus 
exposing to the influence of the surrounding medium nearly 
three-fourths of their circumference, it is pretty clear that the 
dorsal skin itself must act, to some extent, as a gill, especially 
when we consider further, that the whole of the blood returned 
to the heart does not pass through the papillae : much of it, no 
doubt, circulating in the spongy tissue of the skin, passes at once 
into the efferent vessels ; and, indeed, small orifices for this pur- 



298 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 

pose are seen in the wall of the great median trunk-vein. Here 
then, as in Doris, the blood is partly aerated in specialized breathing 
organs, and partly in the skin. In this respect also our animal 
resembles Eolis, in which some time ago, we, in conjunction with 
Dr. Embleton*, described the existence of two canals, passing up 
the margins of the papillse, much in the same manner as in this 
animal, and then pointed out the fact as evincing the probabi- 
lity of a system of veins, such as the anatomy of Oithona has 
brought to light. 

We have not been able to carry our investigations of the vas- 
cular system further ; but from what we know, we cannot doubt 
that the peripheral portion of it is made up of lacunae as is usual 
in the Mollusca, and probably to the same extent as in the other 
Eolididce* 

In connexion with the vascular system, Oithona is provided 
with an additional propelling organ similar to what in Doris we 
have called a portal heart. As in that genus, this propelling 
organ (PL X. fig. 1 s, and fig. 3 e) lies below the floor of the 
pericardium, and in like manner opens into that organ. In this 
species it is considerably elongated, with the ends rounded, and 
is placed far back on the right side of the pericardium. It is 
firmly attached to the skin of the body, and is internally longi- 
tudinally plicated. Judging from our knowledge of this heart in 
the Dorides, it may be supposed to throw venous blood from the 
pericardial cavity to the glands of the papillae. In Oithona it is 
certainly connected with the skin, and probably has some rela- 
tionship to the vascular apparatus therein. 

In this genus a renal organ probably exists, though we have 
failed to detect it. Adistinct small orifice (PI. IX.fig.2 Z>,and PI. X. 
fig. 1 t), however, opens externally immediately above the anus, 
and close to the posterior border of the heart. We traced this orifice 
through the skin, but could not observe its connexion with any 
internal organ ; yet there can be little doubt that it is of the same 
nature as the minute opening by the side of the anus in Doris, 
and which in that genus leads into an extensive renal apparatus. 
We have not observed a similar orifice in any other species of the 
Eolididce. 

Nervous system. — The cerebral ganglia resemble those of Doris 
rather than of Eolis. They are placed at the commencement of 
the gullet ; there are as usual four pairs of supra-cesophageal 
ganglions, though at first sight only three are apparent, — the 
cerebroid (PI. X. fig. 4 a, a) and branchial (b, b) being completely 
fused. These latter form two oval central masses, resting upon 
the upper surface of the gullet, one on each side of the median 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., 2nd Ser., vol. i. p. 101. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 299 

line, across which they are united at the anterior extremity by a 
short but distinct commissure : their posterior extremities diverge 
and are slightly bilobed, marking the boundaries of the two 
ganglia of which each mass is composed, — the anterior lobe indi- 
cating the cerebroid, the posterior the branchial. In Doris bila- 
mellata and D. aspera these two ganglions are fused, much in the 
same manner, and have a strong general resemblance to those of 
Oithona. The pedial ganglions (c, c) are irregularly rounded, 
being equal in bulk to the cerebroid and branchial together. 
They lie against the sides of the gullet, and are united to the 
under surface of the central masses. The fourth pair of ganglions 
are the olfactory (d, d) ; they are well developed, though very 
much smaller than those just described, and are joined by a short 
pedicle or commissure to the upper surface of the anterior mar- 
gins of the cerebroid ganglions. The close approximation of the 
olfactory ganglions to the central masses is a matter of some 
interest. In the Dorides they are sessile upon these masses. 
Thus we come to learn that these ganglions, which, in all the 
Eolidida that we have examined, with the exception of this genus, 
are placed at the base of the dorsal tentacles, and consequently 
far removed from the central masses, are in truth cerebral gan- 
glions, and like the olfactory of the higher animals, are placed 
in front of the brain. 

The infra-oesophageal ganglions are placed in the usual situa- 
tion on the buccal mass, below the gullet. The buccal ganglions 
(e, e) are scarcely larger than the olfactory, and are of an oval 
form, their inner extremities being connected across the median 
line by a short commissure ; their outer extremities receive a cord 
of communication from each of the cerebroid ganglions. Two 
minute elliptical ganglions are almost sessile on the anterior 
border of the buccal ganglions ; these are the gastro-cesophageal 
ganglions {f,f). Thus in all there are six pairs of ganglions; 
four above the gullet, and two below it. 

The first pair of nerves come from the olfactory ganglions, and 
are large, but of no great length ; they divide into several fila- 
ments as they enter the base of the dorsal tentacles. The second 
pair pass from the under surface of the anterior border of the 
cerebroid ganglions, not far from their union with the olfactory 
ganglions ; these nerves go to supply the upper surface of the 
channel of the mouth. The third and fourth pairs of nerves 
issue from the same ganglions, but considerably behind the second 
pair ; these also go to the channel of the mouth ; the third pro- 
bably sending a branch to the oral tentacles. A strong cord 
passes off close to the root of the fourth pair : these cords curve 
round the oesophagus and are united to the outer extremities of 
the buccal ganglions, forming the anterior collar (g). The fifth 



300 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 

pair of nerves issue apparently from the outer border of the 
branchial ganglia, and go to the skin by the side of the head. 
The sixth pair are small, and come from the upper surface of the 
branchial ganglions ; these nerves go to the skin of the sides of 
the back. The seventh, much larger than the sixth, emerge 
from the posterior margin of the same ganglions, and supply the 
dorsal skin, and apparently likewise the papillse. These are the 
branchial nerves. The eighth and ninth pairs are large nerves; 
they issue from the outer border of the pedial ganglions and go 
to the foot. The posterior margins of these ganglions are united 
by a stout, shortish commissure, composed of two or three cords, 
which, passing below the gullet, form the great oesophageal 
collar (t.) . The tenth pair of nerves are given off from the pos- 
terior margin of the buccal ganglions ; these pass into the buccal 
mass and go to supply the tongue. The eleventh pair, issuing 
from the outer extremities of the buccal ganglions, are distri- 
buted to the muscles of the buccal mass. The twelfth pair 
come from the apex of the gastro-oesophageal ganglions, and 
being applied to the gullet, each divides into two branches, one 
of which supplies the upper portion of that tube, the other, pass- 
ing down it, undoubtedly goes to the stomach as in the other 
Nudibranchs. The thirteenth pair are large; these are the 
hepatic nerves; they issue from the buccal mass in the same 
manner as similar nerves do in Eolis, and probably, as in that 
genus, are connected at their origin with ganglions, which must 
be looked upon as belonging to the sympathetic system. Imme- 
diately on emerging from the buccal mass, they are connected 
to the buccal ganglions at their point of union with the gastro- 
oesophageal, and then, arching outwards and upwards, pass from 
within the anterior oesophageal collar, and go to supply the 
glands of the papillse. 

These are all the pairs of nerves that we have traced : there 
is, however, a single nerve given off from a delicate collar (A), 
the ends of which are united to the under-surface of the central 
masses, just where they are connected to the pedial ganglions. 
This is the genital nerve (1.4), and similar to that which we 
have described in Eolis. We saw another nerve (15), which 
was apparently also distributed to the genitalia ; this seemed to 
come from the right branchial ganglion, at its union with the 
pedial. These two nerves, which however require further exa- 
mination, probably represent those that come from the visceral 
ganglion in Doris, and which in that genus are distributed to 
the sympathetic ganglions of the digestive, reproductive, respira- 
tory, and circulatory organs. 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of Oithona. 301 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES IX. AND X. 
Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Side view of Oithona nobilis : — a, penis partially exserted; b, orifice 

leading to the female and androgynous parts. 
Fig, 2. Dorsal view of the same, the papillae of one side being removed : — 

a, anal tube ; b, small orifice at the base of the same, supposed to 
lead to a renal organ ; c, heart ; d, great efferent or branchio-car- 
diac vessel, raised above the general surface ; e, small efferent ves- 
sels, likewise raised above the surface, leading from the papillae to 
the same. 

Fig. 3. Two of the papillae enlarged : — a, small efferent vessel leading to the 
great median trunk ; b, puckered, membranous fringe with efferent 
vessel running up its margin. 

Fig . 4 . Upper view of the buccal organ : — a, anterior extremity leading to the 
channel of the mouth ; b, gullet ; c, c, horny jaws ; d, d, muscles 
for advancing the whole apparatus. 

Fig. 5. Side view of buccal organ: — a, anterior extremity; b, gullet; c, horny 
jaw; d, muscles for advancing the buccal organ. 

Fig. 6. Side view of the tongue : — o, anterior extremity. 

Fig. 7. Salivary glands ; the buccal organ and all the viscera having been 
removed : — a, oral opening ; b, walls of the channel leading to the 
buccal organ ; c, c, salivary glands ; d, d, ducts of the same pass- 
ing into the wall of the channel of the mouth. 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. General view of the viscera seen from above : — a, buccal organ; 

b, gullet ; c, stomach ; d, intestine ; e, e, hepatic ducts leading 
from the great lateral hepatic channels within the skin ; /, one of 
these channels laid open, exhibiting the canals from the papillae 
opening into the same ; g, g, folliculated glandular bodies in con- 
nexion with the anterior portions of the great hepatic channels ; 
h, gland-like substance in connexion with the hepatic channels in 
the skin ; i, some of these channels laid open ; j, a portion of the 
right salivary gland ; k, penis ; Z, testis ; m, ovary ; n, n, n', mu- 
cous gland in connexion with the female channel; o, o, peri- 
cardial cavity seen in section ; o', o', floor of the same ; p, ven- 
tricle ; q, auricle ; q', portion of the same attached to the great 
efferent vessel in the skin ; r, r, the great efferent vessel seen 
in section ; s, portal heart, opening through the floor of the peri- 
cardium ; t, orifice supposed to be in connexion with a renal organ, 
and opening externally by the side of the anal tube ; u, cerebral 
ganglions. 

Fig. 2. Reproductive organs separated from the rest of the viscera and 
spread out : — a, intromittent organ retracted ; b, testis ; c, vas de- 
ferens ; d, duct leading from the testis to the oviduct ; e, ovary ; 
/, duct leaving the same ; g, dilated portion of the oviduct ; 
h, constricted portion of the same ; i, the point where it receives 
the duct from the testis ; j, spermatheca ; k, duct from the same 
leading to the oviduct ; I, female channel leading to external ori- 
fice ; m, vagina or copulatory channel leading from external orifice 
to oviduct and spermatheca ; n, n, n\ mucus-gland in connexion 
with the female channel. 

Fig. 3. View of the heart, the pericardium being laid open : — a, ventricle ; 
b, aorta, passing from the front of the same ; c, auricle ; d, great 
median efferent or branchio-cardiac vessel laid open, showing its 



302 Mr. J. Ralfs on Chantransia. 

connexion with the auricle, and likewise with the efferent vessels 
from the papillae ; e, portal heart lying under the pericardium and 
opening through its floor ; /, efferent vessels from the branchial 
papillae. 

Fig. A. Central ganglions and their nerves: — a, a, cerebroid ganglions; 
b, b, branchial ditto ; c, c, pedial ditto ; d, d, olfactory ditto ; 
e, e, buccal ditto ; /, /, gastro-cesophageal ditto ; g, nervous cord, 
connecting the infra-cesophageal to the supra-oesophageal gan- 
glions, forming the anterior collar ; h, small middle collar ; i, great 
oesophageal eollar; 1st pair of nerves go to the dorsal tentacles; 
2nd pair to the upper portion of the channel of the mouth and 
lips ; 3rd and 4th pairs go likewise to the channel of the mouth 
and lips ; 5th pair supply the skin at the side of the head ; 6th 
and 7th pairs pass to the skin at the side of the back, and supply 
the branchial papillae ; 8th and 9th pairs go to the foot ; 1 0th pair 
are the lingual nerves ; 1 1th pair supply the muscles of the buccal 
mass; 12th pair supply the gullet and stomach; 13th pair go to 
the glands of the papillae ; 14th is a single nerve going to the re- 
productive organs ; 1 5th is likewise a single nerve, and probably 
also goes to the same organs. 

Fig. 5. Interior view of one of the jaws : — a, cutting edge ; b, point at 
which the two jaws are articulated ; c, expanded lobe at the dorsal 
margin for muscular attachment. 

Fig. 6. External view of the same : — a, cutting edge ; b, expanded lobe at 
the dorsal margin. 

Fig. 7. Two of the spinous plates from the tongue. 

Fig. 8. Transverse seetion of a branchial papilla : — a, gland ; b, afferent 
branchio-cardiac vessel ; c. efferent ditto. 



XXIV. — On Chantransia, Desv. By John Ralfs, Esq.* 

Chantransia, Desv, Trentepohlia, Agardh and British 
authors. 

Plant affixed, tufted; filaments branched, jointed, monosipho- 
nous; fructification — capsules with granular contents and 
usually terminal and subcorymbose on proper branches. 

Freshwater, minute, tufted Algse of a red, purplish or inky colour. 
Filaments much branched, jointed ; main branches elongated, 
mostly level-topped. Fructification capsular, usually on short, 
much divided proper branches ; capsules generally crowded, 
subcorymbose, and terminal on short stalks, their contents 
simple. 

The proper position of this genus is doubtful : in habit and 
appearance some of its species agree so closely with the minute, 
parasitic, irregularly branched species of Callithamnion, that Dr. 
Harvey in his ' Flora Hibernica ' united it to that genus ; and 
although, at Mrs. Griffiths' suggestion, he has, in his ( Manual of 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, June 19, 1851. 



Mr. J. Ralfs on Chantransia. 303 

British Algse/ again separated them, yet he justly remarks, that 
deep-coloured specimens of Trentepohlia pulchella {Chantransia 
Hermanni) so much resemble Callithamnion Daviesii as scarcely 
to be distinguishable from it. 

Whilst, however, the red colour of some species of Chantransia 
seems thus to indicate an affinity with the Rhodospermecs, the 
inky-green of others appears to forbid us to rank the genus in 
that order. Dr. Montague, a high authority, places it in Ecto- 
carpece, a tribe belonging to the Melanospermea, and Kiitzing 
refers it to the Confervea?. Chantransia has thus been associated 
by authors of distinguished merit with the three great primary 
divisions of the Algae, — a proof how difficult it is to ascertain its 
proper position. As the contents of its capsules are simple and 
not divided into tetraspores, I believe its correct situation is with 
the Chlorospermece. 

1. C. Hermanni (Roth). Tufts dense, reddish; joints of filaments 
three to five times longer than broad ; fructiferous ramuli patent, 
capsules crowded. Conferva Hermanni, Roth, Cat. i. p. 164 
(1797); Cat. hi. p. 180. Conferva nana, Dillwyn, Conf. t. 30 
(1803) ; Smith, Eng. Bot. t. 2585. Chantransia Hermanni, Desv. 
( ?) ; Kiitzing, Phycologia Germanica, p. 230. Trentepohlia 
pulchella, Agardh, Systema Alg. p. 37 (1824) ; Harvey in Hooker's 
Brit. Flora, p. 382 ; Manual of Brit. Algae, p. 75 ; Hassall, Brit. 
Algae, p. 75 - t. 8. f. 2. Auduinella Hermanni, Duby, Botanicon 
Gallicum, p. 972 (1830). 
On aquatic plants in streams. 

The tufts of Chantransia Hermanni are dense, soft and woolly, 
not gelatinous, and adhere but imperfectly to paper ; they are 
often confluent ; their colour is reddish, becoming tawny by age 
and in drying. Filaments much branched, main branches elon- 
gated, somewhat level-topped ; fructiferous branches lateral, nu- 
merous, short, patent, much divided. Capsules at first oval or 
clavate, finally orbicular, crowded in a corymbose manner, mostly 
stalked. Joints of stem three to five times as long as broad, 
those of fertile branches shorter. 

Chantransia Hermanni differs from C. chalybea in colour and 
in its shorter joints and more patent ramuli. 

2. C. m^sfes (Lenormand). Parasitic, rose-red, much branched ; 
joints many times longer than broad ; capsules solitary or in pairs, 
lateral and terminal, clavate or obovate. Batrachospermum ru- 
brum, Hassall, Brit. Algae, p. 113. t. 15. f. 2, 3 (1845). Chan- 
transia investiens, Lenormand in Kutzing's Species Algarum, p. 431 
(1849) ; Ralfs, British Alg. no. 12. 
Parasitic on Batrachospermum moniliforme and B. atrum in a 

stream, Penzance, J. R. 
France, Lenormand ! 



304 Mr. J. Ralfs on Chantransia. 

Plant bright red, at first appearing as minute reddish stains, 
finally clothing the invested plant with a continuous downy co- 
vering. Filaments creeping and interlacing at base, and sur- 
rounding the plant on which it grows, much branched. Branches 
not attenuated, alternate, erect, elongated ; joints very long, often 
twelve times as long as broad, and filled with a pink, slightly 
granular endochrome. Capsules clavate or obovate, alternate or 
opposite, sometimes, though rarely, opposite a branch ; the ter- 
minal ones are more orbicular. 

3. C. chalybea (Roth). Tufts rather lax, inky-green; joints of 
filaments five to six times longer than broad, those of fructiferous 
ramuli turgid; branches appressed. Conferva chalybea, Roth, 
Cat. in. p. 286. t. 8. f. 2 (1806); Dillwyn, Brit. Conf. t. 91. Con- 
ferva corymbifera, Smith, E. Bot. t. 1996 (1809). Ectocarpus 
chalybeus, Lyngbye, Tent. Hydrophytologise Danicae, p. 133. t. 44 
(1819) ; Fl. Dan. t. 1666. fig. 1. Trentepohlia pulchella, /3. cha- 
lybea, Agardh, System, p. 37 (1824) ; Harvey, Manual of Brit. 
Algse, p. 118. Auduinella chalybea, Bory, Diet. cl. iii. p. 340. 
Chantransia chalybea, Fries ; Kutzing, Phyc. Germ. p. 229 ; Spe- 
cies Algarum, p. 429 ; Ralfs, British Algse, no. 11. 

ft. major. Filaments longer with rather shorter joints, ramuli more 
distant. 

a. Common. Rivulets, waterfalls, and on water-wheels. 

fi. Wells, Penzance, J. B. 

Plant laxly tufted, of an inky colour, more or less tinged with 
green. Branches rather distant, level-topped, erect, their joints 
four to six times longer than broad. Fertile branches short, 
appressed, their joints shorter and usually turgid. Capsules 
orbicular, corymbose, less crowded than in Chantransia Her- 
manni. 

Chantransia chalybea differs from C. Hermanni in its colour, 
penicillate tufts and its appressed fructiferous branches, the 
joints of which are more turgid. The dried plant is usually more 
or less glossy. 

4. C. compacta ( ). Plant minute, hemispherical, inky-green, 

firm ; filaments much branched, joints twice as long as broad ; 
branches erecto-patent. 

On aquatic plants in a rivulet at Trengwainton near Penzance, J. R. 

Chantransia compacta forms very minute hemispherical tufts 
or fronds of a dark colour, and very much resembles a Rivularia 
in appearance ; the fronds are so firm as to require considerable 
pressure in order to separate the filaments for microscopic exami- 
nation. Filaments comparatively stout, rigid, much branched, 
at the base horizontal and interlacing. Branches crowded, erecto- 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 305 

patent. Joints about twice as long as broad, but the lower ones 
frequently shorter. Capsules orbicular, numerous, lateral, arising 
from all parts of the plant and usually on short stalks. 

Chantransia compacta differs from C. chalybea in its compact, 
firm habit, more crowded branches, shorter joints and more scat- 
tered capsules. 

I am unacquainted with C. violacea, Kutz., and am conse- 
quently unable to decide with certainty that this plant is not a 
variety of that species ; but its difference in colour has induced 
me to propose it as a distinct species. 

Kutzing in his ' Species Algarum ' mentions two other British 
species : as I am unacquainted with them, I subjoin his descrip- 
tions : — 

5. C. scotica (Kutz.). Caespite ceeruleo-chalybeo, majori, trichoma- 
tibus 2X0'" crass i s > ramis ramulisque remotis patentibus elongatis ; 
articulis diametro plerumque duplo longioribus. Kutzing, Phyc. 
Gener. p. 285 ; Species Alg. p. 430. 

In Scotia legit cl. Klotzsch. 

6. C. violacea (Kutz.). Csespite minuto, violaceo, subgloboso ; tri- 
chomatibus radiatim dispositis, rigidis, ramulis crebris approxi- 
matis, abbreviatis, patentibus, subsecundis ; articulis inferioribus 
diametro fere sequalibus superioribus 2-3plo longioribus. Kutzing, 
Phyc. Germ. p. 231 ; Species Alg. p. 431. 

In fluviis et rivulis montanis Germanise et Scotise ad Lemaniam 
fluviatilem. 



XXV. — A List of all the Mosses and Hepaticce hitherto observed 
in Sussex. By William Mitten, A.L.S. 

Besides the species not before described as British, this list will 
be found to contain localities for others of rare occurrence or but 
little known, and will show the comparative rarity of the more 
common species. 

With very few exceptions all the species enumerated have been 
gathered by the author himself ; most of the previously known 
rarer species having been shown to him in their respective loca- 
lities by Mr. Borrer, with whom he has examined many of the 
most productive parts of the county, and to access to whose col- 
lections he attributes chiefly whatever small amount of critical 
knowledge he may possess of these beautiful plants. 

Tribe I. AnDREjEACE^E. 

Genus 1. Andrecea, Ehrh. 
A. rupestris, Hedw. 

" On the High Rocks ;" Forster, Fl. Tonbridgensis. 
Ann. $ May. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 20 



306 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

Nothing further is known respecting this moss, but it has been 
supposed that a small blackened state of Jungermannia emarginata, 
found on some of the High Rocks, might have been mistaken for it 
by Forster. 

Tribe II. Dicra-nace^e. 

Genus 1. Archidium, Brid. 

1. A. phascoides, Brid. 

Phaseum alternifolium, Eng. Fl., not of Dickson. 
Not common. In wet places on Henfield Common, on Tilgate 
Forest, and by roadsides near Hurstpierpoint. 

Genus 2. Angstrcemia, B. et S. 

2. A. subulata (Linn.), Mitten. 
Phaseum subulatum, Linn. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent on banks by roadsides ; found more rarely on the Downs. 

3. A. alternifolia (Linn.), Mitten. 
Phaseum alternifolium, Dicks. 

Far less common than the preceding species, and almost confined 
to clayey soils : it occurs at Hurstpierpoint in several places, at Hen- 
field, and on Tilgate Forest. 

On this species Bridel founded his genus Pleuridium, " ob thecam 
lateralem aut talem visam," but he seems to have been not well 
satisfied about it, for he takes care to follow his assertions on that 
point with " aut talem visam," or " aut talis videtur." The authors 
of the c Bryologia Europsea ' in their last review of these species have 
adopted Bridel' s name Pleuridium, which appears to be neither 
founded on a true idea of their mode of fruiting nor applicable to the 
species. 

4. A. nitida (Hedw.), Mitten. 
Phaseum axillare, Dicks. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent in ditches and places where water is dried up in summer. 

5. A, cerviculata (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Dieranum cerviculatum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Not rare on peat, and sometimes on wet sandy banks ; at Hurstpier- 
point, Albourne, Henfield, Tilgate Forest, and Tunbridge Wells. 

6. A. heteromalla (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Dieranum heteromallum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent, particularly on sandy soils. 

A. Hedwigii, Mitten, Dieranum subulatum, Hedw., is stated to 
grow near Littlehampton in the Appendix to Horsfield's ' History of 
Sussex/ but nothing further seems known respecting it. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 307 

7. A. varia (Hedw.), C. Muller. 
Dicranum varium, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent on all kinds of soils. 

8. A. rufescens (Turn.), C. Muller. 
Dicranum varium, (3. rufescens, Eng. Fl. 

Not rare on moist sandy or clayey banks. 

9. A. Schreberi (Hedw.), C. Muller. 

Dicranum Schreberi, Hedw., not D. Schreberianum, Eng. Fl. 
In very small quantity and rarely fruiting in many places about 
Hurstpierpoint and Henfield. 

10. A.crispa (Hedw.), C. Muller. 
Dicranum crispum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

In small quantity at the High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. 

11. A. cylindrica (Hedw.), C. Muller. 
Didymodon cylindricus, Hook. Eng. Fl. 

In stubbles on St. Leonard's and Tilgate Forests, and on hedge- 
banks in several places about Hurstpierpoint, but always without 
fruit. 

On the forests this species is very short and inconspicuous, but it 
grows much more luxuriantly on a shaded bank near Hurstpierpoint. 

12. A. pellucida (Hedw.), C. Muller. 
Dicranum pellucidum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Common about the sand rocks, and less frequent on wet ditch 
banks ; very seldom in fruit. 

The variety of this species, Dicranum Jlavescens, Smith, Eng. Fl., 
is found on the Hungershall Rocks near Tunbridge Wells, but it has 
not been observed in Sussex. 

Genus 3. Brachyodus, Furnr. 

13. B. trichodes (Web. et Mohr), Nees et Hsch. 
Weissia trichodes, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 

On stones at Henley Hill, at Blackdown, and in the stone-pit at Hen- 
field, the place where it was first observed in Britain by Mr. Borrer. 

Genus 4. Campylostelium, B. et S. 

14. C. saxicola (Web. et Mohr), B. et S. 
Grimmia saxicola, Schw. Eng. Fl. 

On stones at Blackdown, where it was first observed by Mr. Borrer ; 
on rocks and stones at Henley Hill, on a stone wall at Tillington, on 
blocks of stone in a rivulet near Wych Cross, and in the same situ- 
ation on Tilgate Forest near Balcombe. 

20* 



308 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 

Genus 5. Seligeria, B. et S. 
35. S.pusilla (Hedw.), B. et S. 

Weissia pusilla, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Not uncommon on chalk-stones about the Downs ; on stones at 
Henley Hill near Midhurst. 

16. S. calcarea (Hedw.), B. et S. 
Weissia calcarea, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

On chalk about Lewes. 

The preceding species is very commonly mistaken for this, which 
happens the more easily, as the form of S. pusilla which grows on 
the chalk is shorter-leaved than usual. 

Genus 6. Leptotrichum, Hampe. 

17. L. flexicaule (Schw.), Hampe. 
Didymodon longirostris ?, Eng. Fl. 

Abundant on the Downs, and rarely by roadsides ; always sterile. 

18. L. homomallum (Hedw.), Hampe. 
Didymodon heteromallus, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 

Rare ; it occurs at Blackdown, on Tilgate Forest, at the High 
Rocks, and in some other places about Tunbridge "Wells. 

19. L. tortile (Schrad.), Hampe. 
Didymodon pusillus, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

In the stone-pit at Henfield in very small quantity, and on a sandy 
bank near Hurstpierpoint, where it was very plentiful for one season, 
1847, but has scarcely been seen since. 

Genus 7. Dicranum, Hedw., C. Miiller. 

20. D. spurium, Hedw. 

On Waterdown and Broadwater Forests near Tunbridge Wells, but 
without fruit. 

21. D. scopariurn, Hedw. 

Frequent in woods, and varying greatly ; the leaves sometimes all 
straight, more commonly secund, and rarely, about the sand rocks, 
all falcate -secund. 

22. D. majus, Turn. 

D. scopariurn, /3. majus, Eng. Fl. 
Not common : confined chiefly to the neighbourhood of the sand 
rocks, and St. Leonard's Forest. 

23. D. Bonjeani, De Notaris ; " dense csespitosum fragile erec- 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 309 

turn vel ascendens fastigiatim breviter ramosum robustum dense 
foliosum, apice snbstricto vel subcuspidato ; folia caulina pau- 
lisper secunda vel erecto-patentia, e basi lata plana lanceolata 
latiusculo-acuminata dentibus acuta, apice subplano loriformi, 
superne argute serrata et leviter transversim undulata, nervo an- 
gustissimo evanido, omnino e cellulis longis robustis parietibus 
crassis valde interruptis flavidis preeditis areolata, cellulis alaribus 
planiusculis paucis robustis brunneis dein marcescentibus ; peri- 
chsetialia in cylindrum convoluta late vaginantia superne sinuato- 
rotundata subito acuminata integra obsoletinervia ; theca oblongo- 
cylindracea erecto-curvata subapophysata lsevis exannulata fus- 
cescens, operculo longi-subulato ; perist. dentes angusti pallide 
purpurei bifidi." — C. Miiller, Synops. p. 369. 

D.palustre, B. et S. Bryol. Europ. Dicranum, p. 39. t. 31. 

Frequent in bogs, but always barren. 

This species has no doubt commonly been passed over as a state of 
D. undulatum or of D. scoparium, to which last in habit and appearance 
it has great resemblance, but it differs in having the upper part of its 
leaves broader and more strap-shaped and not subulate ; the nerve 
vanishes below the point, in D. scoparium it is excurrent ; the areo- 
lation of the leaves is much more lax than in D. scoparium or D. 
Schraderi ; the capsules without opercula, sent by Mr. Spruce and 
Mr. Gardiner, resemble those of B. scoparium. As in B. undulatum, 
the leaves of this moss are prettily undulated, especially when dry. 

24. D. Scottianunij Turn. 
D.flagellare, /3. Eng. Fl. 

On all the sand rocks. 

25. D. Funkiiy C. Miiller; " pulvinato-caespitosum humile 
pallide viride fragile subsimplex strictum, inferne fuscidulo- 
tomentosum tenuius, superne crassius foliosum, parce fructi- 
ficans ; folia caulina erecto-patentia stricta e basi longa tenera 
laxissime et pellucide areolata lanceolato-acuminata latinervia, 
dorso scabra, apice denticulata, cellulis alaribus raro conspicuis, 
paucissimis tantum marginalibus hyalinis ; folia ramorum steri - 
hum apicis angustissime lanceolata linearia laxe quadrate et 
amoene pellucide areolata valde canaliculata strictissima laxinervia 
crassa; perichsetialia vaginantia basi laxius sed superne ut in 
caulinis minute et incrassato-areolata ; thecse paucse solitarise in 
pedunculis valde cygneis ovales subpyriformes leviter sulcatse 
olivacese, operculis conico-subulatis rubentibus obliquis ; calyptra 
parce fimbriata; peristomium D.turfacei. i} — C. Mutter, Synops. 
p. 393. 

Campylopus fragilisy Bryol. Europ. Campy lo pus, p. 4. t. 2. 
On all the sand rocks, but seldom in fruit. 



310 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

This pretty moss forms small dense tufts in cracks in the sand 
rocks. The upper parts are of a fresh or yellowish green colour, the 
lower pale brown ; the leaves are all erecto-patent and subulate from 
a more elliptic pale base than in D.flexuosum ; the large cells found 
at the base of the leaves of all Dicrana are scarcely visible in this 
species, being reduced to a single row of cells. In D.flexuosum this 
part is more developed and coloured of a deep red-brown, and the 
areolation of the leaves is closer and more dense, and the leaves are 
all much longer and often falcate. The capsules resemble those of 
D. turfaceum. 

In the male plant the flowers are collected into capituli of four or 
five flowers each, at the summit of every innovation. 

D. densum, Schleich., differs from the present species principally 
in its straighter and more appressed leaves ; but whether it is not a 
form produced by growing " ad margines fossarum in paludosis prope 
Roche," as stated on the label of Mr. Borrer's authentic specimen, 
is questionable. 

D. Funkii never grows on the ground in Sussex. 

26. D. turfaceum, C. Miiller; " dense csespitosum humile in- 
ferne interdum divisum erectum haud tomentosum viride sub- 
strictum, inferne nudiusculum, superne longe comosum, haud 
falcatum ; folia caulina erecto-patentia apice paulisper falcata, 
lanceolato-subulata longius capillacea canaliculata latinervia, 
dorso scabra, summo apice denticulata, cellulis alaribus minus 
conspicuis parvis laxis tenerrimis paucis plains prsedita, e cellulis 
inferne quadratis pellucidis parvis superne minutissimis areolata ; 
perichaetialia intima cylindraceo-convoluta, e basi longe vagi- 
nante magis sensim subulata, inferne laxe pellucide superne mi- 
nute areolata, longiora, apice denticulata ; theca plemmque soli- 
taria in pedunculo valde arcuato ovalis basi vix apophysata glabra 
sulcata pallida, operculo conico subulato obliquo longiori rubente \ 
perist. dentes ad medium fissi, cruribus tenuissimis hyalinis ru- 
gulosis haud nodosis ; calyptra ciliis albis insequalibus flaccidis 
fimbriata." — C. Miiller, Synops. p. 399. 

Campylopus turfaceus, Bryol. Europ. Campylopus, p. 4. t. 3. 
Dicranum flexuosum, Eng. Fl. in part. 

Not rare in moist sandy places. 

The most slender of all the British species, with longer and more 
subulate capillary leaves, which are often broken and strewed in 
abundance over the patches of the plant. As in D. Funkii, the en- 
larged cells at the base of the leaf are reduced to three or four in 
number, and not perceptible unless expressly looked for ; but it ap- 
pears distinct from that moss in its longer, more flexuose and loosely 
placed leaves. 

27. D. flexuosum, Hedw. 

About the sand rocks, and by the bog on Chailey North Common. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex, 311 

Tribe III. Pottiace^e. 
Genus" 1. Schistidium, Brid. 

28. S. Floerkeanum (Web. et Mohr), Mitten. 
Acaulon Floerkeanum, C. Miiller, Synops. p. 21. 

Frequent in stubbles on chalky or clayey soils. 

29. S. muticum (Schreb.), Mitten. 

Acaulon muticum, C. Miiller, Synops. p. 22. 
Phascum muticum, Schreb. Eng. Fl. 
On banks and in stubbles, not very common. 

30. S. triquetrum (Spruce), Mitten. 

Phascum triquetrum, Spruce in Eng. Bot. Suppl. 1901. 
Acaulon triquetrum, C. Miiller, Synops. p. 22. 
On the cliffs between Brighton and Newhaven. 

Genus 2. Pottia, Ehrh., C. Miiller. 

31. P. cuspidata (Schreb.), Mitten. 
Phascum cuspidatum, Schreb. Eng. Fl. 

Common in stubbles and on banks. 

32. P. curvicolla (Hedw.), Mitten. 
Phascum curvicollum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Not unfrequent about the Downs. 

33. P. recta (With.), Mitten. 
Phascum rectum, With. Eng. Fl. 

More frequent than the preceding, and often growing with it, but 
seldom seen off the chalk. 

34. P. bryoides (Dicks.), Mitten. 
Phascum bryoides, Dicks. Eng. Fl. 

On the coast at Aldrington near Brighton, and on the cliffs between 
Brighton and Newhaven ; it has also been met with by Mr. Borrer on 
the Downs at Piecombe and near Lewes, and near the Devil's Dyke. 

35. P. cavifolia, Ehrh. 
Gymnostomum ovatum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Cliffs and walls between Brighton and Newhaven, and about Hove, 
also at Hurstpierpoint, but almost confined to the coast. 

36. P. crinita } Wils. 

Rare : growing intermixed with P. Heimii amongst the shingle at 
Aldrington. 

37. P. Wilsoni, B. et S. 
Gymnostomum Wilsoni, Hook. Eng. Fl. 

On a sandy bank at Barrow Hill, Henfield, where it has been 
known to Mr. Borrer for many years. 

C. Miiller refers hither with doubt the Gymnostomum truncatulum, 



312 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

/3. solivagum, Brid. i. p. 69, sent by Green to Bridel from Hamp- 
stead and Plumstead Heaths. P. eustoma grows in both places, and 
so far as soil is concerned they are very likely to produce P. Wilsoni. 

38. P. eustoma, Ehrh. 

Gymnostomum truncatulum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Common on banks and in stubbles. 

39. P. Heimii, Furn. 

Gymnostomum Heimii, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
On the coast at Newhaven, Hove, Shoreham and Lancing. 

40. P. minutula (Schw.), Hampe. 
Gymnostomum conicum, Schw. Eng. Fl. 

Very common in stubbles and waste places. 

■ 41. P. Starkeana (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Weissia Starkeana, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
At Hove, and on the cliffs between Brighton and Newhaven ; not 
rare in stubbles, but most frequent near the coast. 

42. P. ccespitosa (Bruch), C. Miiller. 

Anacalypta ccespitosa, B. et S. Bryol. Europ. Anacalypta, 
p. 3. t. 2. 

* Csespitulosa, parvula; caule subramoso vel ramoso; foliis 
patentibus, ovato- et oblongo-lanceolatis, concavis, margine haud 
revolutis, costa in mucronem brevem excedente, perichaetialibus 
vaginantibus ; capsula ovata, operculo longirostro, annulo unam 
cellularum seriem sistente, peristomii dentibus plus minus per- 
fects, in linea divisuriali obsoleta fissis vel pertusis." — Bryol. 
Europ. I. c. 

Bare : on Woolsonbury Hill near Hurstpierpoint. 

Intermediate between P. Starkeana and P. lanceolata, but agree- 
ing more nearly with the first ; it differs however in the form and 
never reflexed margins of its leaves ; the three perichaetial leaves are 
much widened and embrace the base of the yellow seta ; the capsule 
is of a fine orange-brown when mature, ovate and not at all tapering 
downwards into the seta ; just below the mouth it is a little con- 
stricted ; the peristome is similar to that of P. lanceolata and equally 
variable ; the calyptra is smooth and not scabrous as in P. Starkeana. 

43. P. lanceolata (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Weissia lanceolata, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 

Not uncommon, particularly about the Downs. 

Genus 3. Trichostomum, Hedw. 

44. T. cylindricum (Bruch), C. Miiller. 
Weissia tenuirostris, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 

On all the sand rocks, but always sterile. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 313 

45. 21 mutabile, Bruch. 

Didymodon brackydontius, Wils. Eng. Fl. 
Common on the Downs ; and at Shoreham, growing plentifully on 
the scanty humus between the shingle, exposed to immersion at very 
high tides ; always sterile. 

46. T. crispulum, Bruch. 

Didymodon crispulus, Wils. Eng. Fl. 

Nearly as common as the last, but like it confined to the chalk and 
the sandy sea-shore, and barren. 

47. T. rubellum (Hoffm.), Rabenh. 

Weissia curvirostra, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 
Frequent on walls and roofs, and on the ground about the roots of 
trees. 

48. T. rigidulum, Sin. 

Didymodon rigidulus, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Rare : in small quantity at Henley Hill and about Hurstpierpoint. 

49. T. trif avium, Sm. 
Didymodon trifarius, Sw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent on the Downs ; growing on the earth in tufts about the 
roots of trees ; it is also common on sandstone and on mortar in walls 
built of sandstone, but rarely fertile. 

50. T. tophaceum, Brid. 

On a wet sandy bank near Hurstpierpoint ; at Hastings on and 
above the cliffs near the Dripping Well, and on walls at Midhurst. 

51. T. convolutum, Brid. 
Didymodon nervosus, Hook, and Tayl. 

On the cliffs between Brighton and Beachy Head, and at Hastings. 

Genus 4. Barbula, Hedw. 

52. B. abides, B. et S. 
Tortula rigida, Eng. Fl. 

Common about the Downs, and less frequently on clayey banks. 
This is the T. rigida of the Flora of Tunbridge Wells. 

53. B. ambigua, B. et S. 

On a sandy bank near Hurstpierpoint, where it grew very sparingly 
in 1849. 

54. B. rigida, Schultz. 
Tortula enervis, Eng. Fl. 

In small quantity about a chalk-pit at Newtimber near Hurstpier- 
point. 



314 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

55. B. revoluta, Schw. 
Tortula revoluta, Eng. Fl. 

Not unfrequent on walls. 

56. B. Hornschuchiana, Schultz ; " dioica ; laxe et late csespi- 
tosa flavescens fragilis gracillima erecta parce breviter dichotoma ; 
folia caulina sicca incumbentia, madefacta patentia, perfecte late 
lanceolata acutissima, nervo crasso excurrente vel in superioribus 
excedente, integerrima, inferiora minute sed dense areolata sub- 
Isevia margine minus revoluto, superiora vel periehsetialia parum 
majus areolata, margine erecto ; theca oblongo-cylindrica, badia 
parva subcurvula, anguste annulata, operculo oblique subulato ; 
perist. prsecedentis." [B. revoluta] C. Muller, Synops. p. 608. 

Probably not uncommon. At Aldrington near Brighton, growing 
on the sandy soil between the road and the sea ; at Clayton on the 
chalk ; on the Forest near Balcombe Tunnel ; and Mr. Borrer has 
gathered it on Tunbridge Wells Common. 

Similar as this species is to B. revoluta in size and appearance, yet 
when carefully compared, it presents many points of difference. The 
stems are about half an inch high, green, or more frequently dirty yel- 
lowish ; leaves patent, when dry appressed to the stem, and slightly 
twisted, lanceolate, acute ; the nerve excurrent into a sharp point ; 
the margins revolute ; the perichsetial leaves are broader below and 
more subulate above, of a thinner and looser texture, and the margins 
are not reflexed ; the capsules are subcylindrical ; the peristome re- 
sembles that of B. revoluta. The plant does not form compact tufts 
like B. revoluta, but grows in loose patches on the ground : the 
leaves taper gradually to the point even when the margins are spread 
out. In B. revoluta the leaves are obtuse mucronate, and when the 
margins are spread out the point of the leaf is found to be broad 
and rounded. The perichsetial leaves are six in both species : those 
of B. Hornschuchiana are subulate from an ovate base, but those of 
B. revoluta are broadly lanceolate and somewhat obtuse. 

The description of B. revoluta in ' Eng. Fl.' corresponds better 
with B. Hornschuchiana than with the species intended, and it is 
possible that the B. gracilis of English authors may belong in part 
to B. Hornschuchiana. 

57. B. convoluta, Hedw. 
Tortula convoluta, Sw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent on chalky, gravelly, or sandy soils. 
A variety with longer leaves, but always sterile, occurs on walls at 
Hurstpierpoint. 

58. B. unguiculata, Hedw. 

Tortula unguiculata, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 
Common everywhere. 

59. B. fallax. Hedw. 
Tortula fallax, Sw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent, but not so ubiquitous as B. unguiculata. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex, 315 

60. B. vinealis, Brid. 

Common on walls, growing on the sides rather than on the tops ; 
not often in fruit. The form (3.Jlaccida is very common on hedge- 
banks, but always sterile. 

61. B. squarrosa, Brid. 

Tortula squarrosa, De Notaris, Spruce in Lond. Journ. Bot. 
Beeding chalk-pit, Mr. Borrer. In small quantity on Woolsonbury 
Hill, and elsewhere on the Downs, but it is not rare on the cliffs be- 
tween Brighton and Newhaven, and between Shoreham Harbour and 
the sea : always sterile. 

62. B. tortuosa } Hedw. 

Tortula tortuosa, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Tottington Mount, Mr. Borrer ; Slindon, Mr. Jenner. 

63. B. marginata, B. et S. 

Tortula marginata, Spruce in Lond. Journ. Bot. 
Frequent on sandstone walls, and less commonly on bricks ; it 
occurs also on the sand rocks. 

64. B. muralis, Hedw. 

Tortula muralis, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Everywhere on walls and stones. 

65. B. canescens, Bruch; "monoica, gregaria, csespitosa, hu- 
milis, subsimplex ; foliis obovatis et late ovalibus, costa elongata 
pilosis, margine revolutis, capsula erecta, symmetrica, oblonga, 
operculo conico, peristomii membrana basilari in tubum oblique 
tessellatum longe producta." — Bryol. Eur op, Barbula } p. 34. 1. 19. 

Cliffs near the Lovers' Seat, Hastings, Mr. Jenner, 1844; it has 
since been gathered in the same place by Mr. Borrer. 

Closely resembling B. muralis, but rather less in all its parts. The 
stems are short and almost buried in the fine loose sandy earth of the 
locality ; the leaves in the lower parts of the stem are oblong or ob- 
long-obovate, the upper ones are oval oblong and a little acuminate, 
concave, with the margins reflexed ; the nerve is very stout for the 
size of the leaves, and excurrent into a diaphanous hair-like point, 
which in the lower leaves often equals the length of the whole leaf, 
in the upper it scarcely exceeds one- fifth ; the setse are yellow, and 
the oblong capsules orange-brown ; the peristome is about half as 
long as the capsule, and tubular about half its own length ; the oper- 
culum is conical, and the calyptra covers about half the capsule. 

This moss may at all times be known from B. muralis by the 
long tubular base of the peristome, which corresponds with that of 
B. cuneifolia, B. ruralis, and B. subulata ; besides this difference the 
leaves are broader, the upper ones rather acuminate, and all of a less 
firm and close texture than in B. muralis, and its habit is to grow on 
the earth, where B. muralis is rarely seen. 



316 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

66. B. cuneifolia (Dicks.). 

Tortula cuneifolia, Turn. Eng. Fl. 
Tunbridge Wells, " on sandy banks and elsewhere," Forster. Bo- 
peep, near Hastings, Mr. Jenner ; also between Hastings and Win- 
chelsea under the low cliffs ; and on a moist sandy bank at Skeims 
Hill. 

67. B. subulata, Hedw. 

Tortula subulata, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Common on banks. 

68. B. latifolia, B. et S. 

Frequent on trees and posts subject to inundation ; not often pro- 
ducing fruit. 

69. B. papillosa, Wils. 

Tortula papillosa, Wils. MSS., Spruce in Lond. Journ. Bot. 

Frequent on trees and fences, rarely on tiles. 

The leaves of this species are not always gemmiferous, and its 
habit is altogether that of the Syntrichice : no trace of inflorescence 
has been seen. 

70. B. kevipila, Schw. 

Tortula ruralis, (3. Icevipila, Eng. Fl. 
Abundant on trees. 

71. B. ruralis, Hedw. 

Tortula ruralis, Sw. Eng. Fl. 
Very common on roofs ; on the ground ; rarely on trees. When 
growing on roofs this moss is usually of a brown colour, but when on 
the earth in sandy or chalky places it becomes of a fine yellow, and 
the lower portions ferruginous : this state is rarely fertile. 

Genus 5. Ceratodon, Brid. 

72. C. purpureus (L.), Brid. 

Bidymodon purpureus, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 

Genus 6. Weissia. 

73. W. crispa (Hedw.), Mitten. 

Phascum crispum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Astomum crispum, Bryol. Europ. 

Common on the Downs. 

When growing in tufts, as is most usual with this species, the 
leaves on the lower parts of the stems are not divergent ; but when 
the plants grow singly, as sometimes they may be found amongst 
grass, the leaves are all divergent, and the plants have a very different 
look, and resemble very closely, except in colour, the next species. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 317 

74. W. Mittenii (Schimper), Mitten. 
Astomum Mittenii, Bryol. Europ. 

" Csespitulosum ; caule elatiore flexuoso erecto simplici et ra- 
muloso ; foliis inferioribus late lanceolatis, snperioribus sensim 
majoribus utrisque solidis, sordide viridibus, costa crassa rnfa 
cum apice evanido, perichsetialibus tenuioribus, pallidioribus, 
costa tenuiore viridi, capsula in pedicello longiore subemersa 
ovata, rostello obtuso subobliquo ; flore masculo terminali, peri- 
gonialibus ovato-lanceolatis." — Bryol. Europ. I. c. 

On clayey soil in a stubble near Little-ease, and by a roadside near 
Hurstpierpoint ; very rare in both situations, and growing intermixed 
with W. mucronata, TV. squarrosa, and W. multicapsularis. 

More robust than W. crispa, and with its capsules on longer setae : 
the inflorescence is also somewhat different, being monoicous and 
polygamous ; the flowers are terminal and sometimes hermaphrodite ; 
the whole plant is brownish. 

75. W. multicapsularis (Sm.), Mitten. 
Astomum multicapsulare, Bryol. Europ. 

" Csespitulosum ; caule procumbente, flexuoso-erecto, dicho- 
tome ramoso et ramuloso, unciali et longiore ; foliis caulinis pa- 
tulis, recurvis, flexuosis, flaccidis, perichsetio polyphyllo, foliis 
perichsetialibus erectis, lineari-lanceolatis ; capsula in pedicello 
perbrevi, ovato-oblonga in rostellum subobliquum producta; 
calyptra ad mediam capsulam producta, longius persistente." — 
Bryol. Europ. I. c. 

In very small quantity in several spots by a roadside on a clayey 
soil near Hurstpierpoint. A much larger moss than W. crispa, with 
broader and longer leaves, and with more stoutly rostrate capsules : 
the male flowers have not yet been observed. 

[It corresponds very closely with the following, which may be noticed 
here, although it has no claims to be considered a Sussex moss. 

W. convolutacea, Mitten ; dioica ? caulis breviusculus infra pe- 
richsetium innovans, monocarpus ; folia inferiora late lanceolata 
nervo excurrente cuspidata, marginibus inflexis, e basi cauli ad- 
presso patenti-divergentia ; perichsetialia e basi subelliptica con- 
volutacea subulato-attenuata, acuta, superne marginibus incurvis : 
theca in pedunculo brevissimo elliptica, operculo brevi apiculato. 
Phascum crispum, Mougeot et Nestler, no. 703. 

Bedfordshire, Mr. Turner in Hb. Borrer. 

As in W. multicapsularis, the male flowers have not been seen in this 
moss ; it also resembles that species in colour and appearance, but 
differs in the very convolute bases of the perichaetial leaves, which 
quite cover the capsule, and have their margins incurved towards 
their apices.] 

76. W. longifolia, Mitten ; monoica ; caulis breviusculus po- 



318 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticee of Sussex. 

lycarpus ; folia inferiora lanceolata nervo excurrente mucronata, 
marginibus erectis, e basi cauli adpresso patentia ; perichsetialia 
longissima e basi lata convolutacea subulato -acuminata acuta 
apicibus arcuato incurvis; theca in pedunculo brevi, elliptica, oper- 
culo brevi apiculato ; flos masculus in medio fertilium ; folia peri- 
gonialia ovata acuta. 

Gathered in 1836 by Mr. Borrer, near Goldstone Barn near 
Brighton, growing on a fence bank with W. viridula. 

In appearance this moss differs greatly from all its allies ; the peri- 
chsetia are crowded together around the central male flower, and their 
leaves are remarkably long for the small size of the plant. The cap- 
sules appear to be slightly coloured, but are too young in all the spe- 
cimens to ascertain if they may be coloured when mature like those 
of the Pkascum crispum of Drummond's ' Musci Americani,' No. 9, 
which nearly resembles the present moss, and may belong to the 
same species. 

77. W. aciculata, Mitten ; monoica ; caulis elongatus, ramulis 
fastigiatis polycarpis ; folia inferiora e basi latiora erecta lanceo- 
lata divergentia nervo excurrente mucronata ; marginibus erectis 
vel parum incurvis ; perichsetialia e basi lata sensim subulata an- 
gusta acutissima nervo excurrente ; marginibus erectis ; theca in 
pedunculo brevissimo vel fere sessilis, elliptica, operculo brevi 
apiculato ; flos masculus ut in W. crispa. 

On clayey soil by a roadside near Hurstpierpoint. 

Nearly resembling W. crispa, but much more slender, with more 
attenuated and very acute perichsetial leaves, which have the margins 
erect and not rolled in. The capsules are almost sessile and covered 
by the pericheetial leaves, and the operculum and calyptra are shorter 
than those of W. crispa. 

This and the last species present differences from each other, and 
from the other preceding species, amounting to the same value as 
those which distinguish W. squarrosa, W. phascoides, W . rostellata, 
and W. microstoma ; and in all these mosses there is great difficulty 
in seizing upon any distinctive character which can be readily defined ; 
yet they cannot well be considered varieties of a single species. TV. 
crispa and TV. longifolia are both found on the chalk, where as yet 
no intermediate state has been seen. W. multicapsularis, W. Mittenii, 
and TV. aciculata are found on clay, and have but little the appear- 
ance of being varieties of each other : still it is possible that some of 
these at least may be only states of W. crispa modified by soil and 
situation. In all the species the leaves are patenti-divergent from an 
erect base appressed to the stem, and the apices are slightly hooded ; 
the perichsetial leaves have the margins more or less involute, and, 
like the cauline, are very papillose. The inflorescence in W. multi- 
capsularis and W. convolutacea appears to be dioicous, but the male 
flowers are yet wanting to both species. The flowers of W. Mittenii, 
although sometimes hermaphrodite, do not essentially differ otherwise 
from those of W. crispa, which has the male flower sometimes ter- 
minal. In W. longifolia the male flower remains at the extremity of 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 319 

the axis, apparently from the simultaneous growth of innovations on 
all sides of the stem beneath it. 

78. TV. phascoides (Wils.), C. Miiller. 
Hymenostomum phascoides, Wils. Bryol. Europ. fasc. 42. 

By the margin of the larger pond at Pondleigh near Hurstpierpoint. 
With the usual form of this species there sometimes occur stems 
which are hardly to be distinguished from W. rostellata. 

79. W. squarrosa (Bruch), C. Miiller ; " monoica ; laxe csespi- 
tulosa, caule annosiore decumbente insequaliter ramoso; folia 
squarrosa latiora, margine erecto, haud involuto; theca erecta 
ovata et elliptica sequalis, operculo anguste conico rostellato." — 
C. Miiller, Synops. p. 663. 

On clayey soil by a roadside near Hurstpierpoint, and in a stubble 
at Little-ease. 

Very similar to W. microstoma, but more slender, with longer 
stems and shorter and broader squarrose leaves ; its fruit too is 
ripened in November, whereas that of W. microstoma is scarcely 
mature before March or April. 

80. TV. microstoma (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Gymnostomum microstomum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Common on banks, by roadsides, and on the Downs. 

81. TV, tortilis (Schw.), C. Miiller; "monoica; pulvinate 
csespitosa dichotome et fastigiate ramosa fasciculate foliosa, viri- 
dissima inferne ferruginea parce radiculosa, robusta ; folia caulina 
conferta, sicca valde incumbenti-tortilia, madefacta erecto-patula, 
inferiora minute ovata, superiora late oblongo-lanceolata, nervo 
excurrente breviter mucronata, margine integerrima incurva, 
carinata, subundulata, ubique e cellulis quadratis minutis firmis 
diaphanis apice folii opacis tenuissime papillosis areolata ; peri- 
chaetialia longiora,basi tenerius longius angustius pellucidius areo- 
lata ; theca in ped. medio flavido turgide ovalis raro cylindracea 
sequalis vel gibba firma orificio majori rubro post operculi lap- 
sum medio apertuin, fuscescens simpliciter annulata, operculo 
longirostrato obliquo." — C. Miiller, Synops. p. 661. 

On the cliffs at Gin Gap near Newhaven. 

Plants growing together in small patches amongst the short starved 
herbage on the edge of the cliff, exposed to the full influences of the 
sea breezes. The stems are from one to three-fourths of an inch high, 
fastigiately branched ; the leaves are green or yellowish green in the 
upper parts, below ferruginous ; the capsules are pale yellowish 
brown, erect or gibbous, the mouth red and the setae yellow. It is 
readily known from W. mucronata, to which it is nearest allied, by 
its much greater size, thicker leaves, and coloured mouth of its cap- 
sules, which are ripened in March. 



320 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 

82. W. mucronata, Bruch. 

Gymnostomum ru titans, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 3. f. 8-11. 
Not very common on clayey banks about Hurstpierpoint. 
Doubtfully distinct from the following species. 

83. W. viridula (Linn.), Brid. 

W. controversy Hedw. Eng. Fl. 
Very common and variable in appearance. 

84. W. cirrhata, Hedw. 

Frequent on wooden fences ; sometimes on thatch, on trees, and on 
the sand rocks. 

85. W. crispula, Hedw. 

Harrison's Rocks, Mr. Borrer, 1810, from whose specimens gathered 
there, the * Eng. Bot/ figure was drawn. 

86. W. verticillata, Brid. 

On mortar between bricks round a spring near Hurstpierpoint ; and 
about the Dripping Well at Hastings. 

87. W. tenuis (Schrad.), C. Miiller. 
Gymnostomum tenue, Schrad. Eng. Fl. 

In the stone-pit at Henfield, but barren. 

Genus 7. Grimmia, Ehrh. 

88. G. apocarpa, Hedw. 

Not uncommon on walls and roofs ; on exposed flints on the Downs, 
and on the sand rocks at Tunbridge Wells. 

89. G. pulvinata, Hook, and Tayl. 
Very common on walls and roofs. 

90. G, trichophylla, Grev. 

Rare : it has been gathered in small quantity by Mr. Borrer on 
some Druidical stones near Brighton, and on a roof at Henfield ; it is 
also found on a stone wall at Henley Hill, and on rocks at Tunbridge 
Wells. 

91. G. acicularis (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Trichostomum aciculare, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

On rocks about Tunbridge Wells, and on a wall at Henley Hill. 

92. G. lanuginosa (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Trichostomum lanuginosum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

On a rock at Henley Hill. It was formerly found on heaps of 
flints on the Downs near Patcham, by Mr. Borrer. 

93. G. canescens (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Trichostomum canescens, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

In very small quantity on Woolsonbury Hill, and about Tunbridge 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 321 

Wells ; more abundant above Hey shot, and in several other places on 
the ridge of the Downs ; on a tiled roof near Henfield, Mr. Borrer. 

94. G. heterosticha (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 
Trichostomum heterostichum, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

On all the sand rocks, but fertile only at Tunb ridge Wells. 

95. G. fascicularis (Schrad.), C. Miiller. 
Trichostomum fasciculare, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

In very small quantity on a rock at Henley Hill. 

Genus 8. Zygodon, Hook, and TayL 

96. Z. viridissimus, Brid. 

Gymnostomum viridissimum, Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. 
Very common on trees, more rare on walls : not rare in fruit, par- 
ticularly on trunks of trees near the ground. 

97. Z. conoideus (Dicks.), Hook, and Tayl. Eng. Fl. in part. 
Z. Brebissoni, B. et S. Bryol. Europ. Zygodon, p. 8. t. 2. 
Bryum conoideum, Dicks. 

Rare : on a beech-tree on Newtimber Hill, and more plentifully on 
Sallows by the Mill Pond at Arundel. Mr. Borrer has gathered it 
in Charlton Forest, and Mr. Jenner in the Forest near Handcross. 

Great as the confusion has been in the names of this and the next 
species, still it appears that the name conoideus is the proper one for 
this moss, it being the Bryum. conoideum of Dickson ; but if the name 
given to it by its discoverer is to be suppressed, it ought to take that 
of Z. Bicksoni rather than any other. 

The peristome of this species is double, as described by Hooker and 
Taylor ; not simple, as it is described and figured in 'Bryol. Europ.' 

98. Z. Forsteri (Dicks.), Mitten; "monoicus; pulvinatus hu~ 
milis breviter ramosus, inferne tomentosus viridissimus; folia 
caulina dense conferta, madefacta patula, e basi angustiore am- 
pliuscule hexagone reticulata sensiin late ovato-lanceolata s. sub- 
spathulato-acuminata, planiuscula nervo ante apicem evanido 
crassiusculo, integerrima, e cellulis ubique magnis perfecte hex- 
agonis chlorophyllosis firmis areolata ; perichsetialia basi multo 
laxius reticulata ; theca in ped. brevi flavido crassiusculo erecta, 
pyriformi-ovalis, fuscescens 8-striata, ore coarctata, operculo co- 
nico subulato obliquo ; perist. dentes externi 8 bigeminati lati- 
usculi subrugulosi pallide lutescentes sicci reflexi apice liberi, 
interni : cilia 8 cum dent, alternantia breviora anguste subulata 
hyalina subrecta." — C. Miiller, Synops. p. 667. 

Z. conoideus, Brid. i. p. 590 ; Bryol. Europ. p. 8. t. 2 ; C. 

Miiller, Synops. p. 667. 
Gymnostomum viridissimum, in part Eng. Fl. 
Bryum Forsteri, Dicks. ! 
Near Hastings, Mr. Jenner. 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 21 



322 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hcpaticce of Sussex. 

No precise locality is known for this moss, but one small tuft was 
found amongst mosses collected by Mr. Jenner in the neighbourhood 
of Hastings. 

Stems scarcely half an inch high, growing in dense tufts, the upper 
portions dark green, the lower pale and covered with whitish rootlets ; 
the leaves are patent, subspathulate or widely lanceolate, shortly acu- 
minate carinate ; the nerve vanishes just below the apex ; the texture 
of the leaves is composed of perfectly hexagonal cells in the upper 
part, and in the lower part they are elongated and colourless ; the 
perichsetial leaves are rather longer, but of the same shape as the 
cauline : the setse are about a quarter of an inch long and yellowish ; 
the capsules are erect pyriform-ovate, when dry ovate pyriform and 
eight-striate ; the operculum conical subulate, oblique ; the external 
peristome consists of eight bigeminate minutely rugose whitish teeth, 
the internal of eight subulate colourless cilia, alternating with the 
external teeth ; the calyptra resembles that of Z. viridissimus, and 
covers about one-third of the capsule. 

Although the confusion has been very great respecting the present 
species and Z. conoideus, still there seems no just reason why Dick- 
son, who was the first to observe and describe these two mosses, 
should have his names set aside because others have confounded 
them and imposed names of their own. 

In Mr. Borrer's herbarium is preserved a small portion of an ori- 
ginal specimen gathered by Mr. Forster on a felled tree at Chapel-end, 
Walthamstow, and this being the source of Dickson's species places 
beyond doubt the fact that his Bryum Forsteri, " capsulis erectis den- 
ticulatis, setis adscendentibus surculis subacaulibus, foliis ovatis," is 
the same as the Z. conoideus of Bridel and continental authors, who 
have been altogether misled by the ' Muscologia Britannica.' This 
moss is still in want of a precise locality, Mr. Forster' s specimens 
being from a felled tree in a timber-yard, and Mr. Jenner' s gathered 
somewhere near Hastings. 

Genus 9. Orthotrichum, Hedw. 

99. O. anomalum, Hedw. 

Not unfrequent on roofs and walls. 

100. O. diaphanum, Schrad. 

Common on trees and fences, rarely on roofs. 

101. O. stramineum, Hsch. 

Not very common, chiefly on beech-trees. 

102. O. rivulare, Turn. 

Rare : it occurs on bushes and roots by the stream at Little-ease 
near Hurstpierpoint, and on posts at Shermanbury. Mr. Borrer has 
found it at Henfield, and Mr. Jenner at Lugershall. 

103. O. Sprucei, Mont. 

Frequent on trees and fences by rivulets, always within the reach 
of occasional inundations. 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 323 

104. O. cupulatum, Hoffm. 

Rare : on tiles at Balcombe. Mr. Borrer has gathered it at Stor- 
rington, and Mr. Jenner at Lewes. 

105. O. tenellum, Bruch. 

Plentiful on trees about Hurstpierpoint and Henfield, but perhaps 
not generally common. 

106. O. affine, Schrad. 

Abundant on trees, more rarely on tiles. 

107. O. speciosum, Nees ab E. 

Very rare : one patch was gathered by Mr. Spruce in an orchard 
at Henfield ; it has since been carefully sought for in the same place 
without success. 

108. O. rupestre, Schleich. 

O. rupincola, Funk. Eng. Fl. 
In very small quantity on an ash-tree by a rivulet near New Close, 
near Hurstpierpoint. 

109. O. striatum, Hedw. 
O. leiocarpum, B. et S. 

Frequent on trees. 

Following C. Miiller, the old name has been used for this moss, 
which, if it is the species so named by Hedwig, ought to retain his 
name, bad as it may be. 

110. 0. Lyellii, Hook, and Tayl. 

Common on trees : unfrequent in fruit, which is mostly found in 
woods. 

111. 0. pulchellum, Smith. 

Rare : in several places near Hurstpierpoint and in Tilgate Forest. 
On hazel at Midhurst, and on bushes on the beach near Shoreham, 
Mr. Borrer. 

112. O. crispum, Hedw. 

Not unfrequent, especially on beech-trees, in woods near the Downs. 

A somewhat smaller state than usual is sometimes met with, and 
has been referred to O. crispulum, Bruch, but it does not quite cor- 
respond with continental specimens. 

113. O. Eruchii, Hsch. 

O. coarctatum, B. et S. 
Common on trees in woods, particularly in the forests, where it 
abounds. 

114. O. Ludwigii, Schw. 

Very rare ; on beech-trees on the north side of Woolsonbury Hill. 
Only three small tufts have been seen. 

21* 



324 Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia, 

115. O.jutlandicum, Brid. i. p. 296. 
O. phyllanthum, B. et S. 

Common on trees. 

Genus 10. Encalypta, Schreb. 

116. E. vulgaris, Hedw. 

On the Downs at Halnaker near Chichester, and on the north wall 
of St. Nicholas Church, Brighton, Mr. Borrer. On a wall at Stor- 
rington, and on a wall between Cocking and Midhurst. 

117. E. streptocarpa, Hedw. 

In many places on the Downs r at Newthnher ; Arundel Park ; 
Offhamnear Lewes ; and on tiles near Hurstpierpoint : always barren. 

[To be continued.] 



XXVI. — On the Development of the Cirripedia. 
By C. Spence Bate. 

[With three Plates.] 

Few animals belonging to the European fauna, so very abundant 
on our shores as the Cirripedia, have had their nature so misun- 
derstood, and so long veiled in mystery. The happy discovery 
of Mr. J. V. Thomson, so far back as 1826, approximated some- 
what to a revelation of their real history ; and the later researches 
of Burmeister, in his Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Ranken- 
fusser, together with those of Prof. Goodsir, in the Edinburgh 
New Phil. Journal, July 1843, have further elucidated this inter- 
esting inquiry. Although as yet the chain of development be- 
tween the ovum and the perfect animal has not been success- 
fully observed, the hiatus is not so great but that naturalists are 
enabled to identify the position of these creatures in the animal 
kingdom. 

Feeling a little curiosity in relation to the subject, and wishing 
to verify for myself the observations of Mr. Thomson, I took ad- 
vantage of my residing near the shore where two or three distinct 
species are common, and have occupied myself a little this sum- 
mer in endeavouring to observe the animal, as well as the changes 
through which the larva passes until it assumes the form and 
characters of the parent. Being desirous to obtain the young, 
so as to identify it with the species which are the parent of each, 
I adopted the mode of breaking off the Balanus from the rocks 
and obtaining the embryo in a mature state before it had left the 
ovum, and of then hatching it ; which was readily accomplished 
upon its being plunged into sea-water, — a mode which I found 



'* 7 n *! 



Jn/Lfc Maa.Sat.m?t. S.2. Tol.8. fl. VI 




.t'/nnrt- Hutf tit/ 



Ann. <* May. Hat.Eist. S.2. VoJ.8. l'l. VII. 




"%M0 




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Spettee Bate. d& 



I /j< < ' Sowerby •<*•■' 



Ann. A- Mint-Nat. Hut. S.2. Vol. 8.7V. /•'///■ 




S/nriri- 3ate. J'l 



Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cbripedia. 325 

very successful, and which has enabled me to accompany this 
paper with sketches of the larva of five separate species : — 

1. Balanus balanoides, Linn. 

2. B. porcatus, Da Costa. B. sulcatus, Brut/. B. Scoticus, Wood, 

3. B. perforatus, Brug. B. communis, Mont, B. (var.) Cranchii, 

Leach. 

4. Chthamalus depressus (?), Poli. Balanus punctatus, Mont, 

5. Clitia Stromia, Miiller. Balanus verruca, Mont. 

Upon- placing the young as soon as hatched under the mi- 
croscope, I was interested to find that it differed as much 
from Mr. Thomson's figure as that given by him does from the 
adult animal*, thus showing that the larva must pass through 
more than one metamorphosis prior to its assuming the figure of 
the adult. 

There is, on the first appearance of the larva of the Balani, a 
single black spot in the eentre of what would be termed the head 
of the animal, appearing like the eye in Cyclops, Canthocamptus, 
&c. ; but this it cannot be, since the form is not persistent in 
every individual evert of the same species. With what agency this 
spot may be endowed I am not capable of stating, but it appears 
to me to be analogous to a similar spot in the larva. of Chiro- 
cephalus diaphanusf, and which, by development, is shown to 
have no connection with the eyes ; so also in an older stage in 
the larva of the Balanus, the eyes, which are absent in the young, 
become fully developed, but are found to exist distinct from this 
spot, which has been looked upon as an organ of vision by all pre- 
vious observers. I think, however, that we are scarcely justified 
in assuming every black spot in a convenient position to be an eye : 
and in this instance, when the spot may be seen in the young of 
the same parent to put on almost every modification of form, I can 
scarcely bring myself to subscribe to the idea of its being an agent 
of sight. Moreover, in the pupa state, when the eyes are large 
and conspicuous, there may be observed a spot (PI. VIII. fig. 15, 
16 b) upon the shell, the same which Mr. Thomson presumes to 
be the " nucleus of the future attachment," so like to that to 
which we allude in the larva, that I am inclined to believe 

* When this paper was first written, I was ignorant of the discoveries of 
either Burmeister or Goodsir $ the researches of the former I have only 
seen since this has been in type ; and to both of whom separately is due the 
merit of the discovery of the great fact of the complex metamorphosis of 
the Cirripedia; since Mr. J. V. Thomson, although the original discoverer 
of both stages, did not even conjecture that there was more than a single 
metamorphosis, although he was aware of the fact in the marine Decapoda, 
attributing the earlier form or larva to the pedunculated division, and the 
latter or pupa to the sessile division of the Cirripedia. 

t Vide figures by Dr. Baird in the ' Hist, of British Entomostraca.' 



326 Mr. C. SpenceBate on the Development of the Cirripedia. 

them, particularly if the homologies as pointed out by Burmei- 
ster be correct, to be identical ; an idea which receives support 
from the gradual receding of the spot from the anterior edge, 
near which it may be observed in the larva previous to the first 
moult ; whereas in the next it is further back, and in the third, as 
given in PI. VI. fig. 3 b, the only specimen of which I have had an 
opportunity of observing, it has considerably receded, being in a 
line with the extremity of the probosciform organ. Therefore, 
presuming such to be the case, I can scarcely appreciate the idea 
advanced by this latter author, that the two large eyes in the pupa 
are formed by the splitting into halves of this central spot ; or, 
to translate his own words, "that the single eye is compounded 
of two halves, which, by degrees, separate more and more until in 
the following period they are divided by a considerable space." 

In this description their development is not analogous to that 
of the eyes in the larva of the Entomostraca, which certainly in 
this stage must be considered as its nearest ally. For instance, 
in the larva of Chirocephalus diaphanus the two lateral organs of 
vision are apparent previous to the disappearance of the " central 
eye," plainly showing that the real eyes are not developed from 
the central spot, whatever it may be. 

Among the more peculiar features of the larvse of these animals 
is the presence of an elongated forked process of the abdomen, 
forming to all outward appearance a second caudal appendage, 
and which has been confounded with the tail in Prof. Goodsir's 
figure and description of the larva previous to the first moult, 
where he says, "the last segment is armed with three sharp 
strong spines which project backwards." After the first moult 
this appendage increases in length, greater or less in different 
species, by the addition of another ring proceeding from the 
extremity of the last, and like it terminating in a similarly forked 
extremity. Of its uses in the larva, or its homology in the adult 
animal, I have not been able to satisfy myself; but it is a fea- 
ture in a more or less modified form (as far as I have observed) 
universally present in this early stage of their development. 

In Balanusperforatus, Clitia Stromia, and Chthamalus depressus, 
the growth of the caudal appendages increases at the first moult 
to a length much greater in proportion than the same organs do 
in Balanus balanoides. 

Another organ equally constant and peculiar to the early larval 
stage of these animals is, that which for convenience of commu- 
nication I shall call a proboscis. This, the animal has the power 
of raising and lowering at pleasure, as its uses may require. 
At its extremity appears to be an oral-like aperture which is 
closed by a valve or upper lip. This organ, as far as my know- 
ledge goes, has no analogous representation among Crustacea, it 



Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia, 327 

being a feature peculiar to this stage of the larva of the Cirripedia, 
among which it differs in length and size according to the species ; 
like the caudal appendages, it increases in length, together with 
the natatory legs, with each of the earlier successive moults. At 
the base of this organ I have observed an irregular pulsation, 
and consequently presume it to be the seat of the heart. 

At the shoulders of the anterior extremity extends right and 
left a small process, which under a one-fourth of an inch object- 
glass appears to terminate most commonly in a bifid extremity ; 
but through the assistance of a higher power than I have used, 
I am informed by Mr. Darwin that this appearance is shown to 
be erroneous, it being seen to terminate always in a point : 
these are attached to the lower surface of the shield, and after the 
first moult appear to consist of two articulations ; they may differ 
in dimensions in respective species, but, as far as I have had an 
opportunity of observing, are universally present in the sessile 
division of the Cirripedia ; and judging from the figure given by 
Burmeister in his memoir upon the pedunculated Cirripedia, and 
those by Mr. Thomson upon the same division, they appear to 
be constant throughout the whole class, and probably are, as 
stated by Burmeister, homologous with the antenna? ; and if so, 
they must represent the external or superior pair ; but in watch- 
ing the habits of these young creatures I have seen nothing 
which can induce me to accept the idea that they are made use 
of by the animal, as he presumes, for the purpose of climbing or 
holding itself in contact with any foreign body. In order to fulfill 
these conditions the more perfectly, they each terminate with 
a hook in Burmeister's figure ; but this, not being represented 
in Thomson's, whose observations, in most essentials, coincide 
with those which opportunity has placed within my reach, in- 
duces me to receive the former author's drawing of these an- 
tenna? with caution, although it is probable that he may be 
correct when he presumes that they become the perambulatory 
feet in the pupa ; and if so, we have an interesting exemplifi- 
cation of the assumed fact, that the antennae among animals are 
but less modified in order to fulfill certain peculiar conditions ; 
thus they represent in one stage organs of sense, whereas in the 
next they fulfill the conditions of true feet. Besides these horns 
or outer antenna?, the larva is endowed with a smaller pair of 
simple structure, more typical of those organs in Crustacea, and 
which, therefore, must represent the internal or inferior pair; 
but these I have not been able to observe previous to the shed- 
ding of the first exuviae, though Mr. Darwin has been so kind as 
to inform me that he has seen them at that early period in the 
larva of Scapellum vulgare, and Prof. Goodsir has also figured 
them from the larva of Balanus Tintinnabidum ; therefore from 



328 Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia, 

analogy it may be assumed, as most probable, that they exist in 
a more or less rudimentary form in all. 

The natatory legs are at this period three on each side, the 
anterior pair being single and formed of three or four articula- 
tions, the terminating one being armed with three or four long 
spines, one of which also is generally attached to each of the 
two preceding joints. The two posterior pairs of legs become 
duplicates after the basal joint, which is large, and generally armed 
with a process covered with sharp spines pointing towards the ani- 
mal : each of the joints of the larger division of the double ex- 
tremities of both the posterior pairs is furnished with similar 
spines, some of which are in different species more or less fringed 
with fine ciliated processes. The spine upon the penultimate joint 
of the posterior pair of legs is in Balanus perforatus, Chthamalus 
depressus and Clitia Stromia curved inwards as well as ciliated ; 
each of the extremities likewise is supplied with long spines 
or hair-like processes, similar to those which exist attached to 
the cirrhi in the adult. 

It is since these observations have been made that I have be- 
come aware of Prof. Goodsir's paper in the ' Edin. New Phil. 
Journal/ by which I perceive that his observations do not exactly 
coincide with my own ; but I think that much of the difference 
may depend upon the circumstance of his having viewed the 
animal from the dorsal surface only; since, if he had seen the ani- 
mal from beneath, he would have observed that the anterior legs 
originate from a similar position with the rest, that is, near the 
centre of the animal. Of the " large segment which (he says) 
has originated at the anterior part of the body after the first 
moult," I have not been enabled to convince myself. That a 
line across may sometimes be seen in the dead animals, I am 
aware ; but the fact of its position being not always persistent has 
induced me to attribute the appearance to an accidental fold in 
the tunic of the animal, originating in the roughness of mani- 
pulation in mounting the specimens. 

Again, in Prof. Goodsir's figure the whole extremity of the leg 
consists of but a single articulation, whereas it has appeared to 
me to be, like the others, made up of several. The large basal 
process of the second pair of legs is not given in the same figure ; 
this, together with his not having observed the abdominal pro- 
cess, is but the natural result of the drawing being made of the 
dorsal surface only. 

Unfortunately, from the period of the larva having obtained 
its second form, which, according to my own experience, takes 
place on the second and not the eighth day, as stated by Prof. 
Goodsir, — and this I found invariably to be the case in every spe- 
cies which I have observed, — I have not been able, even with the 



Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia. 329 

greatest care and watchfulness, to preserve the young creature 
alive, so as to have the successive forms through which it passes, 
between the figure given as the earlier form with this paper, and 
that by Mr. J. V. Thomson in his ' Zoological Researches ' upon 
Cirripedes ; consequently there is a blank existing which imagi- 
nation will scarcely venture to supply ; so very unlike each other 
is the form in the earlier stage, to that which the larva or rather 
pupa assumes immediately prior to its adopting the character of 
a fixed animal. 

I am aware that almost as great a difference exists between 
the very young larva of the decapod marine Crustacea and the 
one into which it is transformed, and that many moultings of the 
tunic must take place before the larva has arrived to the size to 
which it must, ere it can put on its more permanent form ; so 
likewise it may be with the Cirripedia, that the larva shall so in- 
crease without change of form or undergoing a fresh metamor- 
phosis prior to the one figured by Mr. Thomson and my own 
observation. That these animals sensibly increase in size during 
fifteen days (which is the longest period that I have been enabled 
to keep them alive) seems to lend assistance to this supposition ; 
yet, notwithstanding, I can scarcely suppress the notion that 
some unrecognized form, possessing somewhat of the characters 
of each, will be found to be an intermediate stage of the creature's 
existence. 

It was at the latter period of its existence as a free animal 
that it was observed by Mr. Thomson, from whose figure the 
one given with this paper in some slight detail differs, which 
probably has arisen from the greater or less transparency of the 
shells belonging to the respective specimens examined. 

At this period the animal approximates much more nearly to 
its permanent character than it had done previously, as the nata- 
tory legs, which have increased to six pairs, together with the 
caudal appendage, form, with the soft parts of the animal, as seen 
through the transparent shell, a near resemblance to similar 
parts, only less developed, which belong to the adult animal : 
one slight exception exists in the natatory legs folding in the 
larva first anteriorly and then posteriorly, somewhat in the form 
of a compressed letter Z, from the last joint of which a strong 
spine projects which remains erect after the members are folded 
and at rest. Although six is the recognized normal number of 
pairs of legs in this stage of the young animal's existence, yet I 
was only capable of counting five pairs in the specimen from 
which this drawing is taken ; — a circumstance, which might lend 
assistance to establish the truth of the intermediate stage given 
by Burmcister, which is figured and described as having only 
three pairs similar to that of the larva in its earliest period ; and 



330 Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia. 

induces the idea that it adds a pair of legs with each successive 
moult ; but this link in the history of the young creature's de- 
velopment is yet to be made clear. 

At the anterior base of these organs an opake spot exists 
(fig. 15 a), which I presume to be the stomach. 

Two larger and darker spots, situated a little higher and an- 
terior, are pronounced to be organs of vision ; near these are 
inserted two long slender members which are supplied with 
a sucker and hooks to each limb ; with these the animal has 
the power of attaching itself to any object, and, by using them 
alternately, of perambulating on the surface of any hard sub- 
stance ; thus the young creature is in the middle stage endowed 
with the power of walking as well as swimming. 

Here I cannot help remarking upon the gradually changing 
habits of the creature, which in its early state swims about at 
its own will and pleasure, using, as all aquatic creatures do, its 
long tail as a rudder, by which it is enabled to direct and con- 
trol its own movements ; whereas in the latter stage of its larval 
existence the tail is gone, and consequently the creature is most 
excentric in its movements through the water, apparently being 
unable to swim direct to any fixed point. Thus it appears that 
before it becomes a sedentary animal it has been partially ren- 
dered incapable of fully enjoying its existence as a swimming 
creature, and thus the path is softened in the change of habits 
from an active to a stationary existence ; for an animal not having 
power to control its movements in its natural element could 
scarcely be supposed to enjoy its own existence : thus, under these 
circumstances, to become stationary is to become more happy. 

It is I believe generally understood that at this stage the larva 
has two valves, one on either side, a right and left, united at their 
posterior margin by a hinge similar to that of a bivalve among 
Mollusks. 

Of the correctness of this I was far from being able to con- 
vince myself, insomuch that I could neither observe the hinge 
nor the separation of the valves beyond a certain point at which 
the two appeared to me to unite ; nor could I observe any open- 
ing or shutting, the two sides appearing to me to be continually 
the same, and the whole together formed a shelly cell such as I 
have endeavoured to figure (PL VIII. fig. 17). 

At this period the larva may be presumed to represent the 
adult animal, and the shells of the operculum, but without the 
accessory valves. 

Thus it is to be remarked, that this animal in its growth from 
embryo to adult puts on several distinct characters, all of which 
are indicative of the Crustacea in different forms. 



Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Development of the Cirripedia. 331 

First, it assimilates to the appearance of the larva of certain 
Entomostraca, being liberated from the ovum like them without 
eyes ; after which it next approaches in character towards the 
adult Entomostraca, bearing an external resemblance to the bi- 
valve Crustacea, and like these perfected animals possesses organs 
of sight, from which period they pass out of recognized tribes, 
and comprise a family peculiar to themselves. These observations 
tend to corroborate the now generally received opinion that they 
are true Crustacea, and among this class they appear to fill up a 
vacancy which alone was wanting throughout the whole range 
of the Invertebrata, — I mean a sedentary family, one or more of 
which exists among each successive race of animals. 

The Polyp, from its analogy to the larva of the Medusa, 
may be looked upon as representing the sedentary family among 
the Acalephse, — the fossil Encrinites and the larva of the Coma- 
tula as representing the same position among the Asterise. The 
Tunicata among Mollusks and the Serpulse among Annelides 
appear to hold a similar relation, each to their separate class, 
as that which the Cirripedia occupy in relation to the Crustacea ; 
and these last, by the different forms which they pass through in 
their individual development, may be said to represent the type of 
those separate forms in the sedentary character. 

It would scarcely be just for me to close this paper without 
alluding to how much I am indebted to my friend Mr. Jeffreys 
both for specimens and a knowledge of the different species, his 
cabinet being as rich in this department of natural history as in 
that of British Mollusca ; or without expressing my thanks to Mr. 
Darwin, but for whose kindness I should have been guilty of 
publishing more than a single error. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES VI. VII. VIII. 

Fig. 1. Balanus balanoides as it appears when first liberated from the 
ovum. 

— 2. The same after the first moult ; 2 a, abdominal appendage. 

— 3. The same after the second moult; 3 a, abdominal appendage. 

— 4. The same, lateral view. 

— 5. Balanus perforatus just liberated from the ovum ; abdominal view. 

— 6. The same after the first moult ; abdominal view. 

B. The (so-called) eye. 

C. Abdominal appendage. 

D. Caudal termination. 

E. Proboscis. 

F. Supposed oral aperture which is protected by the lip or 

valve G. 
II. H. Horns or outer antenna;. 
K. K. True or interior antennae. 

1 . First pair of natatory legs. 

2. Second ditto. 

3. Third ditto. 

These letters also refer to fig. 14. 



332 Mr. J. Black wall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

Fig. 7. Balanus porcatus, abdominal view, just liberated from the ovum. 

— 8. Clitia Stromia, do. do. do. 

— 9. The same after the first moult ; abdominal aspect. 

— 10. The same after the first moult; dorsal aspect. 

— 11. Chthamalus depressus, first form, abdominal view; 11 a, caudal 

extremity. 

— 12. The same after first moult ; dorsal aspect. 

— 13. The same after first moult ; abdominal view. 

— 14. The same, lateral view. 

— 15. Balanus balanoides : the pupa, or stage of the larva immediately 

previous to its becoming a fixed animal, in a state of activity. 

— 16. The same at rest. 

— 17. The same, viewed in front. 

— 18. The same, anterior member with sucker and hooks. 

— 19. The same, posterior natatory leg and caudal appendage. 

— 20. The same, soon after its becoming fixed. 

— 21. The same, do. seen from above. 

— 22. The same, a little older. 

— 23. a, Spermatozoa of Balanus balanoides. 

b, do. do. Balanus perforatus. 

c, do. do. Clitia Stromia. 



XXVII. — A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on 
their Structure, Functions, (Economy and Systematic Arrange- 
ment. By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 102.] 

77. Agelena celans. 

Agelena celans, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 624. 
Argus celans, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. p. 504. 

This scarce species may occasionally be met with running upon 
the ground or concealed under stones in woods about Llanrwst. 
The palpal organs of the male are developed in August. Though 
intimately allied to the Agelena, yet M. Walekenaer has included 
this spider in the genus Argus. 

Genus Tegenaria, Walck. 
78. Tegenaria domestica. 

Tegenaria domestica, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 2. 

pi. 16. fig. 2; Koch, Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 25. tab. 260. fig. 607, 

608 ; Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 117. 

petrensis, Koch, Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 27. tab. 260. fig. 609. 
Aranea domestica, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 96. 
Agelena domestica, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 125. 
Philoica domestica, Koch,Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 13. 

I have received specimens of Tegenaria domestica from Cam- 
bridgeshire, Oxfordshire and Middlesex; but I have not ob- 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 333 

served it in the north of England and Wales. It inhabits old 
buildings, spinning an extensive horizontal sheet of web in the 
angles formed by the transverse junction of their walls, and in 
various other situations : connected with the web, which, in ad- 
dition to its lateral points of contact, is supported by numerous 
fine lines attached to both surfaces and to adjacent objects above 
and below it, is a short tube, usually situated in the angle formed 
by the walls, which being open at its extremities not only affords 
a retreat to the spider, but a ready medium of communication 
also with every part of its snare. The sexes pair in May, and in 
the two following months the female constructs several lenticular 
cocoons of white silk of a fine texture, measuring about |ths of 
an inch in diameter, each of which contains from 130 to 150 
spherical eggs of a yellowish white colour, not agglutinated 
together. All the cocoons are inclosed in separate sacs composed 
of compact white silk, having particles of plaster, whitewash, 
and other heterogeneous materials distributed upon their exterior 
surface. 

The spider alluded to by Mr. Jesse in his ' Scenes and Tales 
of Country Life/ p. 339, as being peculiar to Hampton Court, 
and there named the " Cardinal/' most probably is this species. 

79. Tegenaria atrica. 

Tegenaria atrica, Koch, Die Arachn. B. x. p. 105. tab. 353. fig. 825. 
s<zva, Blackw. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 179. 

In the autumn of 1843 Miss Gertrude Buller Elphinstone 
obligingly transmitted to me from Middlesex living specimens 
of this fine species, which ranks among our largest indigenous 
spiders ; they were captured at East Lodge, Enfield, where Miss 
Elphinstone then resided, and in reply to some inquiries relative 
to their habits, she informed me that they were found in dwell- 
ing-houses and conservatories. Subsequently I have received 
specimens from Miss Ellen Clayton, who obtained them at 
Oxford. 

The superior spinners of this species, like those of Agelena 
labyrinthica, are triarticulate, and have the spinning-tubes dis- 
posed on the inferior surface of their elongated terminal joint ; 
when thus modified, the principal purpose subserved by these 
organs appears to be the binding down with transverse lines, 
distributed by means of an extensive lateral motion, of the fila- 
ments emitted from the inferior and intermediate spinners, by 
which process a compact tissue is speedily fabricated. When in 
captivity, Tegenaria atrica constructs a horizontal sheet of web, 
with a short tube at one of the margins, serving it for a retreat. 

As the tenth volume of ' Die Arachniden ' did not come into 



334 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

my possession until some months had elapsed after the publica- 
tion of my description of this species in the ' Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History/ I was not aware that in announcing it 
as new to arachnologists I had been anticipated ; however, such 
being the case, the specific name atrica, conferred upon it by 
M. Koch, must take precedence of that of sceva, which will follow 
as a synonym. 

80. Tegenaria civilis. 

Tegenaria civilis, Walek. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 7. pi. 16. 
fig. 1 ; Koch, Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 37. tab. 264. fig. 618, 619. 

domestica, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 13. 

Agelena civilis, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 127. 
Titulus\7, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 59. tab. 1. fig. 17. 

The habits and oeconomy of this common spider are very 
similar to those of Tegenaria domestica, for which it has frequently 
been mistaken, even naturalists of high authority having included 
references to Lister's description and figure of it among the 
synonyma of that species. During the summer and autumn the 
female constructs several lenticular cocoons of white silk of a 
fine texture, measuring about f^ths of an inch in diameter, in 
each of which she deposits from fifty to sixty spherical eggs of 
a yellowish white colour, not adherent among themselves ; these 
cocoons are attached to walls, or other objects in the vicinity of 
her web, and have generally particles of plaster, whitewash, or 
mortar disposed on their exterior surface. 

I have ascertained the following remarkable physiological facts 
in connexion with Tegenaria civilis by observation and experi- 
ment; namely, that both sexes change their integument nine 
times before they arrive at maturity, once in the cocoon and 
eight times after quitting it ; that a leg of a young individual 
detached at the coxa six times consecutively may be reproduced 
at each succeeding change of integument after the infliction of 
the injury ; that the life of this species extends through a period 
of four years ; that the sexual organs of the male are connected 
with the digital joint of the palpi ; and that the female, after 
impregnation, is capable of producing nine sets of prolific eggs 
in succession without renewing her intercourse with the male, 
more than two years elapsing before all are deposited, and ten 
months nearly intervening sometimes between the deposition of 
two consecutive sets. 

Genus C^elotes, Blackw. 

81. Ccdotes saxatilis. 

Ccelotes saxatilis, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 618. tab. 39. 
fig. 6-8. 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 335 

Clubiona saxatilis, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third Series, 

vol. hi. p. 436. 
Drassus saxatilis, Blackw. Research, in Zool. p. 332. 
Aranea terrestris, Wider, Mus. Senck. B. i. p. 215. taf. 14. fig. 10. 
Amaurobius terrestris, Koch, Die Arachn. B. vi. p. 45. tab. 192. 

fig. 463, 464. 

subterraneus, Koch,Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 15. 

tigrinus, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 16. 

A description of this interesting spider, which I discovered in 
the spring of 1826 beneath loose fragments of rock on Snowdon, 
in Caernarvonshire, was originally given in the ( London and 
Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine/ under the name of Clubiona 
saxatilis. An examination of specimens procured afterwards in 
various parts of North Wales, Lancashire and Yorkshire induced 
me to remove it to the genus Drassus, on account of the curva- 
ture of its maxillse (Researches in Zoology). Subsequent inves- 
tigations however, made with great care, have served to convince 
me that it appertains to the Agelenidte, as it possesses several 
marked characteristics in common with the spiders of that family ; 
for example, the anterior part of its cephalo-thorax is compressed ; 
the superior spinners are Particulate, are longer than the rest, 
and have the spinning-tubes disposed on the under side of the 
terminal joint; each inferior tarsal claw is provided with two 
pairs of fine teeth near the base ; and its web is of a compact 
texture, having a tube in connexion with it extending, usually, 
to the extremity of a cylindrical cavity in the earth, which is 
frequently excavated by the animal itself. These facts do not 
appear to have received that degree of consideration from M. 
Walckenaer which their importance demands, as he still seems 
disposed to retain Ccdotes saxatilis in the genus Clubiona (Hist. 
Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. iv. pp. 441, 442). With regard to the 
genus Amaurobius of M. Koch, I may remark, that, as it includes 
spiders belonging to different families, which are easily distin- 
guished by their organization, oeconomy and habits, it must, as 
at present constituted, be rejected by systematic naturalists. 
The great defect of the genera attempted to be established by 
M. Koch is, that they are founded too exclusively on the dis- 
position, form and relative size of the eyes ; consequently, it some- 
times happens that they comprise species in other respects 
decidedly incongruous. 

Ccdotes saxatilis pairs in April, and in May the female deposits 
about 120 spherical eggs of a yellowish white colour, not agglu- 
tinated together, in a lenticular cocoon composed of white silk 
of a fine but compact texture, measuring half an inch in dia- 
meter ; it is generally attached to the inferior surface of stones 
by a small covering of web, on the outer side of which particles 
of indurated soil are frequently distributed. 



336 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

Genus Textrix, Sund. 
82. Textrix lycosina. 

Textrix lycosina, Sund. Consp. Arachn. p. 19; Koch, Uebers. des 
Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 14 ; Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 46. 
tab. 266. fig. 623, 624. 

agilis, Blackw. Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. Third Series, 

vol. hi. p. 109 ; Research, in Zool. p. 348. pi. 3. fig. 1, 2. 

Agelena lycosina, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 130. 

Tegenaria lycosina, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 15. 

Titulus 20, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 67. tab. 1 . fig. 20. 

Professor Sundevall was the first who proposed to institute 
with this species the genus Textrix, which he defined in his 
' Conspectus Arachnidum/ published in 1833 ; a like proposition, 
made by myself in the autumn of the same year, was announced 
in the i London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine ; } and it 
is a remarkable circumstance, as the Professor justly observes in 
a private communication of great interest with which he favoured 
me, " that we have applied the generic name Textrix to the same 
animal without knowing anything of the coincidence." 

I gladly avail myself of this opportunity to acknowledge the 
obligation I am under to the Rev. Morgan Morgan, Rector of 
Conway, for his great kindness in obtaining for me, through the 
medium of his friends in Sweden, important information on the 
subject of arachnology most liberally imparted by Professor Sun- 
devall. 

Textrix lycosina, which has a relation of analogy with the 
Lycosidce by the disposition and relative size of its eyes, is widely 
distributed in Great Britain, most commonly occupying crevices 
in rocks, stone walls, and the bark of old trees; its superior 
spinners are triarticulate, having the spinning-tubes arranged on 
the under side of the elongated terminal joint, and are employed 
in the fabrication of its snare, which consists of a sheet of web 
supported both above and below by fine lines intersecting one 
another at various angles, and attached to it and to adjacent ob- 
jects by their extremities; a cylindrical tube in connexion with 
the snare usually extends to the spider's retreat. The sexes pair 
in June, and in the following month the female deposits between 
50 and 60 spherical eggs of a pale yellow colour, not adherent 
among themselves, in a lenticular cocoon of white silk of a fine 
but compact texture, measuring ^th of an inch in diameter ; it 
is attached to stones by a small covering of white web, on the 
exterior surface of which particles of soil and other materials are 
frequently distributed. 

This spider, with a change of integument, is capable of re- 
producing the legs, palpi, and terminal joint of the superior 
spinners after they have been removed by amputation. 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 337 

Family Theridiida. 

Genus Theridion, Walck. 

83. Theridion lineatum. 

Theridion lineatum, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. '285. 
redimitum, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 97 ; Hahn, 

Die Arachn. 15. i. p. 86. tab. 21. fig. 65. 

ovatum, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 113. 

Theridium redimitum, Koch, Die Arachn. B. xii. p. 133. tab. 427. 

fig. 1053-1055. 
Steatoda redimita, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 9. 
Titulus 12, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 51. 

This common spider, remarkable for its variation in colour, 
spins among coarse herbage and the stems of shrubs numerous 
fine glossy lines intersecting one another in different planes and 
at various angles, which constitute a snare similar in design to 
the toils constructed by the Theridia generally. It pairs in June, 
and in July the female deposits about 170 spherical eggs of a 
yellowish white colour, not agglutinated together, in a globular 
cocoon of bluish white, blue, or greenish blue silk of a looseish 
texture, measuring |th of an inch in diameter. The cocoon is 
inclosed in a slight tissue of white silk connected with the in- 
ferior surface of the leaves of trees and shrubs, the edges of 
which are convolved about it and are retained in that position by 
silken lines. The young remain a long time in this nidus with 
the female and are supplied by her with food. 

M. Koch, in transferring that variety of Theridion lineatum 
named redimitum to the genus Steatoda of Prof. Sundevall (Con- 
spectus Arachnidum, pp. 16, 17), lapsed into an inconsistency 
which M. Walckenaer has pointed out in his ' Hist. Nat. des 
Insect. Apt/ t. ii. p. 288, and which he himself has subsequently 
corrected. 

84. Theridion quadripunctatum. 

Theridion quadripunctatum, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. 

p. 290 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. B. i. p. 78. tab. 20. fig. 58 ; Sund. 

Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 118. 
Steatoda quadripunctata, Sund. Consp. Arachn. p. 16, 17. 
Eucharia bipunctata, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, 

p. 7; Die Arachn. B. xii. p. 99. tab. 418. fig. 1027. 
Phrurolithus ornatus, Koch, Die Arachn. B.vi. p. 1 14. t. 208. fig. 515. 
Titulus 11, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 49. t. 1. fig. 11. 

Crevices in walls and rocks, and interstices among stones are 
the haunts selected by this species, which occurs in many parts 
of England and Wales. It pairs in May, and in June the female 
constructs a globular cocoon of yellowish white silk of a loose 
texture, measuring /^ths of an inch in diameter ; it is usually 

Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2, Vol. viii. 22 



338 On the Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 

attached to objects situated in the vicinity of her snare, and con- 
tains about 50 spherical eggs of a pinkish colour, not agglutinated 
together. 

A female Theridion quadripunctatum, placed in a phial which 
was closely corked and locked up in a book-case, continued to 
exist without receiving a ay nutriment whatever from the 15 th of 
October 1829 to the 30th of April 1831, when it died. That 
so voracious an animal should be capable of enduring abstinence 
from food for so long a period is certainly an extraordinary fact. 

85. Theridion sisyphum. 

Theridion sisyphum, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 298; 

Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 97 ; Hahn, Die Arachn. 

B. ii. p. 47. tab. 58. fig. 132. 

lunatum, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1831, p. 111. 

Theridium lunatum, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, 

p. 8 ; Die Arachn. B. viii. p. 74. tab. 273. fig. 645, and B. xii. 

p. 137. tab. 429. fig. 1060, 1061. 
Steatoda lunata, Sund. Consp. Arachn. p. 16, 17. 
Titulus 14, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 53. tab. 1. fig. 14. 

Though I have never observed Theridion sisyphum in the open 
air, yet it is not uncommon in greenhouses, where it constructs 
an extensive complicated snare, somewhat of a pyramidal form, 
which consists of numerous fine glossy lines intersecting one 
another in different planes and at various angles. The sexes 
pair in June, and during the summer and autumn the female 
fabricates several balloon-shaped cocoons of different sizes, varying 
from J-th to ^rd of an inch in diameter, which she suspends in 
the upper part of her snare with their larger extremities down- 
wards ; they are composed of reddish brown silk of a fine but 
compact texture, and the largest of them sometimes comprises 
between 400 and 500 spherical eggs of a pale yellowish white 
colour, not adherent among themselves. Young spiders and 
cocoons containing eggs may frequently be seen in the snare at 
the same time. 

86. Theridion riparium. 

Theridion riparium, Blackw. Research, in Zool. p. 354. 

saxatile, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. ii. p. 328. 

Theridium saxatile, Koch, Uebers. des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, 
p. 8 ; Die Arachn. B. iv. p. 116. tab. 141. fig. 324, 325. 

The oeconomy of this species, which is evidently identical with 
the Theridium saxatile of M. Koch, is very remarkable. It spins 
under the projections of broken precipitous banks in the woods 
about Oakland a snare composed of fine glossy lines arranged 
after the manner of the Theridia. The union of the sexes takes 



Zoological Society. 339 

place in July, and in August the female fabricates a slender coni- 
cal tube of silk of a very slight texture, measuring from one and 
a half to two and a half inches in length, and about half an inch 
in diameter at its lower extremity ; it is closed above, open below, 
thickly covered externally with particles of indurated earth, small 
stones, and withered leaves and flowers, which are incorporated 
with it, and is suspended perpendicularly in the snare by lines at- 
tached to its sides and apex. In the upper part of this singular 
domicile the female constructs several globular cocoons of yellow- 
ish white silk of a slight texture, having a mean diameter of 
about ith of an inch, in each of which she deposits from twenty 
to sixty small spherical eggs of a pale yellowish white colour, not 
agglutinated together. The young, after quitting the cocoons, 
remain a long time with the female and are provided by her with 
food, which consists chiefly of ants. 

It would appear that M. Walckenaer, prior to the publication 
of the second volume of his ( Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt./ was 
not cognisant of my researches in this department of zoology, as 
in various instances he has adopted the names given by other 
arachnologists to spiders which I had previously described,, with- 
out any reference to those assigned to them by me. I may refer 
to Theridion riparium as presenting a case in point. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

June 25, 1850.— Wm. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
1. Catalogue of the Mammalia of Ceylon. Collected 

AND OBSERVED BY E. F. KeLAART, M.D., F.L.S. 

[Having already published a list of the Mammalia of the Island in 
our Number for May 1851, we merely give the descriptions of the 
new species indicated by the author— Ed. Ann. Nat. Hist.'] 

GOLUNDA NEWERA. 

Fur soft, yellowish brown varied with black ; chin and beneath 
yellowish grey ; under-fur dark lead-colour ; soft long hairs on the 
upper parts of the head and body, with longer black-tipped hairs 
having a subterminal yellowish band ; fur of belly dark lead-colour 
tipped with yellowish grey ; ears large, hairy on both sides, of a light 
rusty or ashy colour ; whiskers slender, moderately long, some greyish, 
others blackish ; tail shorter than the body, tapering to a point, scaly ; 
upper surface of a black colour and covered with short semi-adpressed 
black hair ; lower surface yellow or ashy colour, covered with short 
hair of the same yellow colour ; feet having dark brown claws, pur- 
plish ; four toes to the fore-feet, with a clawless rudimentary thumb ; 
five hind-toes, three middle subequal ; soles nearly bald, blackish ; 
palma studded with four small tubercles ; planta with six, tubercles, 
the two foremost considerablv larger ; incisors yellow, superior ones 

22* 



340 Zoological Society. 

grooved in the centre ; molars flat, deeply 3-lobed, tubercles risin g 
in three distinct lines, middle larger than those of the sides, and the 
front one extending beyond the two other lobes. 

Length of body and head, 3^ inches ; tail, 1\. 

This rat is found in the black soil of Newera Ellia, and is a great 
destroyer of peas and potatoes. The only two specimens I had, lived 
for some days in a cage and played like mice. 

Corsira newera ellia. (Or variety of Corsira nigrescens.) 

Slaty or ashy black, very slightly washed with rufous on the upper 
parts ; no trace of rufous beneath, which is paler slaty ; whiskers long, 
very thin, greyish ; legs from half way down the thighs covered with 
short adpressed hairs ; feet fleshy grey ; hair on the toes longer, and 
those of the hind-feet extending over the claws ; claws white, those 
of the front feet elongated, compressed, acute ; toes 5-5, all clawed ; 
ears large, naked, partially hid in the fur ; tail black, round, tapering, 
rather scaly, and thinly covered with short hair intermixed with much 
longer, glossy, shining, thin, stiff hairs, some of which are also seen in 
the upper parts and sides of the lower half of the body ; teeth white 
throughout. 

Length of body and head, 3^ inches ; tail, 2\. 

Found in Newera Ellia and even on Pedrotellgala, the highest 
mountain in Ceylon, which rises from the plains of Newera Ellia, and 
is 8020 feet above the sea's level. I had one quite docile in a box 
for some days, which fed ravenously on earth-worms ; it used to run 
about the table and on my arms without attempting to get away ; it 
died one frosty night. 

This shrew differs from the Sorex murinus chiefly in the absence 
of all unpleasant smell. I could not trace any glands or lectse in any 
part of the body. The elongated fore-claws is another good specific 
distinction. The Sorex murinus is also found here, and I am inclined 
to think that a very diminutive shrew, of which I have seen only one 
specimen, is another species, but which for the present I have con- 
sidered as only the young of the above-described animal. It re- 
sembles in every point the Sorex pggtnceus of Hodgson (Mag. Nat. 
Hist. vol. xv.). There are several characters in our Corsira which 
make me consider it not identical with the C. nigrescens of Gray, 
especially the greater length of its tail than in the animal found on 
the continent of India, which I know only from Mr. Gray's de- 
scription. 

2. On the blood-coloured exudation from the skin of 
the Hippopotamus. By John Tomes, F.R.S. 

The exudation is composed of a transparent fluid in which float 
two kinds of corpuscles ; one kind is tolerably abundant, and is both 
transparent and colourless ; the other is comparatively rare and of 
a bright red colour. To the solution of these latter bodies the 
fluid owes its peculiar colour. 

The colourless corpuscles are spherical in shape, and vary in 
diameter from the 3450th to the 2100th of an inch; the majority 
however measure about the 3000th of an inch. Their structure is 



Zoological Society. 341 

granular, and in about the same degree as the colourless corpuscles 
of blood, and the ordinary exudation corpuscles, to which they pre- 
sent a strong resemblance. 

Many of these bodies preserve their figure for a considerable time, 
while others become collected into clusters and form irregular broken 
masses. v 

The coloured corpuscles are irregular in size and shape, and are 
composed of an aggregation of njinute elongated and sometimes 
triradiate bodies, many of which appear, from their irregular and 
obscure outline, as though partially dissolved. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of these, the fluid has a much deeper colour than 
elsewhere. From these circumstances I have been led to conclude 
that the general pink colour of the fluid is due to the solution of the 
coloured particles, and not simply to their presence. In this parti- 
cular the fluid under consideration is strikingly different from blood, 
which owes its colour to the presence of coloured globules and not to 
their solution. 

Whether the red colour of the exudation is a condition of youth, 
and of an imperfect condition of the skin, and has ceased in con- 
sequence of the increased age of the animal and the consequent more 
perfect development of the integument, or has ceased in consequence 
of the change of climate to which the animal has been lately subjected, 
is a question which, with the facts at present a* our disposal, can- 
not be satisfactorily determined. 

We have however sufficient evidence to warrant the conclusion, that 
the thick tenacious exudation, whether coloured or otherwise, is 
poured out only during the time the skin is immersed in water, and 
that it has an especial reference to the aquatic habits of the animal. 
It appears for the time to convert the surface of the body into a mu- 
cous membrane, and then, on the animal leaving the water, to furnish 
by its inspissation an epidermis. 

Should further inquiry show that the thickness of the exudation 
arises from a solution of the colourless globules, its relation to mucus 
will be still further established, and a microscopic examination into 
the structure of the skin will become a subject of great physiological 
interest. 

3. On six new species of Humming Birds. 
By John Gould, F.R.S. etc. 

Although the Trochilidse have lately received much attention both 
from our own and the continental naturalists, the subject is far from 
exhausted, as is shown by the circumstance of my being able to bring 
before the notice of the Society this evening no less than six species 
hitherto un characterized and unknown. These great accessions to the 
family are all from a state with which we have as yet had but little in- 
tercourse — that of Veragua in Central America ; and we are indebted 
for a knowledge of them to the researches of an enterprising traveller 
and botanist, M. Warzewicz, who has just returned from that coun- 
try, where he successfully explored many forests and other districts 
not previously trodden by the foot of civilized man. Unfortunately, 
both for myself and for science, he was not able, in consequence of the 



342 Zoological Society. 

heavy rains which prevailed at the time, to procure or to preserve the 
examples in so fine a state as could be wished ; although much muti- 
lated and otherwise damaged, they are, however, sufficiently perfect 
to admit of my furnishing the following descriptions : — 

1. Trochilus (Selosphorus) scintilla. 

Male : upper surface bronzy green ; on the throat a gorget of glit- 
tering fiery red, the feathers of which are much produced on either 
side ; beneath the gorget a band of buffy white ; wings purple-brown ; 
central tail-feathers brownish black, margined with rusty red ; lateral 
tail-feathers brownish black on their outer and rusty red on their 
inner webs ; under surface reddish brown ; bill black. 

Female : upper surface as in the male, but not so bright ; under 
surface white ; throat-feathers less produced, and spotted with brown 
on a white ground ; flanks buff ; tail rufous, crossed by a crescentic 
bar of black near the tip. 

Total length of the male, 2 J inches ; bill, | ; wing, 1^; tail, 1. 

Hab, Volcano of Chiriqui, at an altitude of 9000 feet. 

This is an extremely beautiful species, and forms a miniature re- 
presentative of the Trochilus rufus, to which it is somewhat allied. 

2. Trochilus (Thaumatias ?) chionura. 

Male : upper surface very dark grass-green ; wings purplish 
brown ; central tail-feathers bronzy green ; lateral tail-feathers white, 
largely tipped with black ; throat pale shining green ; flanks green- 
ish ; centre of the abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; upper 
mandible black, base of the lower mandible fleshy white. 

Female : upper surface as in the male, but paler ; lateral tail-fea- 
thers white, as in the male, but crossed near the extremity with an 
oblique band, instead of being tipped with black ; throat and under 
surface generally white. 

Total length, 3£ inches; bill, f; wing, 2-|- ; tail, 1£. 

Hab. Chiriqui near David, province of Veragua, at an altitude of 
from 2000 to 3000 feet. 

This is a remarkable species, differing, as it does, from all other 
Humming-Birds with which I am acquainted, in the large amount of 
white on the tail-feathers, which shows very conspicuously when that 
organ is spread. In form it is very similar to the T. brevirostris and 
T. longirostris of the Brazils. 

3. Trochilus (Thalurania) venusta. 

The entire crown, back of the neck, and upper part of the back, 
shoulders, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, beautiful shining ultra- 
marine blue ; throat and fore-part of the neck rich metallic green ; 
wings purplish black ; tail considerably forked, and of a blackish 
blue ; bill black. 

Total length, 4 inches ; bill, -J- ; wing, 2\ ; tail, If. 

Hab, Volcano of Chiriqui in Veragua. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to, and of the same form and size as, the 
T. furcatus, but a far finer bird. 

4. Trochilus ( ?) cozruleogularis. 

Male : upper surface, shoulders, abdomen and under tail-coverts, 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 343 

shining grass-green ; throat, sides of the neck and chest, rich violet- 
blue; wings purple-brown; tail rather forked; central feathers 
bronzy green ; lateral feathers purplish black ; upper mandible and 
tip of the lower black ; basal portion of the latter fleshy white. 

Female : upper surface shining grass-green, but of a paler hue 
than in the male ; tail as in the opposite sex, except that the lateral 
feathers are tipped with white ; centre of the throat, abdomen and 
under tail-coverts white. 

Total length, 3| inches ; bill, f ; wing, 2 ; tail, l£. 

Hab. Near David, on the north side of the Cordillera, Veragua. 

I am also indebted to Dr. T. B. Wilson of Philadelphia for the 
loan of a specimen from Panama. This species is precisely of the 
same elegant form as the T. Goudotii, but is of a larger size, and is 
at once distinguished from that bird by its blue breast. 

5. TROCHILUS ( ?) CASTANEOVENTRIS. 

Crown of the head metallic green ; upper surface green ; wings 
purplish brown ; tail dark bronzy green, crossed near the tip by a 
broad band of black ; the lateral feathers tipped with buff, which de- 
creases in extent as the feathers approach the central ones ; all the 
under surface reddish chestnut ; bill black. 

Total length, 4 inches ; bill, -J; wing, 2\ ; tail, If. 

Hab. Cordillera of Chiriqui, at an altitude of 6000 feet. 

Remark. — This is a moderately sized species, and is not allied to 
any other member of the family with which I am acquainted ; I am 
therefore unable to assign it a place in any of the sections hitherto 
proposed ; the specimens I possess appear to be immature, and are 
unfortunately in bad condition. 

6. TROCHILUS ( ?) NIVEOVENTER. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck bronzy green ; back rich 
coppery bronze ; wings purple-brown ; upper tail-coverts reddish 
purple ; tail purple-black ; throat resplendent green ; abdomen snow- 
white ; flanks green ; under tail-coverts greenish brown, margined 
with white ; bill black, except the basal three-fourths of the lower 
mandible, which are flesh colour. 

Total length, 3f inches; bill, -J; wing, 2\; tail, \\. 

Hab. Near David ; warm countries of Veragua. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to T. Edwardi and T. erythronotus ; from 
the former, however, it differs in the colour of the tail, and from the 
latter in the white colouring of the breast. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Thursday, 19th June. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

A copy of the new edition of the Society's Catalogue of British 
Plants was laid on the table. 

Mr. Henry Paul presented a specimen of Codium Bursa, collected 
in the neighbourhood of Brighton. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens of Bryum Wahlenberyii from 
Arniston, near Edinburgh, where they were collected by Mr. Veitch, 



344 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

gardener at Arniston ; also of Gottschea appendiculata from New 
Zealand, collected by Mr. Sinclair. 

Mr. Sibbald exhibited flowering plants of Saxifraga hirta, which 
he had received from Galtee More, in the county of Tipperary, one 
of the few stations recorded for this species. Mr. Sibbald agreed 
with Mr. Babington's views as to the distinctness of St hirta from 
S. hypnoides and S. affinis, and referred to the figures in f English 
Botany' as characteristic of the plants. 

The following papers were read : — 

1 . " On the Government Teak Plantations of Mysore and Mala- 
bar." By Hugh Cleghorn, M.D., H.E.I.C.S. 

The author exhibited specimens of teak from the plantations of 
Mysore and Malabar, and stated the glory of the Ghaut Forest was 
its teak, the vast importance of which was becoming daily more 
known and appreciated; the timber indeed had been long prized. 
Bontius described the tree under the name of Quercus indica, though, 
except as regards the timber, it has no resemblance to the oak. 
Rheede has given an accurate representation of Tectona grandis, and 
a good account of the teak forests of Malabar : — " Crescit ubique in 
Malabar, at prsesertim in Provincia Calicolan (Calicut) ubi integreg 
sylvse ingentium harum arborum reperiuntur. * * * Lignum 
vero hujus arboris, quercino ligno haud absimile, operi fabrili accom- 
modum, atque Naupegis ad navium fabricam in usu est : sed in aquis 
(preesertim dulcibus) teredini facile obnoxium." Dr. Cleghorn stated 
that he had travelled in 1847 the route followed by Buchanan in 1801 
(see Journal, vol. in. p. 287), and that the teak forests therein men- 
tioned had well nigh disappeared. Much attention is now given to 
this important article of trade by the government of India ; planta- 
tions have been established in Malabar and Mysore, and their present 
thriving condition gives the prospect of eventual success. 

2. "On Chantransia, Desv." By John Ralfs. This paper will 
be found at p. 302. 

3. " Notice of Belenia prcealta of Jacquemont." By Dr. Balfour. 
Dr. Balfour stated that the plant exhibited by him at the last meeting, 
as a species of Hyoscyamus, turns out to be the Belenia prcealta of 
Jacquemont. The genus Belenia differs from Hyoscyamus in its 
corymbose inflorescence and more regular flowers. The plant is de- 
scribed and figured in Jacquemont' s work. It grows on the Hima- 
laya at great elevations, and towards the northern slope, abounding 
on the elevated flat plains. The plant in the Botanic Garden was 
raised from seeds sent by Major Madden to Mr. Moore of Glasnevin. 

4. V Remarks on some Australian products." By Samuel Moss- 
man. Mr. Mossman exhibited specimens of the following products 
brought by him from Australia : — 

1. New Zealand Flax. 

2. " Kauri Gum," of commerce. — " This is a very pure resin from 
the Dammara australis or Kauri Pine of New Zealand, and has been 
erroneously termed a gum by the settlers. The tree bears fertile and 
sterile cones, and sheds its bark like the Eucalyptus of Australia. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 345 

The timber is much valued in the navy for making large and durable 
spars. A remarkable circumstance connected with the collecting of 
this resin is, that it is principally found amongst sandy soil, on open 
fern-land, where not the vestige of a tree is to be found ; a fact which 
indicates the existence at a recent date of extensive forests of this pine, 
having merely surface roots on the thin soil of these islands, deriving 
their nourishment mainly from the humid state of the atmosphere 
which characterizes that climate." 

3. " Mimosa Bark," of commerce. — "This is the bark of Acacia 
dealbata, and contains a greater per-centage of tannin than any other 
bark. It is a handsome tree, from 15 to 30 feet high, forming luxu- 
riant groves on the banks of streams, most abundant in Port Philip 
and Twofold Bay, between the parallels of lat. 34° and 38°. These 
groves, when in full blossom, send forth a fragrance which may be 
detected several miles distant, and on approaching them they present 
one of the most picturesque features in Australian forest scenery." 

4. Seeds from the cone of Araucaria Bidwillii. 

5. Fossil Ferns in Shale, from the Coal-measures of Australia. 
" Evidence has been found of the carboniferous strata running along 
the east coast of Australia, extending north and south a distance of 
1000 miles." 

Mr. Mossman also exhibited twenty new species of Australian 
plants, and remarked — "Since Brown's 'Prodromus' was published 
in 1810, very little has been done in illustrating the botany of Au- 
stralia. Few genera have been added to the list given by this emi- 
nent botanist. Although Cunningham, Labillardiere and others have 
added materially to our list of species, there is still a vast field open 
in this interesting region to future additions in botanical discovery, as 
is evident from the little I have done myself in that distant land ; 
having brought home forty new species, some of which I now exhibit. 
In my herbarium of Ferns is one rather interesting to the student of 
this department of botany. No. 667 may be considered a variety of 
Stegania (Lomaria) nuda, R. Br. ; it has the fructification of Loma- 
ria, but the venation of Blechnum in parts of the frond, but not in 
all. Sir William Hooker and Mr. J. Smith have observed it before, 
and do not agree with Mr. Brown entirely in his discrimination of the 
two genera ; for example, Mr. Smith considers the Lomaria Spicant 
of Mr. Brown as a Blechnum, and this variety of Lomaria nuda, Br., 
tends merely to show, according to him, that it too is truly a Blech- 
num, not a Lomaria." 

6. Dr. Balfour made some remarks on the glandular stipules of 
Cinchonacese. — Mr. Weddell states that on the inner surface of the 
base of the stipules of Cinchona and allied genera, he had observed 
numerous small glands which secreted a gummy fluid. In Cinchona 
the secretion is transparent and fluid, while in several other genera it 
is solid and opake, and seems to glue the stipules to the bud which 
they embrace ; this is particularly the case in Pimentelia glomerata. 
In Rondeletia the secretion is soft, like wax, and of a beautiful green 
colour. The inhabitants of Peru give it the name of Aceite-Maria, 
or Oil of Mary ; they collect it carefully, and use it as an external 
application in various diseases. The stipular glands have an oval or 



346 Miscellaneous. 

lanceolate form, and are somewhat pointed. The axis of the gland 
is in the form of an elongated cone ; it is composed of elongated and 
dense cellular tissue. Dr. Balfour, with the aid of his pupil, Mr. 
Matthews, examined these glands in many Cinchonacese, and they 
detected them in fresh specimens of the following : — Cinchona Cali- 
saya, Burchellia capensis, Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, Coffea arabica, 
Ixora javanica, Musscenda frondosa, Rondeletia speciosa, Pavetta 
indica, Luculia gratissima and Pinceana, Pentas carnea, Gardenia 
Stanley ana, and other species. In some the secretion was beautifully 
coloured. 

Dr. Balfour stated that he had recently received a letter from Dr. 
Walker-Arnott, in which he remarks, that in preparing spiral vessels 
to show them fresh, he finds the most easy plan is to take the petiole 
or peduncle of Pinguicula vulgaris and squeeze it between two glass 
slides, so that it may become thin and transparent. In this way a 
preparation is made, which, when put under the microscope, ex- 
hibits spiral vessels and annular ducts distinctly without any further 
trouble. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens of Knappia agrostidea, recently 
collected by Mr. Syme at Gullane Links, but which he had subse- 
quently ascertained to have been sown there by several botanists at 
different times ; as also Ranunculus confusus, Gr. et G., from a pond 
at the same place ; and R. trichophyllus, from the pools at Gullane : 
the latter is considered by Mr. Babington and others as a variety of 
R. aquatilis. Dr. Balfour also exhibited from Mr. Syme dried spe- 
cimens of Narcissus poeticus, retaining the beautiful colour of the 
flower ; the specimens had been received in a fresh state from the 
Rev. Mr. Bree, Allesley Rectory. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

ORTHAGORISCUS MOLA. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Edinburgh, 7 West Maitland Street, 
September 20, 1851. 

Gentlemen, — Having had the opportunity this morning of ex- 
amining a recent specimen of the Short Sun-Fish, Orthagoriscus mola, 
it occurred to me it might be of sufficient interest to justify my trou- 
bling you with a note of its capture. It was taken by some fishermen 
while swimming or rather floating near the surface of the sea, off the 
coast of Haddingtonshire, near Dunglass, on the 18th of this month. 
Its length was about 21 inches from the point of the nose to the ex- 
tremity of the tail ; and its breadth in front of the dorsal fin across 
to anus, immediately in front of anal fin, was 13 inches 6 lines ; the 
length of the dorsal fin was 9 inches, and the anal 8 inches 6 lines, 
both being very moveable at their junction with the body ; the length 
of the caudal fin, which unites these two other fins together, was 
2 inches at its centre, the long " hinge-like " part connecting it to the 
body being 1 inch 9 lines in breadth at the same place ; the rays of 



Miscellaneous. 347 

the different fins (pectoral, dorsal and anal) correspond to the num- 
bers given in YarrelPs well-known ' History of British Fishes,' ex- 
cept that those of the thick caudal fin were so indistinct that I could 
not detect them by external examination. The fish was of a dingy 
bluish or dark leaden colour on the upper parts, mottled with a 
lighter colour on the sides, and of a light gray approaching to a silvery 
white on the abdomen, the "hinge-like" portion of the fins, espe- 
cially of the caudal, having a reddish or dark flesh-coloured tinge ; 
round the eye the colour was paler, and the eye itself was of a dark 
bluish-gray colour, with a bright "silvery ring round the pupil." 
The flesh felt soft and flabby, the fish being apparently in bad con- 
dition, and weighing only 1 1 lbs. avoird. The skin was slightly 
wrinkled, and was rough all over like a shark's. 

I remain, Gentlemen, yours very respectfully, 

John Alex. Smith, M.D. 

P.S. I may mention that the skin of a specimen of this fish, much 
about the same size as the one I have described, was exhibited to the 
Royal Physical Society here last winter, having been captured by one 
of the members while dredging in Loch Ryan. 

CARCHARIAS VULPES. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Cork, September 20, 1851. 
Gentlemen, — An example of the Fox Shark {Carcharias Vulpes) 
occurred in Ringabella Bay, close to the mouth of Cork Harbour, on 
the 31st of last month. It got entangled in a net and was secured 
by the fishermen. It was considerably smaller than the individual 
lately recorded in your Magazine by Mr. Thomson ; the whole length 
of the animal being 7 feet 4 inches, and that of the upper segment of 
tail 3 feet 9 inches nearly. Owing to the ignorance of the person to 
whom the skinning was entrusted, the specimen has unfortunately 
not been saved. The fish was a male. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. (R.) Harvey, M.D. 

On the Arrangement of Fossil Animal Remains in Collections. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. &c. 

There appears to be considerable difference of opinion among geo- 
logists and fossil collectors respecting the manner in which fossil 
specimens of animals should be arranged. I have therefore been in- 
duced to put together the following notes : — 

1. Some agree with Cuvier, Lamarck, Fleming, and other zoolo- 
gists, that they should be arranged with and in the same series as 
similar specimens of the recent animals. 

2. Others, that they should be first divided according to the strata 
in which they are found, and the specimens of each stratum arranged 
in a zoological method. 

3. Others, that they should be simply arranged zoologically in a 
collection by themselves. 

I have long been of opinion that no collection of zoology can be con- 



348 Miscellaneous. 

sidered as complete, or worthy the name of a scientific collection, 
unless it contains the fossil animals and has them arranged on both 
the first and second of these plans. 

The first is requisite to enable the zoologist to study the exist- 
ing and the extinct animal, and without this advantage it is impossible 
that the natural method of animals, which is the true study of the 
scientific zoologist, can ever be discovered ; on the other hand, it is 
only by the accurate comparison of the fossil remains of extinct ani- 
mals with the skeletons and other hard parts of existiug animals, 
that the proper characters of the fossil species can be discovered. 
It has always appeared to me that a zoological collection, not con- 
taining the fossil as well as the recent species, is as imperfect as a 
collection of recent vertebrated animals would be if it did not contain 
specimens of skulls and skeletons ; and a collection of shells, sea-eggs 
and corals would be, if they were without examples of molluscous 
and radiated animals preserved in spirits. 

The second plan, that of arranging a second series of the fossils 
when they have been well determined by comparison with the 
existing species, in series according to the strata in which they are 
found, is of the same importance to the zoologist as the geographical 
arrangement of the existing species, and of the utmost importance to 
the geologist, as affording him one of the best characters yet dis- 
covered for identifying the strata of the earth's surface. There are 
several private collections of fossils in this country where this system 
of arrangement has been carried out in a limited manner, that is to 
say, they are chiefly confined to the fossils of this country, or of some 
other special locality ; but I have never seen any collection where it 
has been followed to a great extent ; and I am convinced that the 
formation of such a collection, combining together the fossils of each 
stratum or bed from the various parts of the world, would have a most 
important effect on the progress of geological science, and at the same 
time bring together facts of the greatest value to the scientific zoolo- 
gist who is studying the development and natural arrangement of 
organized beings. The third plan does not afford the facilities re- 
quired by either the zoologist or the geologist, and is of as little use 
as a collection of the kind can be. 

EARLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL MENAGERIES IN LONDON. 

The interest which has been excited by the arrival of the Hippopota- 
mus and his keepers induces us to give insertion to the following 
curious notice, from a record of the reign of Edw. III. in the year 
1364 ; together with a note on the subject with which we have been 
favoured by Prof. Owen, and some notices of the Royal Menageries, 
and animals mentioned by our earlier historians. 

" Les Archives de Guild-Hall offrent des renseignements si varies, 
que quelques-uns interessent meme les Sciences Naturelles ; ainsi on 
y trouve, a la date du 4 Novembre 1364, un acte intitule Breve pro 
bestia de terra Egypti, vocata Oure. Le roi ecrivait au maire en 
faveur de son animal (quemdam bestiam nostram). II avait appris 
que les habitants de Londres formaient le projet de maltraiter les 



Miscellaneous. 349 

deux citoyens auxquels la garde de cet animal extraordinaire avait ete 
confiee, et de tuer la bete elle-meme (diet am bestiam atrociter inter- 
Jiciendam) . II lui mandait en consequence de prendre toutes les me- 
sures necessaires pour defendre la bete et ses gardiens, desormais sous 
sa protection speciale*. Les rois d' Angle terre entretenaient des lors 
une menagerie a la Tour de Londres, ainsi qu'on en trouve la preuve 
dans les actes public's par les soins de la commission des archives 
d'Angleterre ; mais cet oure, dont le nom ne se rencontre point dans 
les nomenclatures des animaux connus aux moyen age, etait probable- 
ment une bete extraordinaire gardee a part dans la ville, et a, 1' exist- 
ence de laquelle s'etaient attachees quelques idees superstitieusesf." 

" Royal College of Surgeons, London, August 27, 1851. 

" My dear Sir, — From the circumstance of the ' Bestia de terra 
Egypti, vocata Oure,' requiring two keepers, and being so formidable 
as to alarm the citizens and lead to projects for destroying it, it must 
have been some large and formidable species. From Egypt might be 
derived the following Mammals suiting that description : — 2-horned 
Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Elephant, Giraffe, Lion, Syrian Bear. 
The Elephant and Lion would be known and called by their proper 
names : the Ursus Syriacus is not a very large or formidable species : 
the Hippopotamus would require water in quantity sufficient for im- 
mersion. As to the Giraffe, this is so gentle a creature that one can 
hardly suppose it should have excited any enmity or alarm in the 
breasts of the citizens. Perhaps the Rhinoceros would be the most 
likely guess, if it is worth hazarding one on grounds so slender as 
those contained in the interesting extract published by M. Delpit. 
There is also the ' Crocodile.' 

" Believe me, dear Sir, sincerely yours, 

" Richard Owen." 

"Richard Taylor, Esq., Sec. L.S." 

The celebrated physician Johannes Caius, in the letter which he 
addressed to his intimate friend Gesner, in the reign of Elizabeth, 
gives several particulars relative to the royal menagerie of wild beasts 
in the Tower of London : " Leones cicurari possunt — in arce Londi- 
nensi leones custodum suorum oscula excipiunt, contactum admittunt 
et colludunt. Ipse vidi. Ista animalia [Uncice] tam ferocia sunt, ut 
custos, cum primo vellet de loco in locum movere, cogebatur fuste in 
caput acto (ut aiunt) semimortua reddere, atque ita in capsam ligneam 
ad hoc factam, et respirationis gratia perforatam reponere, atque ita 
de loco in locum tuto transportare. Post horam reviviscebant tamen 
hsec, ut cati, non nisi extremis injuriis obnoxia morti. Itidem fecit 
custos cum e capsa exeruit. Jam vero novas rationes invenerunt 
reponendi et eximendi, trahendo ea in capsam fune, et capsam eis 
admovendo conto. Fceminam jamdudum ira sustulit : parvi canis 

* Reg.G. fol. 140. 

t Collection general des Documents Fran^ais qui se trouvent en Angle- 
terre ; par Jules Delpit, 1847- In publishing this extensive and very cu- 
rious Collection, M. Delpit observes, " C'est certainement une grande gloire 
pour la commune de Londres de posseder des archives plus completes que 
celles d'aucune autre ville." 



350 Miscellaneous. 

consuetudine mansuescit mas, adeo ut resupinatus complectatur canem 
pedibus et colludat, ita ut nee dente lsedat nee ungue." 

Caius has a chapter Be Cornibus Cervi Palmati, of which he had 
seen and figured a specimen in the monastery at Kenilworth in War- 
wickshire : — another chapter, also, on the Bonasus, whose skull and 
ribs were then preserved in the chapel of Guy of Warwick. In this 
he also mentions the Wild Cattle of our forests. 

Notices of the Crocodile by the English Crusaders. 

"Be Cocodrillis, fyc. — Cocodrillos apud Bamietam invenimus et 
interfecimus : est autem bestia crudelis, homines et jumenta devorans, 
apertis oculis solo visu ova sua fovet : exclusi pulli statim fugiunt 
parentem quasi hostem, quos enim rapere potest in momento glutit 
et devorat." 

"iEgyptii vero honoraverunt Prophetam, sepelientes eum juxta 
tumulum Regum, memores beneficiorum quae prsestiterat JEgypto, 
oratione enim sua fugaverat bestias aquarum, quas Grseci Cocodrillos 
appellant." — Historia Captionis Bamietce : apud Gale, Historice 
Anglicance Scriptores XV. vol. ii. p. 452. 

They are called Cocodryll in Trevisa's Chronicle. 

Richard Taylor. 

A Monograph of Macrochisma, a genus of Gasteropodous Mollusca 
belonging to the family Fissurellidse. By Arthur Adams, R.N., 
F.L.S. 

Macrochisma, Swainson. 
Animal ? Shell elongated, clypeiform, radiately ribbed, extremities 
elevated ; foramen very large, elongated, placed near the hind part, 
with a groove posteriorly ; the hind margin sinuated. 

1. Macrochisma maxima, A. Adams. M. testa oblong d, costis 
parum elevatis subrugosis, striisque concentricis obsoletis ornatd, 
fusco radiatim maculatd, dorso elevatd, lateribus planulatis, 

extremitate anticd rotundatd; posticd elevatd, subtruncatd; 
foramen dilatatum, postice excavatum. Hab. ? 

2. Macrochisma dilatata, A. Adams. M. testa ovato-ol 



radiatim costatd, rubrd, albo variegatd, utrinque rotundatd, 
lateribus dilatatis ; foramen oblongum, in medio angustatum. 
Hab ? 

3. Macrochisma hiatula, Swainson, Manual of Malacology, 
p. 356. 

Fissurella macrochisma, Sow. 

M. testa ovato-oblongd, radiatim costellatd, fused, subdepressd, 
lateribus concavis, utrinque rotundatd ; foramen magnum, ob- 
longum, posticb dilatatum, extremitate posticd valde elevatd ; 
margine vix sinuato. Hab. 1 

4. Macrochisma compressa, A. Adams. M. testd anguste 
oblongd, albidd, roseo radiatim pictd, costellis granulosis striis- 
que concentricis decussatd, utrinque rotundatd, dorso convexd, 
lateribus compressis, in medio in/lexis, extremitate posticd valde 
elevatd ; foramen magnum, lanceolatum, postice dilatatum. 

ffab. ? 



Meteorological Observations. 351 

5. Macrochisma megatrema, A. Adams. M. testa ovato-ob- 
longd, albidd, roseo radiatim pictd, costellis rugosis striisque 
concentricis sculptd, dorso subelevatd, lateribus planulatis ; 
foramen ovato-lanceolatum, permagnum. Hab. ? 

6. Macrochisma cuspidata, A. Adams. M. testd ovato-ob- 
longd, antice angustatd, productd, acuminatd, postice elevatd, 
rotundatd, margine valde undulatd, fuscatd, annulis fuscis con- 
centricis ornatd, lineis elevatis et concentricis cancellatd, circa 
foramen pallida, extremitate posticd valde elevatd ; foramen 
magnum, cuspidatum, posticd dilatatum. 

Hab. Cagayan, in insulis Philippinis ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

7. Macrochisma producta, A. Adams. M. testd angusto- 
oblongd, dorso elevatd, convexd, albidd, fusco pallide variegatd, 
lineis elevatis striisque concentricis obsolete decussatd, antich 
angustd, productd, lateribus planulatis, extremitate posticd ro- 
tundatd, elevatd; margine valde sinuatd ; foramen perlongum, 
triangulare, postice dilatatum. 

Hab. in littoribus Australia. (Mus. Cuming.) 

8. Macrochisma angtjstata, A. Adams. M. testd angustd, 
oblongd, dorso elevatd, utrinque rotundatd, albidd, lineis fuscis 
maculisque rufo-fuscis pictd et tessellatd, costellis obtusis sub- 
rugosis, lineisque depressis, concentricis, subdistantibus, sculptd, 
extremitate posticd elevatd, margine sinuato ; foramen mag- 
num, elongatum, subtriangulare, postice dilatatum, excavatum. 
Hab. %—From the Proc. of the Zool. Soc. July 23, 1850. 

meteorological OBSERVATIONS FOR AUG. 1851. 
Chiswick. — August 1. Cloudy and warm : slight rain. 2 — 5. Very fine. 6. Fine: 
densely clouded. 7. Overcast: fine : clear : lightning at night. 8. Very fine. 
9. Overcast : cloudy. 10. Cloudy. 13. Sultry. 14. Fine : lightning at night. 
15. Cloudy and fine. 16. Very fine. 17. Showery. 18. Cloudy and fine: clear. 
19. Very fine : slight haze : clear. 20, 21. Very fine. 22. Very hot. 23. Over- 
cast. 24. Heavy showers, with sunny intervals. 25. Very fine. 26. Slight rain. 

27. Fine : constant and very heavy rain at night. 28. Fine : densely clouded. 
29. Clear and cold: heavy showers, with hail in afternoon: overcast. 30, 31. 
Cloudy. 

Mean temperature of the month 62°*84 

Mean temperature of Aug. 1 850 59 *38 

Mean temperature of Aug. for the last twenty-five years . 62 *21 

Average amount of rain in Aug 2*41 inches. 

Boston. — Aug. 1. Cloudy : rain p.m. 2 — 4. Fine. 5 — 7. Cloudy. 8. Fine. 

9 — 11. Cloudy. 12. Fine. 13. Cloudy: rain early a.m., and lightning p.m. 

14. Fine: rain, thunder and lightning p.m. 15. Fine. 16. Fine: rain p.m. 

17. Fine. 18. Cloudy. 19. Fine. 20. Cloudy. 21,22. Fine. 23. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. 24. Cloudy : rain p.m. 25. Fine. 26. Cloudy : rain p.m. 27. Cloudy. 

28. Fine : rain early a.m. 29. Cloudy : rain a.m. and p.m. 30, 31. Cloudy. 
Sandwich Manse, Orkney. — Aug. 1 . Bright : showers. 2. Cloudy. 3. Bright : 

clear. 4. Bright : very clear : fine. 5. Clear : fine : very clear : fine. 6. Clear : 
fine : very clear : fine : aurora. 7. Clear: fine : haze. 8. Cloudy. 9, 10. Cloudy : 
bright. 11. Cloudy: drops. 12. Drizzle : damp. 13. Rain : damp. 14. Rain : 
drops: fine. 15. Drops: damp. 16. Clear: fine. 17. Cloudy: clear: fine. 

18. Clear: cloudy. 19. Rain : cloudy. 20. Hazy: fine. 21. Rain. 22. Damp : 
cloudy. 23. Bright : cloudy : thunder. 24. Clear : cloudy. 25. Bright : clear. 
26—28. Showers. 29. Showers : drizzle : showers. 30. Bright : clear : aurora. 
31. Drizzle : clear: aurora. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 47. NOVEMBER 1851. 



XXVIII. — Notes on British Zoophytes, with descriptions of some 
new species. By the Rev. Thomas Hincks, B.A. 

[With a Plate.] 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, 

The following miscellaneous notes relate to the British Bryozoa. 
I am not prepared to vouch for the novelty of all the observa- 
tions which I here record. But in the course of a long and 
patient study of these interesting beings some facts have occurred 
to me, which I have not met with in the works of any of the 
English authors to which I have access, and which I venture to 
hope may prove of some value as a contribution to the history of 
the tribe. Even if I should repeat, in some cases, the observa- 
tions of others, the testimony of one more independent witness 
may not be altogether worthless. 

I have also been fortunate enough to obtain one or two spe- 
cies, which I believe to be new to the British fauna, and which 
I shall have the pleasure of introducing to the readers of the 
1 Annals ' in the following pages : — 

The Avicularium. 

The " Birds' -head processes," with which some of the species 
of Bryozoa are furnished, have engaged the careful attention of 
naturalists, and their form and movements have been accurately 
described. But though we have many conjectures as to their 
precise function, and relation to the ceconomy of the animal, few 
facts have as yet been recorded which throw light on the uses of 
this curious portion of structure. Such being the case, the fol- 
lowing observation may have some interest. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 23 



354 Rev. T. Hincks on British Zoophytes, 

The organ to which I refer bears a striking resemblance to a 
miniature bird's head, and is mounted on a short pedicle, fur- 
nished in most cases with a basal joint, by means of which it can 
be swayed backward and forward. These ' processes ' are dis- 
tributed in great numbers over the polypidom, one being gene- 
rally placed on each cell. 

The beaks are continually gaping and closing with much ve- 
hemence, and the entire organ is frequently swung to and fro. 
The movements, as it has often been noted, are quite independ- 
ent of the polypes, and Mr. Darwin has well remarked, that in 
their functions these bodies (t are related rather to the axis than 
to any of the polypi." 

There is something very comical in the energy and earnestness 
with which these tiny jaws open and close, and throw themselves 
about, no cause being apparent in general for the outrageous 
gapings and eccentric jerks in which they indulge. They occur 
on several British species, as for example, Flustra avicularis and 
Cellularia avicularis. 

While watching on one occasion a piece of the latter zoophyte 
through the microscope, a worm passed over it and amongst its 
branches. It was almost immediately firmly grasped by one of 
the avicularia and forcibly detained. In a short time, one end 
of it was seized by another, from which, however, by its violent 
contortions it extricated itself, but not without injury. The first 
assailant meanwhile kept fast hold, and soon two others caught 
the unfortunate at different points of the body. Thus it was held 
securely pinioned, and all its efforts to disengage itself, which, 
were most vigorous, proved unavailing. The avicularia grasped 
the body of their victim most viciously, and nearly divided it. 
When I last observed the contest the worm seemed exhausted by 
its struggles and scarcely stirred, the beaks remaining firm and 
motionless. These strange police-officers were very systematic 
in their operations, and in capturing the intruder seemed to be 
discharging a very ordinary function. 

There can be little doubt, I think, that it is the office of these 
organs to defend the Bryozoon from enemies — to arrest creatures 
or substances which might injure or annoy it. They are well 
placed for such a purpose, and their incessant gaping and swing- 
ing must enable them readily to detect the presence of trespassers. 
The avicularia then must be regarded as part of the machinery 
of the axis, charged with the special office of keeping the poly- 
pidom free from extraneous matters. An analogous contrivance 
occurs on others of the Bryozoa, consisting of long bristles at- 
tached to the cells by a joint, upon which they move backward 
and forward with considerable force. These clear away obnox- 
ious matter from the neighbourhood of the cell, and keep the 



with descriptions of some new species. 355 

surface of the polypidom clean. I can confirm from personal 
observation the remarks which some authors have made respect- 
ing the force with which the movements of these hair-like appen- 
dages are executed. 

Membranipora pilosa. 

The polypes of this common species are furnished with a sin- 
gular organ, which has been described by Dr. Farre in his admi- 
rable paper on the Ciliobrachiata. It consists of a small ob- 
long body, which is placed between the base of two of the arms, 
and attached to the tentacular ring. It has a wide circular 
opening at the top, round which there is a play of cilia. The 
interior cavity is lined with cilia. The organ becomes narrow 
towards the base, and is closely united to the sides of the ten- 
tacles. Dr. Farre noticed a similar body on the polypes of Al- 
cyonidium gelatinosum (Johnston). He states that he was un- 
able to detect any flow of fluids through it, nor could he ascer- 
tain with what parts the cavity in its interior might commu- 
nicate. I had long made this organ the subject of close investi- 
gation without gaining any clue to its history ; but at length 
some light was thrown upon it by the following observations. 
Specimens of the zoophyte were procured in the spring, in which 
the cercarice of Dr. Farre — filamentous bodies which are found 
swimming in the visceral cavity in many species of Bryozoa — were 
present in great abundance. They were also of larger size than 
any I had previously met with. In one of the polypes I observed 
a mass of these cercarice wriggling upward from the lower part of 
the visceral cavity ; and each filament, when it reached the base 
of the organ before referred to, was drawn into it and carried 
through it by the action of the cilia lining the interior, and then 
ejected and borne off by the tentacular currents. This expulsion 
went on for three or four minutes, during which time the fila- 
ments were streaming up incessantly from below. A great quan- 
tity was ejected. After a while a single filament only made its 
appearance occasionally, and at last none were to be seen. 

Dr. Farre mentions that on one occasion he observed the cer- 
carice in a specimen of Alcyonidium " drifting rapidly to the upper 
part of the visceral cavity, and issuing from the centre of the 
tentacula," but from the sudden retraction of the polype he lost 
the opportunity of tracing their course. He adds, " it would 
appear from this that there is some external communication with 
the cavity of the body." My observations show that this com- 
munication is through the intertentacular organ, and that what- 
ever purpose it may subserve beside in the ceconomy of the Bry- 
ozoon, it is at certain seasons the channel through which cercarice 
are ejected from the visceral cavity. The author before quoted 

23* 



356 Rev. T. Hincks on British Zoophytes, 

conjectures that it may indicate a difference of sex, remarking that 
it is more frequently absent than present. I have not found this 
to be the case. The instances in which I was unable to detect 
its presence were very rare. Amongst a great number of polypes 
examined it occurred on all but a few. 

The connexion, however, now proved to exist between the 
ciliated organ and the cercarice — which must be regarded as 
spermatozoic bodies — may be accepted as conclusive evidence 
that it is subservient in some way or other to the function of 
generation. Professor Owen has pointed out "the analogy of 
these cercarice with the spermatozoa discovered by Wagner in the 
tortuous generative tubes of the Actinia ," and has noted their 
importance in the generative ceconomy of the Bryozoa. I have 
observed them in Bowerbankia as well as in Membranipora, and 
Dr. Farre mentions them as occurring in Valkeria, Alcyonidium, 
and others. They are no doubt present in all the members of 
the tribe. 

May not the intertentacular organ be also the channel through 
which the ova are expelled from the interior of the cell ? They 
germinate, we know, from the inner surface of the lining of the 
cell, and falling into the visceral cavity are there fertilized by 
contact with the spermatozoa. It is probable that they find exit 
through the same passage by which the cercarim were ejected, as 
before described. 

In other species, Van Beneden asserts that he has discovered 
the termination of the oviduct under the roots of the tentacula. 

I hope to be able ere long to report the results of further in- 
vestigation into this interesting and obscure portion of the history 
of the Bryozoa. 

Anguinaria spatulata. 

The mechanism of the cell in this pretty species is interesting. 
The aperture, which is inferior, is large and oval. In the living 
state a membranous covering stretches over it of a dirty whitish 
colour. 

At the upper end is a small trap-door, which falls when the 
polype is about to issue from its cell, and is drawn up and tightly 
closed after it when it retreats. 

The polype does not protrude far from the cell. It has about 
twelve arms. 

When retracted they may be seen folded together, and occu- 
pying the anterior portion of the cell. The internal structure 
is simple. There is a long oesophageal tube terminating in a 
dilated bag or stomach. The polype, when withdrawn, stretches 
down about two-thirds of the cell, and is not folded upon itself. 

Filaments descend from the base of the body to the animal 



with descriptions of some new species. 357 

matter which pervades the creeping fibre. The polypes are very 
shy and wary, and will remain for a long time without issuing 
from their cells. 

ElJCRATEA CHELATA. 

The polype of this species, which is closely related in struc- 
ture to Anguinaria, is of extreme delicacy and beauty, and re- 
markable for the vivacity of its movements. In a moment it 
retracts itself, and the moment after darts from its little cell, 
bending its arms backward and forward with inconceivable quick- 
ness. The number of the tentacles is twelve. 

Cellepora pumicosa. 

The polypes are of a delicate orange colour, and singularly 
graceful in their form and movements. They are large, and pro- 
trude much beyond the cell when extended. The viscera are 
marked by dark spots. 

Lepralia pediostoma. 

Tentacles sixteen, long and slender. The aperture of the cell 
is covered by a horn-coloured operculum, which, when the polype 
extends itself, slides back, as it were, within the cell. 

Flustra hispida. 

The development of the ciliated gemmules has been described 
by Sir John Dalyell and others. I venture to add a few notes 
to their interesting observations. From a specimen procured in 
the month of May a large number of gemmules were excluded. 
They were found clustering about the surface of the fleshy mass. 
I was not fortunate enough to see any of them actually excluded, 
but there can be little doubt that they escape through the skin. 
The gemmule is a very beautiful object. It is of a semioval 
form, white, and thickly fringed with cilia round the border. It 
consists of a transparent case, inclosing an opake nucleus. The 
margin is broken into lobes, which bear a multitude of long and 
somewhat coarse cilia. At each extremity there is a tuft of very 
delicate hairs, which I have noticed in motion some time after 
the rest of the cilia have ceased to play. At the top of the back, 
between the nucleus and the outer case, is a small projection 
(PL XIV. fig. 1 a), or handle, which seems to disappear when 
the gemmule attaches itself. Towards one end of the nucleus I 
have repeatedly observed a curious movement quite independent 
of the cilia, such as might be produced by a number of setce sweep- 
ing backward and forward. At the same point there was an 
appearance of structure, but I have not been able to arrive at 
any certain conclusions about it, and may very possibly have 



358 Rev. T. Hincks on British Zoophytes, 

been deceived. I have observed very vigorous contractions of 
the mantle at one extremity of the body. The movements of the 
gemmule are irregular. Sometimes it creeps along, using its 
cilia as feet ; at other times it swims pretty rapidly through the 
water ; at others it tumbles over and over. Occasionally it floats 
on its back with its cilia upward, and in this state resembles a 
miniature boat. After a short time the cilia suddenly cease to 
play, the creature becomes attached, and is gradually developed 
into the cell and polype, which are to be the nucleus of an ex- 
tensive colony. 

In about twelve days from the time of attachment I have seen 
the polype issue from its cell, but the development probably 
proceeds more rapidly under favourable circumstances. Imper- 
ceptibly the body of the polype shapes itself within the mass. 
The tentacles are first visible. Soon violent convulsive move- 
ments are seen within. The front part of the cell is frequently 
pushed out with much apparent force, so as to form a neck of 
considerable length, and then suddenly retracted. There is no 
appearance of an opening at this time. The tentacles become 
very restless, and bend themselves about as if trying their powers 
and impatient of confinement. Gradually the parts become more 
defined ; the elongation and retraction of the fore part of the cell 
continue, and at length the polype breaks from its captivity. 
The number of arms at first I have found to be twenty-four or 
twenty-five. 

In the cases which came under my observation a narrow band 
of the granular matter, which composed the substance of the 
gemmule, remained round the body of the newly-formed polype. 
Some time before the development of the latter was complete a 
small swelling appeared on one side,— the rudiment of a second 
cell. A portion of the granular matter just referred to seemed 
to pass into it and fill it. This swelling gradually increased, ex- 
tending down the side of the original cell. Before development 
had proceeded far, a third cell began to germinate from the se- 
cond. A fourth was also in process of formation on the other 
side of the primitive cell (PI. XIV. fig. 3). 

The internal structure may be studied to great advantage in 
the newly-formed polype (PL XIV. fig. 4). The particles of food 
are borne down the oesophagus at once (there is no gizzard) into 
the stomach. There they are kept in constant agitation — whirl- 
ing to and fro incessantly — and after a while are expelled and 
driven upward again by the sudden contraction of the walls of 
the stomach. This goes on with much regularity. The contrac- 
tions of the stomach are very vigorous, the opposite sides almost 
meeting when the expulsion of the food takes place. A mass of 
undigested material gathers near the pyloric orifice, and is kept 



with descriptions of some new species. 359 

rotating by the action of cilia before escaping into the intestine. 
The intestinal tube shortly after leaving the stomach expands 
into a kind of sac. 

New Species of Vesicularian Zoophyte. 

The production which I am about to describe I believe to be 
quite new to the British fauna. Whether it be known or not to 
foreign authors I am unable to say. 

It belongs to the family Vesiculariadse of Dr. Johnston's work, 
and is much the most beautiful of its tribe. The peculiar struc- 
ture of the cells renders necessary the formation of a new genus 
for its reception. In general character it is allied to Vesicularia. 

Family VesiculariadjE. 
Genus Mimosella (Hincks). 

Polypidom rooted, confervoid, horny Jointed and variously branched; 
cells ovate , biserial, opposite, with a basal joint, by means of 
which they can be moved to and fro, and folded together on 
the branches ; polypes with eight tentacula. 

Species Mimosella gracilis (Hincks). 

From a creeping fibre which spreads over the surface of Fuel, 
rise graceful, tapering stems, pinnate, much attenuated towards 
their extremities, and running out into filamentary, tendril-like 
prolongations. These stems are commonly from an inch to an 
inch and a half in height. They are jointed at intervals ; and 
immediately below each joint spring two opposite pinnae, also 
jointed, tapering and slightly curved. 

The pairs of pinnae do not all lie in the same plane. Along 
these are set the cells, which are ovate, elongate, biserial and 
opposite. Each cell is attached to a small prominence on the 
side of the pinna, which is perforated. A circular orifice on one 
side of the cell near the base fits over this, and a joint is thus 
secured, by means of which the polype can move its dwelling 
forward in one direction and back again. This is frequently 
done. The polypes are continually swaying their cells to and 
fro. Sometimes all the cells on the pinna are folded together on 
the upper side, just as the leaflets close on the leaf of the sensi- 
tive-plant (Mimosa), and hence the generic name. When spe- 
cimens are dried or preserved in fluid, the cells are generally in 
this condition, and on slight inspection might be pronounced 
unilateral. Towards the base of each pinna the cells are long 
and oval ; as they approach the apex they become short and glo- 
bose, and at last are nothing more than little round excrescences. 

The polypes have eight arms, and are furnished with a gizzard. 



360 Rev. T. Hincks on British Zoophytes, 

They are very vigorous in their movements. It is very interest- 
ing to watch the little creatures manoeuvring their cells. Every 
now and then, as if some common impulse stirred them, all the 
polypes on a single pinna will move forward their cells, and the 
frond close, like the Mimosa-leaf when touched. More com- 
monly they are independent in their movements. A single cell 
here and there will be seen in motion, while the rest remain 
quiet. 

The mouth of the cell is furnished with the characteristic seta 
of the family. When the cells are detached, the circular opening 
near the base may easily be detected. 

The foregoing is a description of the simpler form of the zoo- 
phyte. Eine, proliferous specimens occur in which the polypi- 
dom is irregularly branched ; the pinnae are often trifid at their 
extremities, and are sometimes themselves pinnate and much 
prolonged. 

This beautiful production was dredged in Salcombe Bay, 
Devon, profusely investing a bunch of sea-weed (PL XIV. figs. 5, 
6,7,8). 

Pedicellina. 

Dr. Johnston records one species of Pedicellina (P. echinata) 
as British ; stating at the same time that the P. gracilis of Sars 
and the P. Belgica of Van Beneden * may be expected to be 
found " on our coasts. The former has lately occurred to me at 
Fleetwood. Fine and abundant specimens were procured from a 
buoy that had been moored near that port. I am not aware that 
an English locality for this species has been published ; but in 
a paper in the Number of the i Annals ' for June 1845, it is de- 
scribed by Mr. Goodsir and mentioned as occurring in Scotland. 
I have figured the P. gracilis (PL XIV. fig. 9) . The most marked 
character is the expansion of the stem towards the base. The 
Pedicellina are amongst the most hardy of zoophytes. I trans- 
ported specimens in a small bottle from the coast of Lancashire 
to Exeter, a distance of 300 miles, and though I was unable to 
renew the water, they lived with me after their long journey for 
two or three days. At the end of that time they showed signs of 
a disposition to get rid of their heads, — which is by no means a 
suicidal act in a Pedicellina, — and were therefore at once secured 
in Goadby's invaluable fluid ! 

I have also the pleasure of adding the P. Belgica to the list of 
British Bryozoa. Van Beneden's description is as follows : — 
" Tentacula twelve, equal in length, a little shorter than the 
body : stem and pedicle smooth." I have recently found this 
species at Ex mouth on weed in rock-pools, near low- water mark. 
The small number of arms (eleven or twelve) and the freedom 



with descriptions of some new species. 361 

from spines are characteristic. The ' bulging ' about the middle 
of the stem, as represented in Van Beneden's figure, was wanting 
in my specimens ; but this can hardly be accounted an essential 
character. 

Farrella. 

The Fleetwood buoy which yielded the Pedicellina gracilis also 
supplied me with specimens of a zoophyte which must be referred 
to the genus Fairella, but which differs remarkably from the F. 
repens of Dr. Farre. I have not met with any description of it. 

Species F. producta (Hincks). 

Cells oblong, on a pedicle, as long as the cell or longer ; tentacula 
twelve. 

The cells, which are more slender than those of F. repens, are 
produced below into a long, gently tapering pedicle which con- 
nects them with the creeping fibre. This is equal to the cell in 
length or exceeds it ; it becomes much attenuated towards the 
base. A thread of matter passes down from the bottom of the 
stomach through the pedicle. The cells are generally set a little 
obliquely on their stalks. The polypes have twelve arms, and 
exhibit a structure like that of the F. repens as described by 
Dr. Farre. 

This is a very pretty species, and may be known at once by its 
long and tapering pedicle (PI. XIV. fig. 10). 

Apologizing for the length to which these notes have extended, 

I remain, Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

Thomas Hincks. 

Exeter. 

P.S. — Since writing the foregoing pages I have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining the Cycloum papillosum of H assail in a living 
state, and of witnessing the escape of the gemmules from the 
ovarium. In this species the ovaries appear as yellowish papilla, 
scattered irregularly over the surface of the polypidom. Within 
these the ova are arranged circularly. At the top of each ova- 
rium is a slight depression marked by a small dark spot. At 
this point, when the gemmules are about to escape, an opening 
appears, and a little tube is gradually pushed forth to some 
distance. Through this tubular orifice the gemmules may be 
seen working their way by means of their cilia. As soon as they 
have effected their escape they begin to move with great activity 
through the water. I have seen seven pairs from a single ovary 
in the course of a few seconds, and very interesting it was to 
watch them struggling through the tubular passage, and launch- 



362 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 

ing themselves into their new sphere of being. As the sunlight 
falls upon the cilia they are tinted with a most lovely violet 
colour. 

The gemmule is circular in form, white, opake, and bears a 
striking resemblance to a low-crowned hat. The margin is fringed 
with cilia. There is an orifice beneath opening on the edge of 
the disc, about which there are cilia, which play down into it. 

Occasionally a cup-shaped organ is protruded near this aper- 
ture on which I have frequently observed a mass of fsecal matter. 

There is great difficulty in examining these beings with the 
microscope, but I have been able to determine the above points 
with tolerable certainty. 

The number of gemmules produced is immense. On a small 
specimen, incrusting both sides of a piece of weed, which did not 
exceed an inch and a quarter in length, and half an inch in 
breadth at the widest part, about 120 ovaries were reckoned. 
Each of these would contain about nine ova, so that more than 
a thousand altogether would be liberated from this inconsiderable 
fragment. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. The gemmule of Flustra hispida. 

— 2. The same, as it appears shortly after having become attached. 

— 3. A cluster of the cells of F. hispida in various stages of development. 

— 4. Cell and polype recently developed from the gemmule. 

— 5. Mimosella gracilis of the natural size — the cells folded together on 

the pinnae. 

— 6. A portion of a pinna magnified, showing the cells expanded. 

— 7- A single cell, with the circular orifice near the base. 

— 8. A cell just separated from the pinna. 

— 9. Pedicellina gracilis of Sars. 

— 10. Furrella producta. 



XXIX. — A List of all the Mosses and Hepaticce hitherto observed 
in Sussex. By William Mitten, A.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 324.] 

Tribe IV. FunariacejE. 
Genus 1. Ephemerum, Hampe. 

118. E. serratum (Schreb.), Hampe. 
Phascum serratum, Schreb. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent in autumn and early spring, 

119. E. coharens (Hedw.), Hampe ; "dioicum ; basi filis pro- 
tothalli instructum, subacaule ; folia ovali-lanceolata serrata, 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 363 

nervo evanescente [raro excurrenti] acuminata ; theca globoso- 
ovalis recto-apiculataobtusa immersa superne brunneo-purpurea ; 
calyptra tenerrima basi lacerata longi-apiculata." — C. Miiller } 
Synops. p. 32; Bryol. Eur op. fasc. 42. Ephemerum, t. 1. 

On the exposed mud of the large pond at Pondleigh near Hurstpier- 
point ; more plentiful some seasons than others, according as the pond 
is more or less dried up ; large quantities often remaining in the con- 
fervoid state without developing leaves or capsules. 

Closely resembling E. serratum in size and habit, but readily di- 
stinguished under the microscope by its nerved leaves, which are also 
rather wider. The nerve is very variable, being sometimes promi- 
nent, at others requiring a transverse section to be made of the leaf 
before it is visible, and sometimes it appears more strongly denned in 
the upper part of the leaf than in the lower. 

In the second review of the species of this genus in * Bryologia 
Europsea,' Ephemerum cohcerens is stated to be found in " Anglia oc- 
cidental!," but it is not known to have been gathered in any other 
locality besides the one above given. 

120. E. sessile (B. et S.),C. Miiller; Bryol. Europ. fasc. 42. t.2. 
Phascum crassinervium, Bryol. Europ. 

P. stenophyllum, Voit. Wils. in Eng. Bot. Suppt. t. 2829. 
In small quantity on Henfield Common, and by the large pond at 
Pondleigh. 

Genus 2. Ephemerella, C. Miiller. 

121. E.pachycarpa (Schw.), C. Miiller. 

Phascum crassinervium, Wils. in Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2932. 
Frequent in stubbles. 

Genus 3. Physcomitrium, Brid. 

122. P. patens (Hedw.), Mitten. 
Ephemerum patens, Hampe, C. Miiller. 
Physcomitrella patens, B. et S. Bryol. Europ. fasc. 42. 
Phascum patens, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Common on clayey soils in autumn. 

123. P. pyriforme (Linn.), Brid. 
Gymnostomum pyriforme, Hedw. Eng. Fl. 

Frequent on moist ditch-banks. 

Genus 4. Entosthodon, Schw. 

124. E. fascicular e (Hedw.), C. Miiller. 

Physcomitrium fascicular e, Bryol. Europ. Physcomitrium, 
p. 13. t.4. 
Rare : it has been gathered at Hurstpierpoint, Henfield, Albourne, 
and Kingston near Lewes. 



364 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 

125. E. ericetorum (Bals. et De Not.), C. Miiller. 
Gymnostomum fascicular e, Eng. Fl. 

Common on moist sandy banks, particularly in the forests. 

Genus 5. Funaria, Schreb. 

126. F. hygrometrica, Linn. 
Frequent. 

127. F. Muhlenbergii, Schw. 

Rare : road-side bank by Offington, near Broadwater, Mr. Borrer. 
On the Downs near Stanmer, at Findon, and at Littlehampton, 
Mr. Jenner. 

Genus 6. Splachnum, Linn. 

128. S. ampullaceum, Linn. 

On bogs on Ashdown Forest, Messrs. Woods, Jenner, and Reeves. 

Tribe V. Bryace^e. 
Genus 1. Schistostega, Mohr. 

129. S. osmundacea, Web. et Mohr. 

S. pennata, Hook, and Taylor, Eng. Fl. 
Very rare : in some holes in a bank at Bolney ; barren. 

Genus 2. Orthodontium, Schw. 

130. O. gracile (Wils.), Schw. 

Eridge Rocks, Mr. Borrer ; High Rocks, Mr. Reeves ; and Mr. Jen- 
ner has gathered it elsewhere in the neighbourhood of Tunbridge Wells. 

Genus 3. Br yum, Dill, emend. 
Section 1. Inflorescence dioicous. 

131. B. roseum, Schreb. 

" Frequent about Tunbridge Wells," Mr. Jenner, but not generally 
a common moss. It exists in small quantity at Hurstpierpoint and 
Henfield, and scattered plants may be found on the Downs often 
mixed up with Dicranum scoparium and Leptotrichum flexicaule : it 
is always sterile. 

132. B.Billardierii, Schw. Suppt. t.76 ; "dioicum j laxecsespi- 
tosum veluti prolifero-ramosum ; folia inferiora remota, superiora 
in rosnlam densam siccitate gemmiformem congesta, erecto-pa- 
tentia haud tortilia rigida, ovato-acuminata lata, margine revo- 
luta, apice dentata, nervo in mucronem rigidiusculum producto, 
intense viridia concava, e cellulis densis flrmis statu emolliendi 
mollioribus composita; theca obconico-pyriformis in pedunculo 
superne arcuato pendula fusca ; opcrculo convexo breviter apicu- 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 365 

iato pulcherrime aurantiaco vel purpureo nitido." — C. Muller, 
Synops. p. 253 [sub B. canariense']. 

B. Billardierii, Bryol. Europ. Bryum, t. 46. 

B. canariense, Schw. Suppt. t. 204. 

B. campylothecium, Tayl. Lond. Journ. Bot. 1846, p. 52. 

On Woolsonbury Hill near Hurstpierpoint : very rare and sterile. 

Stems in the specimens from the above locality abont half an inch 
high, loosely csespitose ; leaves collected together at the tops of the 
stems, bright green, erecto-patent, ovate and ovate-acuminate, with- 
out a thickened margin, towards the apex dentate, the nerve excur- 
rent, and above the apex of the leaf bent slightly backwards. 

After a comparison of the specimens from Woolsonbury Hill with 
others from the Canaries, the Cape of Good Hope, New Zealand, 
Australia, and the Falkland Islands, it appears that there is no essen- 
tial difference between B. Billardierii, B. canariense, and B. campy- 
lothecium. In the forms named B. Billardierii and B. campylothe- 
cium, the leaves are wider above than in the form named J?, canariense ; 
but the size and form of the cells, the reflexed lower margins, and 
denticulate apices are precisely the same in both. Schwaegrichen has 
figured and described the internal peristorne^ojf B. canariense with 
short and imperfect cilia, which might arise from immature specimens 
having been examined. 

The B. campylothecium of Taylor, collected by Mr. J. Drummond 
at Swan River, differs from the usual forms of B. Billardierii only in 
having more boat-shaped leaves, and in this respect is analogous to 
similar forms of B. capillare. 

Very similar as many species of Bryum are in a barren state to the 
unpractised eye, B. Billardierii however presents at once a character 
by which it may be readily known, in the denticulate apices of the 
leaves. 

No dependence ought to be placed on the relative width of the 
margin as a distinctive character in species of this genus, for in some 
species, as B. capillare, it may be observed to vary from one that is 
almost imperceptible to one that almost equals that present in some 
Mnia. 

133. B. Donianum, Greville, Transact, of the Linnsean Soc. 
xv. ii. p. 345. t. 3. f. 6; "habitus B. capillaris ; folia caulina 
oblongo-ovata lata acuminata viridissima, margine crasse et flavo 
limbata remote denticulata, nervo crasso flavo excedente crasso- 
mucronata ; perichsetialia interna multo angustiora minora mar- 
gine valde revoluta ; theca in pedunculo longiusculo purpuras- 
cente apice arcuata elongato-cylindrica ore coarctata fusca, oper- 
culo conico acuto concolori nitido." — C. Muller, Synops. p. 282. 
sub nom. B. platylomatis, Schw. 

B. platyloma, B. et S. Bryol. Europ. Bryum, t. 26. 
B. Mulleri, Spruce in Muse. Pyren. No. 138. 

Frequent on hedge-banks in sandy soils. The fruit was first gathered 



366 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 

by Mr. Jenner by the roadside between Icklesham and Winchelsea, 
where it is very plentiful ; it has also been met with in small quantity 
in several places about Hurstpierpoint. 

[The plant in a barren state has been gathered at Reigate and 
Betchworth in Surrey by Mr. Borrer, and by Mr. Wilson near War- 
rington.] 

In size and mode of growth this species closely resembles some of 
the larger forms of B. capillar e found on moist sandy banks. The 
stems are seldom more than half an inch in height, densely covered 
below with brown radicles ; the leaves are erecto-patent, not twisted 
nor spreading, oblong-ovate, and not so much inclining to a spathu- 
late figure as those of B. capillare ; the nerve is stout, and does not 
run into a hair-like point, but forms a stiff mucro at the apex of the 
leaf ; the margin is thickened and towards the apex denticulate ; the 
capsules are cylindrical, of a brown-red colour when mature, the 
operculum conical, acute, and shining. 

Dr. Greville has given an excellent figure of this species in the 
place above quoted, and through his kindness the original specimens 
from the Ionian Islands have been compared with the Sussex moss. 

B. Donianum may always be known by its erecto-patent, thickly 
margined, stoutly nerved leaves, with a short and rigid mucro. 

134. B. pseudo-triquetrum, Hedw. 
B. ventricosum, Dicks. 

Frequent in bogs and wet places. 

135. B. alpinum, Linn. 

In small quantity on Henfield Common, and by the margin of Til- 
gate Pond in Tilgate Forest : sterile. 

136. B. pallensy Sw. 

B. turbinatum, Eng. Fl. 

Common ; but rare in fruit. 

On the forest between Balcombe and Handcross a slender form 
of this species has been gathered with an imperfect internal peristome, 
the cilia being rudimentary and destitute of appendages ; in other 
respects it corresponds with the usual state. 

137. B. capillare, Hedw. 

Abundant on roofs, walls, rocks, trees, and on the ground. 

This common species offers a good subject in which to observe by 
analogy the variations to which allied species are subject. The mar- 
gin of the leaves is liable to the greatest variation ; and in those states 
in which it is most evident, it is always more prominent and thickened 
in the perichaetial leaves. 

The authors of the ' Bryologia Europsea ' have taken as their ty- 
pical form that in which the nerve of the leaf ceases just below the 
apex, and the hair-like point is composed of the united margins. 
This form is common on shaded banks and in woods. C. Miiller, in 
his Synopsis, describes as the normal state that with an excurrent 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 367 

nerve ; and as this is by far the most usual state, it has the greatest 
right to be considered the most perfectly developed form of the 
species. * 

Var. rosulatum. 

B. rosulatum, Mitten MSS. 

Csespitulosum, humile, inferne tomentosum : folia ut pluri- 
mum in capitulis rosulatis congesta, ovalia vel spathulata, acu- 
minata, acuta vel obtusata, integerrima, nervo infra vel paulo 
ultra medium evanescente apice ssepe torto et recurvo. 

In very small quantity and sterile on Woolsonbury Hill. 

Different as this moss appears at first sight from all other species 
of Bryum, it too nearly resembles some states of B. capillare to ad- 
mit of its being considered distinct : the leaves are very variable in 
size, in form, and in the length of the nerve, as well as in the acumi- 
nation or obtuseness of the apex ; the same rosulate head producing 
some leaves that are elliptic, sometimes acute or sometimes obtuse, 
or spathulate with the apex twisted about half-way round, and obtuse, 
acute, or even sometimes bidentate. The nerve is sometimes very 
short, at others it extends to a little beyond the middle. The texture 
is similar to that of B. capillare, but it differs from all the common 
forms of the species in wanting the piliform acuminate point. The 
margin, if margin it may be called, consists only of a single row of 
narrower cells. 

138. B. ccespiticium, Linn. 

On walls and banks, but not very common. 

139. B. erythrocarpum, Schw. 

At Henfield and Hurstpierpoint in small quantity ; not rare on the 
forests. 

140. B. atropurpureum, Wahlenb. 

Frequent on the earth in waste places and on walls. 

141. B. argenteum, Linn. 

Common on the ground, on walls and roofs. On a wet sand-bank 
near Hurstpierpoint, a state with pale yellow setae and capsules oc- 
curs, but not otherwise different. 

142. B. albicans, Wahlenb. 

In the neighbourhood of Hurstpierpoint and Henfield ; not unfre- 
quent nor confined to any particular soil, but always barren. 

143. B. annotinum, Hedw. 

In fruit at Balcombe and Tunbridge Wells : plants without fruit 
are not uncommon. 

144. B. carneum, Linn. 
Frequent on wet ditch-banks. 



368 Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepaticce of Sussex. 

145. B. Tozeri, Greville. 

Not uncommon about Hurstpierpoint and Henfield, where it fruits 
occasionally in small quantity. 

146. B. crudum, Schreb. 

Gathered near Tunbridge Wells by Mr. Jenner ; sterile. [Mr. Bor- 
rer has gathered this species in fruit at Betchworth in Surrey.] 

Sect. 2. Inflorescence monoicous. 

147. B. nutans, Schreb. 

Widely distributed, but seldom fruiting. 

Sect. 3. Inflorescence hermaphrodite. 

148. B. cernuum, B. et S. 

Common on walls and roofs, and on the ground. 

A form with separate male flowers, but not presenting any further 
difference, is sometimes found ; the fertile flowers are all hermaphro- 
dite. 

149. B. inclinatum, B. et S. 

Frequent in sandy places, by roadsides and on walls. In moist sandy 
places the setae are often much elongated. 

150. B. intermedium, Brid. 

Plentiful on wet sandy banks near Hurstpierpoint, at Hastings, 
and near Battle. 

This species fruits chiefly in summer ; but it is at all seasons more 
or less in fruit, which may be owing to the successive development 
and maturity of the antheridia, as observed in f Bryologia Europsea.' 

151. B. bimum, Schreb. 

B. ventricosum, Eng. Fl. in part. 
On the bog on Henfield Common. Mr. Borrer has gathered it at 
Amberley, and Mr. Jenner at Slindon. 

152. B. torquescens, B. et S. 

Under beech-trees on Woolsonbury and Newtimber Hills ; on a 
stone wall at Henley Hill, and in the same situation near the Hun- 
gershall Rocks at Tunbridge Wells, where it has also been gathered 
by Mr. Jenner. [Mr. Borrer has gathered it on a wall at Hurt- 
moor near Godalming in Surrey.] 

The state of this moss which has been gathered in the above loca- 
lities corresponds with specimens received from M. Schimper, and 
is much larger than the slender form gathered at Gormire, Yorkshire, 
by Mr. Borrer, and described by Mr. Spruce. 

So great a resemblance has this species to B. capillare, that, with- 
out examination, it might be readily passed over for that moss ; but 
the capsules are more pendulous, and the seta is curved with a wider 
arc, so that the capsule hangs about its own length distant from the 



Mr. W. Mitten on the Mosses and Hepatica of Sussex. 369 

parallel seta : this peculiarity will often distinguish B. torquescens 
from B. capillar e at first sight. 

153. B. pyriforme, Hedw. 

In the stone-pit at Henfield, and about Tunbridge Wells. 

In his ' Synopsis,' p. 330, C. Midler says of this species : " Peri- 
stomii interni dentes maxime sulcati et hiantes valde serrati igitur 
veluti (sed non) appendiculati hyalini, ciliis solitariis brevibus non 
appendiculatis hyalinis interpositis. Formam peristomii hancce in 
speciminibus permultis examinatis invenimus et ' Bryol. Europ.' in- 
dolem non vidimus." The appearance above described is not the 
primary state of the peristome, which is correctly figured in ' Bryol. 
Europ.,' but is produced by the splitting of the processes down the 
carina as in Acidodontium and Bartramia, each half of the process 
bending over the intermediate cilia to meet at the apex the half of 
the next process : thus the two intermediate cilia with the two halves 
of the processes overlapping them, closely resemble a simple process, 
and the appendiculse of the cilia sticking out here and there make 
it appear to be appendiculate. 

Tribe VI. Bartramiace^e. 
Genus 1. Bartramia, Hedw. 

154. B.fontana (L.), Schw. 

Common in bogs and wet places ; rarely fertile. 

155. B. pumila, Mitten; dioica; dense csespitosa tomentosa 
parum ramosa; folia caulina erecto-patentia homomalla ovato- 
lanceolata, nervo crasso superne dorso apiceque denticulato ex- 
currente cuspidata, opaca, margine denticulato recurvo, e cellulis 
parvis ut plurimum rectangularibus viridibus densiusculis, pa- 
pillis remotis scabridis instructis, areolata ; perigonialia interna e 
basi lata concava patentia obtusiuscula minute denticulata, nervo 
crasso sub apice evanido : perichsetialia longiora latiora et parum 
acuminata : theca in pedunculo elongato rigido undulato erecto 
subito inclinata globosa sulcata, operculo plano-conico obtuso ; 
peristomium duplex normale. 

In a wet place near Tilgate Pond, Tilgate Forest ; the male plant 
only. Mr. Wilson has sent the barren female plant gathered by 
Mr. Croall in the Carse of Arderseir, Inverness-shire. The fruit is 
described from specimens gathered near Dollar, Perthshire, by Mr. 
M'lvor. 

The stems of this species in size and habit closely resemble those 
of B. marchica, and some small states of B. fontana. The figure of 
B. uncinata, Schwaegrichen, Suppt. t. 57 [B. scabrida\ excepting the 
capsule and uncinate narrower leaves, very well represents B. pumila ; 
but in this, as in B. marchica, the perigonial leaves are acuminate and 
acute, whilst those of B. pumila are obtuse like those of B. fontana ; 
again, the cauline leaves of B. pumila are perfectly ovate-lanceolate, 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. viii. 24 



370 Messrs. Alder and Hancock on the Branchial 

and not acuminate, nor so wide at the base as those of B.fontana. 
The fertile plants from Mr. M'lvor are very different in appearance, 
being very much smaller ; yet they appear to belong to the same 
species. 

It seems impossible in the absence of authentic specimens to ascer- 
tain if this be the B.fontana fi. pumila, " caule abbreviate simpli- 
ciusculo ; foliis lanceolatis," of Turner, Muse. Hibern. p. 107. t. 10. 
f. 1 . The only part of his description that points to B. pumila is 
" foliis intensius viridibus, nee acuminatis, nee cuspidatis," besides 
the observations that it is much more slender and shorter than a. 
The figure does not at all resemble the fertile B. pumila from Dollar, 
and that of the leaf represents it as described, "multo luculentius 
serratis ; from which it is just possible that the plant intended by 
Turner may be B. rigida, which has been gathered in Ireland. 

156. B. pomiformis, Hedw. 

On sandy banks : not very common. 

Tribe VII. Mniace^e. 
Genus 1. Fissidens, Hedw. 

157. F. taxifolius (Linn.), Hedw. 

Very common. 

Stems of this species may sometimes be found with the seta arising 
from just below the top. 

[To be continued.] 



XXX. — On the Branchial Currents in Pholas and Mya. 
By Joshua Alder and Albany Hancock. 

[With a Plate.] 

The existence of branchial currents in the Bivalve Mollusca, 
produced by the action of cilia, and admitted and discharged by 
different apertures, though denied by one or two authors, may 
be considered sufficiently established to allow of little further 
discussion. But though most naturalists admit the existence 
and action of these currents as a general law, yet exceptions have 
been claimed for some families and genera, whose anatomical 
structure is supposed to present an insuperable obstacle to the 
existence of inhalant and exhalant currents by different siphons ; 
these siphons, as it is thought, having no communication inter- 
nally. Among the families so placed are the Myadce and Pho- 
ladidce. 

Mr. Garner in his excellent essay on the Anatomy of the 
Lamellibranchiata, published in the ( Transactions of the Zoolo- 



Amt.frMwr.fr.it Hist. S. 2. \o\.8.PlJXV. 




A. Hancock del. 






Currents in Pholas and Mya. 371 

gical Society*/ and more in detail in Charlesworth's ' Magazine 
of Natural History f/ after describing the structure of those 
genera in which the water is acknowledged to flow in by the 
branchial siphon, and to be discharged by the anal one, goes on 
to say that u in the Solen, Hiatella, Mya, Pholas, Teredo, &c, a 
different disposition takes place. Here the branchiae are pro- 
longed into the inferior siphon, and as they are not separated 
from the base of the foot within, nor from the mantle without, 
the water drawn through the inferior orifice must make its exit 
by the same or by the anterior opening. But water is also drawn 
in by the other, and so gets access to the interior interlamellar 
spaces of the branch ise ; and by this superior siphon, ova, faeces, 
and secretions are discharged."